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Traumatic Injuries: Traumatic Brain Injury

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Traumatic Injuries: Traumatic Brain Injury KNR 279 TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY Insult to brain, not of degenerative or congenital nature, but caused by an external force ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Traumatic Injuries: Traumatic Brain Injury


1
Traumatic Injuries Traumatic Brain Injury
  • KNR 279

2
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
  • Insult to brain, not of degenerative or
    congenital nature, but caused by an external
    force that may produce a diminished or altered
    state of consciousness, which results in an
    impairment of cognitive or physical functioning
  • Open or closed injury
  • Mild (concussion) to severe (coma)

3
INCIDENCES OF TBI
  • Over 2-5 million in US
  • 1 injury every 15 seconds
  • Many result in life long disability
  • 56,000 killed annually
  • Leading cause of death among Americans under 45
  • Males 14-24 have highest rate

4
CAUSES OF TBI
  • 50 Motor vehicle crashes
  • 21 Falls
  • 12 Violence
  • 10 Sports recreation
  • 7 Other

5
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6
Symptoms Frontal Lobe/Forehead www.braininjury.co
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  • Paralysis
  • Problems sequencing for multi-step task
  • Persistence of a single thought
  • Inability to focus on task
  • Mood changes/emotional liability
  • Changes in personality
  • Difficulty with problem solving
  • Inability to express language

7
Parietal Lobe/ Near back top of head
  • Inability to attend to more than 1 object at a
    time
  • Inability to name an object
  • Inability to locate words for writing
  • Problems reading
  • Difficulty with drawing tasks
  • Difficulty to distinguish left from right
  • Difficulty with math
  • Difficulty with eye-hand coordination

8
Occipital Lobes Back of head
  • Defects in vision (visual field cuts)
  • Difficulty locating objects in the environment
  • Problems identifying colors
  • Difficulties with reading writing
  • Visual illusions (inaccurately seeing objects)

9
Temporal Lobes Side of head above ears
  • Difficulty recognizing faces
  • Difficulty in understanding spoken words
  • Short term memory loss
  • Interference with long term memory
  • Inability to categorize objects
  • Right lobe can cause persistent talking
  • Increased aggressive behavior

10
Brain stem Deep within brain
  • Difficulty swallowing food water
  • Problems with balance movement
  • Dizziness nausea
  • Sleeping difficulties
  • Decreased vital capacity in breathing needed for
    speech

11
Cerebellum Base of skull
  • Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements
  • Loss of ability to walk
  • Tremors
  • Slurred speech
  • Inability to make rapid movements

12
EFFECTS OF TBI
  • Balance or equilibrium
  • Behavior / emotion
  • Cognitive
  • Physical
  • Seizures
  • Speech / language

13
Glasgow Coma Scale
14
Ranchos Los Amigos Scale Level of Cognitive
Functioning / Recovery
  • I No response, comatose
  • II Generalized response, nonpurposeful,
    inconsistent
  • III Localized response, inconsistent reaction
    to specific stimuli
  • IV Confused, agitated, nonpurposeful behavior,
    inability to process information

15
Ranchos Los Amigos Scale Level of Cognitive
Functioning / Recovery
  • V Confused, inappropriate, nonagitated
    behavior, alert, highly distractible, responds to
    simple commands
  • VI Confused but appropriate behavior,
    goal-directed, uses external input for direction

16
Ranchos Los Amigos Scale Level of Cognitive
Functioning / Recovery
  • VII Automatic, appropriate behavior, robot like
    compliance with routine, shallow recall,
    increased awareness of others
  • VIII Purposeful, appropriate behavior, alert,
    oriented, independent functioning

17
Recommended TR Interventions
  • I, II, III Sensory stimulation, passive
    stretching, art, movement to music, cognitive
    retraining, reality orientation
  • IV, V, VI Aquatic therapy, expressive arts,
    leisure education, horticulture, behavior
    management, stretching flexibility exercises,
    table board games
  • Carter, Van Andel, Robb, 2003

18
Recommended TR Interventions
  • VII, VIII Computer games, Community
    integration, expressive arts, social skills
    training
  • Carter, Van Andel, Robb, 2003

19
Considerations/Accommodations
  • Decrease distractions in environment
  • Provide repetition consistency
  • Demonstrate new tasks provide examples
  • Help with planning
  • Behavior management
  • Guidance with appropriate behavior in social
    situations
  • May not remember that just asked question

20
Considerations/Accommodations
  • Structure
  • Start with simple tasks small steps
  • Give clear, concrete directions
  • Supervise, may not know own limitations
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