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Organizational Culture, Climate and Change

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Organizational Culture, Climate and Change Dr. Len Elovitz Chapter 6 in Owens and Valesky * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Perceptions of teachers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organizational Culture, Climate and Change


1
Organizational Culture, Climate and
Change
  • Dr. Len Elovitz
  • Chapter 6 in Owens and Valesky

2
Human Resources Development
  • One can act through two theoretical approaches
  • Classical Organizational or Traditional
    Bureaucratic
  • Helps organize and manage the organization, but
    will not help motivate staff.
  • Human Resources Development
  • Taps the higher order motivational needs of the
    people in the organization.

3
Human Resources Development
  • HRD is concerned with how leaders structure the
    work environment to socialize individuals to the
    organization. This affects how individuals
    develop perceptions, values, and beliefs
    concerning the organization and what influence
    these inner states have on behavior.
  • This is the realm of organizational climate and
    organizational culture.

4
Theory Z William Ouchi - 1981
  • Ouchi compared Japanese and U.S. management
    practices.
  • He applied Japanese practices in the U.S. and,
    using McGregors concept of Theory X and Y,
    called it Theory Z.
  • Theory Z accepts the concepts of human resources
    development.
  • Assumes workers life is a whole
  • Humanized working conditions not only increases
    productivity and profits to the company but also
    the self-esteem of employees

5
In Search of Excellence by Peters Waterman
  • Research showed that successful organizations,
    including schools, had a consistent theme the
    power of values and culture in these corporations
    rather than procedures and control systems,
    provides the glue that holds them together,
    stimulates commitment to a common mission, and
    galvanizes the creativity and energy of their
    participants.

6
Study of 62 successful US companies had the
following in common
  • 1.A bias for action, active decision making -
    'getting on with it.
  • 2.Close to the customer - learning from the
    people served by the business.
  • 3.Autonomy and entrepreneurship - fostering
    innovation and nurturing 'champions.
  • 4.Productivity through people- treating rank and
    file employees as a source of quality.
  • 5.Hands-on, value-driven - management philosophy
    that guides everyday practice - management
    showing its commitment.
  • 6.Stick to the knitting - stay with the business
    that you know.
  • 7.Simple form, lean staff - some of the best
    companies have minimal HQ staff.
  • 8.Simultaneous loose-tight properties - autonomy
    in shop-floor activities plus centralized values.

7
Organizational Culture
  • A system of shared values and beliefs that
    interact with an organizations people,
    organizational structures, and control systems to
    produce behavioral norms.

8
Organizational Culture
  • Shared Values - what is important
  • Beliefs - What we think is true
  • Behavioral Norms - How we do things around here

9
Culture v. Climate
  • Culture refers to the behavioral norms,
    assumptions and beliefs of an organization
  • Climate refers to perceptions of persons in the
    organization that reflect those norms,
    assumptions and beliefs.

10
Toxic Culture
  • Terrence Deal and Kent Peterson
  • Shaping School Culture The Heart of Leadership
  • Jefferson High School

11
Characteristics of Toxic Culture
  • Focus on Negative Values
  • Fragmentation
  • Destructive
  • Spiritually fractured

12
Characteristics of Toxic Culture
  • Focus on Negative Values
  • Adults are more important than kids
  • Routine Boring Classes
  • May Focus on Elite Learners (The Shopping Mall
    High School)
  • Focus on unimportant outcomes (Football)

13
Characteristics of Toxic Culture
  • Fragmentation
  • Meaning is derived from
  • sub-culture membership - Department, Age, Race,
    etc.
  • Anti-student Sentiments
  • Life Outside of School
  • No shared Mission
  • Little Cooperation

14
Characteristics of Toxic Culture
  • Destructive
  • Staff members snipe at each other
  • Negaholics Harass anyone Trying to Improve the
    situation
  • Staff members More Interested in Protecting
    Themselves

15
Characteristics of Toxic Culture
  • Spiritually fractured
  • Lack of positive Values
  • Lack of Integrity
  • Sense of Alienation

16
Roles in Toxic Culture
  • Saboteurs
  • Pessimistic Storytellers
  • Keepers of the Nightmare
  • Negaholics
  • Prima Donnas
  • Space Cadets
  • Martyrs
  • Deadwood, Driftwood and Ballast

17
Transforming the Toxic Culture
  • Atomic Bomb?
  • Neutron Bomb?
  • Antidotes for Negativism?

18
Antidotes for Negativism
  • Confront it Head on - Catharsis
  • Shield and Support Positive Cultural Elements
  • Recruit Positive Staff Replacements
  • Celebrate the Positive
  • Consciously Focus on Eradicating the Negative
  • Develop New Stories of Success, Renewal
    Accomplishment
  • Help Chronic Negaholics Find Happiness Elsewhere

19
The Roxbury Story
20
How Organizational Culture is Created?
  • Culture is developed over time from
  • An organizations history, composed of traditions
    and rituals that are passed to succeeding
    generations.
  • Stories of heroes and heroines are important.
  • Values and beliefs that are embodied in the
    traditions and rituals.
  • Behavioral norms that result (e.g., bell
    schedules, 7-period day).

21
How Organizational Culture is Created (continued)
  • Subunits within an organization may have cultures
    of their own resulting in multiple cultures.
    (loose coupling)
  • Theory X
  • administrators believe this conflicts with their
    authority.
  • Theory Y
  • administrators accept them as natural.

22
How is Culture Assessed?
  • Difficult to quantify
  • Qualitative measures are generally used for
    research
  • Patterson, Purkey Parker tried by developing
    the School Culture Inventory (SCI)
  • Probably best if used to key discussion of faculty

23
Relationship Between Organizational Culture and
Organizational Effectiveness
  • Dependant variables
  • Pupil Behavior
  • Pupil attendance
  • Achievement
  • Independent Variables (subsets of culture)
  • Behavior of Teachers
  • Emphasis on Academic Performance
  • Student rewards
  • Organizational culture is a critical factor in
    student behavior and achievement

24
Relationship Between Organizational Culture and
Organizational Effectiveness (continued)
  • A study of 12 inner-city London schools found
    that changes in dependent variables of behavior,
    attendance, and achievement were due to
  • the behavior of teachers at work,
  • the emphasis placed on academic performance,
  • the provision for students to be rewarded for
    succeeding, and
  • the extent to which students were able to take
    responsibility.
  • In other words, differences were due to
    organizational culture.

25
Relationship Between Organizational Culture and
Organizational Effectiveness (continued)
  • Measuring School Effectiveness
  • Identifying independent and dependent variables.
  • Studies by
  • Joyce Epstein
  • Rudolf Moos
  • Findings from these type studies support the
    notion that many variables that can positively
    affect such outcomes as achievement and
    motivation of students are in control of leaders
    and teachers.

26
Organizational Culture and Climate Compared and
Contrasted
  • Culture refers to the behavioral norms,
    assumptions, and beliefs of an organization.
  • the way things are done around here.
  • Climate refers to perceptions of persons in the
    organization that reflect those norms,
    assumptions, and beliefs.

27
Defining and Describing Organizational Climate
  • Different schools have distinct personalities due
    to the particular social system of each school.
  • This social system has a CLIMATE that is defined
    as the characteristics of the total environments
    in a school building.
  • Renato Tagiuris model identifies four elements
    that comprise climate.

28
Tagiuiris Model of Climate is composed of four
dimensions
  • Ecology - Physical Material Factors
  • Milieu - Human Social System Factors
  • Social System - Organizational Administrative
    Structure Factors
  • Culture Values, Belief Systems, Norms Ways of
    Thinking

29
How Organizational Climate is Created
  • Organizational climate is created by the dynamic
    interaction of
  • Ecology
  • Milieu
  • Organizational Structure
  • Culture
  • With perhaps culture being the most powerful
    determinant.

30
School Climate
  • The characteristics of the total environment in a
    school building

31
OCDQ
  • The Organizational Climate of Schools - 1962
  • Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire
    (OCDQ)
  • Halpin Croft

32
OCDQ Clusters
  • Perceptions of teachers as a human group
  • Perceptions of teachers concerning the principal

33
Perceptions of teachers as a human group
  • Intimacy - Degree of social cohesiveness
  • Disengagement Degree of involvement and
    commitment to the achievement of school goals
  • Espirit Morale of the group
  • Hindrance Perception of rules, paperwork and
    administrivia as impeding work

34
Perceptions of teachers concerning the principal
  • Thrust Degree to which principal sets an
    example of working hard
  • Consideration Extent to which teachers are
    treated with dignity and human concern
  • Aloofness Extent to which principal maintains a
    social distance
  • Production Emphasis Extent to which principal
    directly supervises

35
OCDQ-RM - Wayne Hoy
  • Supportive principal behavior is directed toward
    both the social needs and task achievement of
    faculty. The principal is helpful, genuinely
    concerned with teachers, and attempts to motivate
    by using constructive criticism and by setting an
    example through hard work.
  • Directive principal behavior is rigid domineering
    behavior. The principal maintains close and
    constant monitoring over virtually all aspects of
    teacher behavior in the school.
  • Restrictive principal behavior is behavior that
    hinders rather than facilitates teacher work. The
    principal burdens teachers with paperwork,
    committee requirements, and other demands that
    interfere with their teaching responsibilities.

36
OCDQ-RM - Wayne Hoy
  • Collegial teacher behavior supports open and
    professional interactions among teachers.
    Teachers like, respect, and help one another both
    professionally and personally.
  • Committed Teacher behavior behavior is directed
    toward helping students to develop both socially
    and intellectually. Teachers work extra hard to
    insure student success in school.
  • Disengaged teacher behavior signifies a lack of
    meaning and focus to professional activities.
    Teachers simply are putting in their time in
    fact, they are critical and unaccepting of their
    colleagues.

37
Climate Continuum
  • Open
  • Supportive of Learning
  • Closed
  • Hinders Learning

38
TEACHER RESPONSE
  • OPEN CLIMATE
  • Highly motivated
  • Gain satisfaction from work
  • Pride in their school
  • Do not feel burdened by busywork
  • Solve their own problems
  • Keep the organization growing
  • CLOSED CLIMATE
  • Not highly engaged
  • Do not work well together
  • Achievement as a group is minimal
  • Little satisfaction from work
  • Morale is low
  • High turnover

39
PRINCIPAL AS SEEN BY TEACHERS
  • OPEN CLIMATE
  • Works energetically
  • Shows concern even compassion for teachers
  • Is not aloof or distant
  • Removes obstacles for teachers
  • Maintains full control without close monitoring
  • CLOSED CLIMATE
  • Ineffective leader
  • A hindrance to their work
  • Unconcerned about their welfare
  • Aloof impersonal
  • Emphasizes rules
  • Little personal drive

40
Four Management Systems
  • Each of Likerts four management systems have
    identifiable organizational climates
  • System 1 Exploitive-Authoritarian.
  • System 2 Benevolent Authoritative.
  • System 3 Consultative.
  • System 4 Participative Group.
  • Good communication requires effective use of the
    Linking-Pin concept.

41
Relationship Between Organizational Climate and
Organizational Effectiveness
  • Rensis Likerts analysis led him to conclude that
    there are causal variables under a leaders
    control that affect climate and organization
    performance
  • Organization structure bureaucratic or flexible.
  • Leadership style authoritative or democratic.
  • Philosophy of operation consensus decision
    making or not.
  • The choices leaders makes are critical to
    determining the nature of the management system
    in the organization. That is, Likerts System 1,
    2, 3, or 4.

42
Effective Organizations
  • Achieve their goal
  • Maintain themselves internally
  • Adapt to their environment

43
Organizational Health - Matthew Miles - 1965
  • 1. Goal Focus
  • Understood Accepted
  • Achievable Appropriate
  • 2. Communication Adequacy
  • Internal External
  • Vertical Horizontal

44
Organizational Health
  • 3. Optimal Power Equalization
  • Collaboration v. Coercion
  • Influence can flow up and down
  • 4, Human Resource Allocation
  • Effective use of personnel
  • Promotes self-actualization

45
Organizational Health
  • 5. Cohesiveness
  • Participants identify with the organization
  • Stick with it - good or bad
  • 6. Morale
  • Feelings of well being satisfaction

46
Organizational Health
  • 7. Innovativeness
  • Tendency to grow develop change
  • 8. Autonomy
  • Organization determines its own behavior in
    harmony with external demands

47
Organizational Health
  • 9. Adaptation
  • Ability to change and correct
  • 10. Problem-Solving Adequacy
  • Ability to sense perceive problems
  • Ability to solve problems quickly with minimal
    strain
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