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STATUS, POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL

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Title: STATUS, POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL


1
STATUS, POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL
  • Dr. Kayo Devi Yami
  • RONAST

2
TRADITIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES
  • For many centuries societies and communities have
    been using these technologies to alter plants
    animal products to produce BETTER FOOD IMPROVED
    PRODUCTION without knowing the actual scientific
    background.
  • DAIRY PRODUCTS (Cheese, Churpi, Curd etc.)
  • FERMENTED VEGETABLE PRODUCTS (Gundruk, Sinke,
    Pickles etc.)
  • BREWERY TECHNOLOGY(Raksi, Jand, Tomba etc.)
  • PLANT BREEDING

3
MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • MUSHROOM PRODUCTION
  • TISSUE CULTURE
  • BIOFERTILIZERS
  • BIOPROSPECTING
  • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
  • VACCINE PRODUCTION

4
PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
  • GOVERNMENT SECTOR
  • Department of Plant Resources
  • Thapathali
  • produced 100,000 plantlets of disease free Banana
    Citrus.
  • Tissue culturing of Rauwolfia, Eucalyptus
    Jerbera, Swertia, Dalbergia etc
  • Godawari
  • Pioneer Tissue Culture Lab
  • research development gt 100 protocols for
    plant tissue culture so far
  • In situ and ex situ conservation of germplasm of
    improtant medicinal plants

5
  • National Agricultural Research Council
  • Potato tissue culture lab producing 200,000 virus
    free pre-basic potato seeds/year
  • Agricultural Botany Division has initiated anther
    culture of rice and wheat also germplasm
    conservation and diagnostic facilities using PCR
    technology
  • Dhankuta Lumle Agriculture Stations also have
    tissue culture lab facilities

6
  • Horticulture Development Project of Department of
    Agriculture, Kirtipur
  • very good facilities for plant tissue culture
    work (Japanese Grant), once produced in vitro
    plantlets of apple rootstocks
  • Institute of Agriculture Animal Sciences,
    Rampur
  • plant tissue culture lab facilities (Rockfeller
    Foundation) but is limited to MSc thesis work only

7
  • PRIVATE SECTORS
  • Botanical Enterprises Pvt. Ltd., Godawari
  • Nepal Biotech Nursery, Bhainsepati
  • Research Laboratory for Agriculture Biotechnology
    Biochemistry (RLABB), Balkhu
  • Microplants, Kamal Pokhari
  • Green Research Technology (GREAT), New
    Baneshwor
  • Himalayan Botanical Research Centre (HIMBORCE),
    Baneshwor

8
BIOFERTILIZERS
  • Division of Soil Science Agriculture Chemistry,
    Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC),
    Khumaltar Commercial production of microbial
    inoculants like rhizobia, Azotobacter.
  • Royal Nepal Academy of Science Technology
    (RONAST), Khumaltar Research on microbial
    inoculants like rhizobia, Azotobacter, Endo
    Ectomycorrhiza, composting, vermicomposting

9
MUSHROOM PRODUCTION
  • Nepal Agricultural Research Institute (NARI),
    Plant Pathology Division, Khumaltar spawn for
    button mushroom, research to develop better
    substrate for better mushroom production and
    providing training on mushroom cultivation
  • Agriculture Technology Centre, Gwarko producing
    spawn for Agaricus bisporus, Sitake (Lentinus
    edodes), Gyanoderma
  • Many unregistered private companies producing
    mushrooms and spawn
  • RONAST study of mushroom diversity in Sagarmatha
    National Park (CNR)
  • DPR Collection and identification of Nepalese
    mushrooms around Godawari

10
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
  • RONAST has been doing research on
  • BIOPESTICIDES
  • specially of plant origin (Eupatorium
    adenoforum, Lantana camara, Acorus calamus
    Ageratum conyzoides) in collaboration with
    Department of Agriculture against Aphids
  • BIOINSECTICIDES
  • indigenious strains of Bacillus thuriengensis
  • BIOFUNGICIDES
  • compost vermicompost tea solution on Foot rot
    disease of rice and use of above pesticidal
    plants against club root disease of cauliflower

11
BIOPROSPECTING
  • RONAST has been doing bioprospecting of Himalayan
    conifers, Cordyceps sinensis (Yarchagumba) and
    Taxus bacatta for their antitumor compounds.
  • DPR phytochemical screening of 12 plant spp.
    their antifertility and antihelminthic potential
    and toxicity test on mice
  • TU Chemistry Division MSc research work
  • Simhadurbar Baidhya Khana Crude form of
    bioprospecting for ayurvedic medicine

12
ADVANCED MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • RONAST
  • MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS (HLB CITRUS DISEASES)
  • MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF
  • Bacillus thuriengensis
  • Medicinal plants like Swertia
  • Tea clones
  • GMOs

13
  • NARC
  • Genetic diversity analysis of isoenzymes in rice,
    barley, buckwheat, pigeon pea, taro, cucumber,
    Sweria, Citrus.
  • Application of molecular markers towards
    development of varities and hybrid in maize
  • RECAST
  • Selection of genotypes of Mulberry exploitation
    of genetic yield potential of common Buckwheat
    ecotypes.

14
ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Central Veterinary Laboratory, Tripureshwor
    producing vaccine against P.P.R (Pestes des
    petites Ruminant) disease using tissue culture,
    rabies vaccine with Japanese grant also exporting
    to other countries, poultry vaccine, PCR used in
    disease diagnostic.
  • NARC has been doing animal breeding, embryo
    transfer and artificial insemination in cattles.

15
MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • The Leprosy Mission, Nepal determination of
    cytokines by ELISA for blood immune response
    studies in leprosy patients DNA diagnosis of
    Mycobacterium leprae by PCR
  • Everest Biotech Pvt. Ltd. production of specific
    antibody required for Human Genome Project,
    England.
  • TU Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj had used PCR
    for TB bacteria research work

16
  • TU Teaching Hospital 3 PCRs mainly used for
    detecting respiratory viruses for the research
    purpose only
  • Kathmandu University Medical School Korean
    visiting scientist once tried to identify AIDS
    virus by using RT PCR but because of the problem
    in water the project could not be initiated.

17
EXISTING MANPOWER
Institutions Manpower PhD
RONAST 12 2
NARC 13 4
DPR 15
DoA 4
Teaching Institutions (Kathmandu University Tribhuvan University etc.) 23 5
Private Co. (GREAT, LIIBIRD) 6 1
Forensic Lab. 3
RECAST 4 2
Vetirenary Institute 10 4
Total 100 18
18
MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT
  • Bachelors level (BSc) Tribhuvan University,
    Kathmandu University and many private campuses
    have been delivering BSc courses in
    Biotechnology.
  • Masters level (MSc) Tribhuvan University is
    going to open MSc courses in Biotechnology from
    middle of 2006
  • NOTE National Planning Commision has provided
    2,00,000 to KU for BSc 70,000 to TU for MSc
    programmes.

19
BUDGET (RONAST)
Fiscal year Total S T budget Biotechnology budget
2002/2003 120,000 (INRA-21,000 SETS - 70,000) 26,000
2003/2004 31,000 6,000
2004/2005 44,000 23,000 (CNR allowances)
2005/2006 28,000 12,000
20
BUDGET OF OTHER INSTITUTIONS
Institutions Budget per year
Division of Agriculture Botany, NARC, Khumaltar 15,000
Biotechnology Laboratory of Department of Plant Resources, Thapathali and Godawari 10,000
Phytochemical and microbial screening at DPR 10,000
21
POTENTIALS OF MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGIES
  • Genetic material of one sp. can be inserted into
    another, crossing natural barriers that were
    previously impossible.
  • BETTER CROPS
  • RESISTANT TO INSECTS
  • RESISTANT TO DISEASES
  • EVEN TO NATURAL CALAMITIES LIKE DROUGHT

22
  • SOLUTIONS TO THE THREAT OF HUNGER BY HELPING TO
    INCREASE FOOD PRODUCTION MALNUTRITION BY
  • CREATING RICE THAT PROVIDES VITAMIN A IRON
  • MAKING AGRICULTURE MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY
    SUSTAINABLE THROUGH PEST RESISTANT CROPS

23
  • BIOPROSPECTING
  • Research for new chemicals in living things that
    will have some medical or commercial use
  • a high risk area for investors but can have
    massive returns
  • Of the world's 25 top-selling pharmaceuticals, 10
    originally sourced from animals, plants or
    micro-organisms (in 1995, these accounted for
    nearly US14 billion in global sales )
  • Pharmaceutical companies and agribusiness use
    indigenous knowledge as a precursor to screening,
    and this is happening with little regard for the
    protection of indigenous intellectual property
    and with no equitable sharing of profits

24
CHALLENGES OF MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • HEALTH RISKS POISED BY GMO CROPS
  • POTENTIAL ENVIRONMETAL IMPACTS OF THE RELEASE OF
    GMOS LEADING TO SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES FOR THE
    BIODIVERSITY THAT MANY COMMUNITIES RELY ON FOR
    THEIR FOOD, LIVELIHOODS AND CULTURAL SURVIVAL

25
BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOSAFETY POLICIES
  • Ministry of Environment, Science Technology had
    submitted a Biotechnology Policy to the cabinet
    four years ago for the Govt approval but has not
    yet been approved.
  • The Ministry of Forest Soil Conservation aims
    to develop formulate the Biosafety Policy,
    legal administrative framework to safeguard the
    biological diversity, human health and
    environment from the adverse effects of GMOs
    their products in accord with the CBD CPB.

26
PROBLEMS
  • LACK OF QUALIFIED MANPOWER BRAIN DRAIN
  • LACK OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES, RULES REGULATIONS
  • LACK OF ADEQUATE FUNDINGS
  • LACK OF PROPER INFRASTRUCTURES
  • FAILURE TO IMPLIMENT RECOMMENDATIONS PROPOSED BY
    VARIOUS TASK FORCES
  • LACK OF INVOLVEMENT OF PRIVATE SECTOR AND
    TEACHING INSTITUTIONS

27
  • THE APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
    TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRUGS AND VACCINES FOR
    DEVELOPING COUNTRY LIKE OURS IS AN EXPENSIVE AND
    LONG TERM INVESTMENT

28
IMMEDIATE ATTENTION
  • STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURES AT
    DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS
  • MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT
  • RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN COLLABORATION
    WITH OTHER COUNTRIES


29
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