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Problem Solving Model Preparation for Implementation

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Title: Problem Solving Model Preparation for Implementation


1
Problem Solving Model Preparation for
Implementation
  • Adapted from the NC Department of Public
    Instruction

2
Shift Happens
  • Why change, why now?
  • Legislation is necessitating a change
  • Research has shown that there is a better way

3
What about Assessments?
  • RtI advocates two principles
  • Assessments should have a relationship to
    positive child outcomes, not just predictions of
    failure
  • Assessments without this relationship do little
    to benefit children and waste precious time and
    resources

4
What About Traditional Evaluations?
  • Brief screening measures of IQ can rule out
    mental retardation
  • If mental retardation is not suspected, measures
    of IQ have no role in LD diagnosis with RtI

5
Assessment In RtI
  • Focus on achievement, behavior, and the
    instructional environment
  • Measurable and changeable
  • Related to child outcomes
  • In-depth analysis of performance relative to
    peers
  • Intervention aimed at improving rate and level of
    skill development

6
Cautions in Assessment
  • Focusing only on the child can miss important
    factors
  • Instructional casualties
  • Not exposed to early literacy skills
  • Marginally effective general education
  • Instruction not scientifically validated
  • Instruction implemented with poor integrity

7
Core of RtI Assessment
  • Measures all domains that may affect achievement
  • Comprehensive assessment includes
  • Screening of hearing vision
  • Social Developmental History
  • In-depth assessments in
  • Current academic skills
  • Instructional environment
  • Behaviors
  • Interventions

8
RtI
  • Focuses on assessment of instructional principles
  • Variables assessed and considered for
    intervention
  • Time allocated for instruction
  • Academic learning time
  • Pacing of instruction
  • Number of opportunities to respond
  • Sequencing of examples and non-examples of skills
  • etc

9
RtI
  • Use assessment to make good teaching decisions
  • Include a measure of integrity in interventions

10
RtI
  • Measurement of intervention effectiveness
  • Early identification and early intervention
  • Intervention increase in intensity, guided by
    data based decision making

11
So How Do We Do This Differently?
  • Problem-Solving
  • Model!

12
PSM
  • Problem-solving involves both a conceptual and
    applied activity
  • Activities necessary prior to implementation of
    RtI
  • Training
  • Local norms

13
PSM
  • Model designed to meet the needs of diverse
    learners within school districts
  • Attempts to identify and implement best
    educational strategies to meet the needs of all
    learners
  • Requires significant changes in mind set and
    philosophy

14
Thinking Outside the Box !
15
Prerequisites
  • Changes in mind-set that are necessary for all of
    those involved
  • Student problems can be defined (academic and
    behavioral)
  • Questions drive assessments
  • Engage in instruction that addresses learning
  • Intervention is derived from analysis of baseline
    data

16
More About This Magic !
  • PSM
  • Seven step cyclical process
  • Approach to develop interventions and ensure
    positive student outcomes, rather than
    determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995).

17
Implementation of a RtI System
  • All seven cyclical stages occur on four different
    tiers
  • Movement through the tiers guided by intensity of
    services of needed

18
Problem Solving (PSM) Process
1
Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition of problem
2
7
Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a
team decision on the effectiveness of the
intervention
Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a
hypothesis and assessment questions related to
the problem
6
3
Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide
strategies, materials, and resources include
progress monitoring
Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a
functional and multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis
5
4
Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific
Description of the changes expected in student
behavior
Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base
interventions on best practices and
research-proven strategies
19
Training
  • Important to have training on at least two
    components of RtI
  • Problem-Solving Model (PSM)
  • Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)

20
PSM
  • Implementation is guided by nine principles of
    the PSM

21
PSM
  • Principle 1
  • Should involve seven steps
  • Develop behavioral definition of the problem
  • Generate hypothesis and assessment questions
    related to problem
  • Functional and multi-dimensional assessment to
    test hypothesis and respond to questions

22
PSM
  • Principle 1 (continued)
  • Generation of goal statement
  • Develop and implement intervention
  • Progress monitoring
  • Decision-making about effectiveness of
    intervention

23
PSM
  • Principle 2
  • Collaborative consultation is the means by which
    PSM is conducted
  • Team work
  • No longer does one expert make determinations
  • Each member of team provides their expertise from
    their perspective

24
PSM
  • Principle 3
  • Develop hypothesis as to why the problem is
    occurring
  • The hypothesis is tested through assessment
    questions and baseline data collection
  • Hypothesis is designed collaboratively

25
PSM
  • Principle 4
  • Functional assessment procedures are implemented
  • Assessment is performed relevant to the
    identified problem, rather than determination of
    disability
  • Data is collected to prove or disprove
    hypothesis, answer assessment questions, and
    provide basis for interventions
  • Data serves as baseline, comparison to peers, and
    progress monitoring

26
PSM
  • Principle 5
  • Implementation of multi-dimensional assessment
    procedures RIOT
  • Four domains are considered environment,
    curriculum, instruction, and learner
  • Remember problems do not always belong to the
    learner
  • Review, Interview, Observe, and Test (RIOT) in
    all four domains if relevant

27
PSM
  • Principle 6
  • Goals identified that should occur as result of
    intervention
  • Performance described in concrete, measurable
    terms
  • Period of time for intervention identified
  • Exit criteria for intervention identified

28
PSM
  • Principle 7
  • Development of prescriptive interventions
  • Based on data collected and address changeable
    variables in the relevant domains
  • Intervention is direct service, progress
    monitoring, on-going consultation, technical
    assistance, and a team effort
  • Effectiveness of intervention continuously tested
    and changes made when necessary

29
PSM
  • Principle 8
  • Progress monitoring
  • Data collected regularly and frequently
  • Data graphed and analyzed
  • Effectiveness of intervention analyzed and
    changes made when needed

30
PSM
  • Principle 9
  • Decision making based on progress monitoring data
  • Responsiveness to Instruction evaluated, based on
    progress monitoring data relative to goal
  • Continue intervention, change intervention, new
    intervention,
  • Evaluation of program, modify program, exit
    program

31
Implementation of a RtI System
  • First three tiers call for implementation of PSM
    and CBM in the general education setting
  • Fourth tier represents determining the need for
    special education referral the highest level of
    service intensity

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33
PSM Procedures
  • Activities at Tier I
  • Parent and teacher working together to define the
    problem
  • What is it?
  • When does it occur?
  • Why is this happening?
  • Then, analyze baseline data or develop plan for
    collecting baseline data

34
PSM Procedures
  • Activities at Tier I
  • Based on baseline data develop an intervention
    plan
  • Parent and teacher together brainstorm ideas for
    interventions
  • Discuss what interventions look like
  • Look at differentiated instruction
  • Create a Parent/Teacher Log
  • Develop progress monitoring plan
  • Set time table for reconvening to evaluate
    interventions

35
PSM Procedures
  • Activities at Tier I
  • Implement intervention plan
  • Evaluate
  • Use progress monitoring
  • Determine effectiveness of intervention

36
Examples of Data at Tier I
  • STAR reading
  • Pre-EOG
  • Running Record
  • Curriculum based measurements (DIBELS, Aimsweb,
    for example)
  • Specific skill growth or performance

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40
PSM Procedures
  • Activities at Tier II
  • Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat,
    but more school personnel are involved as needed
  • Parent
  • Teacher
  • Counselor, school psychologist, reading teacher,
    administrator, social worker, nurse, etc.

41
PSM Procedures
  • Examples at Tier II
  • Parent, Teacher and Other Teacher/Specialist
    (other professional in the building)
  • Reading Recovery
  • Title 1 services
  • Informal speech interventions
  • Intervention groups 3 times a week for 30 minutes
  • Computer remediation lab Orchard, Waterford

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44
PSM Procedures
  • Activities at Tier III
  • Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat
  • Team members may vary

45
PSM Procedures
  • Formalization of process
  • Problem-solving model forms are completed
  • Baseline, goal setting, and progress monitoring
    data systematically collected and charted
  • Research based interventions are implemented
  • Data is provided as evidence for need of
    intervention

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51
PSM Procedures
  • Activities of Tier IV
  • Make the decision to refer for consideration of
    special education
  • Define the problem
  • Progress monitoring data becomes baseline data on
    IEP or additional data can be collected
  • IEP (intervention) is developed based on data
    collected

52
PSM Procedures
  • Activities of Tier IV, cont
  • Progress monitoring occurs during implementation
  • Program modification or exit criteria is
    established
  • Objectives are developed

53
Tier IV Form
54
Problem Solving (PSM) Process
1
Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral
(observable) definition of problem
2
7
Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a
team decision on the effectiveness of the
intervention
Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a
hypothesis and assessment questions related to
the problem
6
3
Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide
strategies, materials, and resources include
progress monitoring
Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a
functional and multidimensional assessment to
test the hypothesis
5
4
Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific
Description of the changes expected in student
behavior
Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base
interventions on best practices and
research-proven strategies
55
Define the Problem
  • In general - Identify initial concern
  • General description of problem
  • Prioritize and select target behavior
  • Describe what is known about problem and generate
    questions
  • Environment
  • Instruction
  • Curriculum
  • Learner
  • Observable and measurable terms stranger test?

56
Define the Problem
  • The most difficult step of the model
  • Done collaboratively
  • However, if done correctly, solution ideas easily
    follow
  • Describe the problem precisely, then formulate
    hypothesis, predictions, and referral questions

57
Define the Problem
  • Characteristics of a definition
  • Concrete, observable terms (understanding long
    division accurate completion of long division
    problems) a stranger can determine if behavior
    has occurred
  • Measurable difficult to count number of times
    student understood division easily to count
    digits completed correctly in a division problem

58
Define the Problem
  • Characteristics of a definition, cont
  • Specific break things down into its smallest
    components appropriate classroom behavior
    attending to task, remaining in seat, etc
  • Leads to interventions poor accuracy when
    applying phonological principles leads to
    assessment and intervention ideas

59
Define the Problem
  • Procedures for defining the problem
  • Select target behavior teacher may have several
    concerns, prioritize according to significance of
    impact
  • Define in concrete, observable, and measurable
    terms, everyone should agree
  • Hypothesize an explanation for the problem based
    on the definition consider modifiable factors
    (Bill is off task because he is distracted by
    noises in the classroom)

60
Define the Problem
  • Procedures for defining the problem, cont
  • Predict change in student behavior, use if/then
    wording (If classroom is quiet then Bill will
    not be distracted)
  • Develop assessment questions to be answered
    questions stem from hypothesis and predictions
    data collected supports or refutes hypothesis
    consider setting, current level of performance,
    frequency, intensity, and duration of problem

61
Define the Problem
  • Procedures for defining the problem, cont
  • Hypothesis development
  • Traditionally hypotheses have been circular
  • Hypotheses should be stated (Tom has out of
    seat behavior in math because he lacks the
    computation skills necessary to complete the
    independent seatwork)
  • Hypotheses are generated through brainstorming

62
Hypothesis development
  • Four domains of hypotheses
  • Environment how environment effects learning
    arrangement of classroom, material, media
    equipment
  • Curricular is curriculum appropriate for
    student? Consider sequence of objectives,
    teaching methods, and practice materials provided
  • Instructional manner in which teacher uses
    curriculum consider instructional techniques,
    presentation style, questioning, feedback
    techniques
  • Learner
  • Student skill necessary prerequisite skills
  • Student process capacity to learn and problem
    solving techniques

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Assessment Plan
  • Assessments must be functional
  • Direct link between assessment and intervention
  • Data collected
  • skill deficits and/or performance deficits
  • academic and/or non-academic behaviors
  • Questions drive assessments
  • Data leads to instructional decisions and goal
    setting

65
Assessment Plan
  • In general
  • Develop assessment plan to answer questions
    generated
  • Validate target behavior
  • Data across four domains should be gathered from
    multiple sources
  • Reviews
  • Interviews
  • Observations
  • Tests
  • Roles, responsibilities, and timeline

66
Assessment Plan
  • Characteristics of functional assessments
  • Relevance- data related to instruction
  • Direct assessments derived from curriculum,
    behaviors and environment
  • Multi-dimensional data collected using RIOT

67
Assessment Plan
  • Characteristics of functional assessments
  • Formative data used to formulate interventions
  • Individually focused focus on students
    strengths and weaknesses / establish a baseline
  • Technically adequate reliable and valid

68
Assessment Plan
  • Data is collected regarding
  • Environmental variable
  • Instructional variables

69
Assessment Plan
  • Data is collected regarding
  • Curricular variables
  • Student variables

70
Assessment Plan
  • RIOT (Review, Interview, Observe, Test)
  • Review records and work samples, interview staff
    and parents, use CBM data
  • Proceed from general to specific
  • Global vision, hearing, environmental factors
  • Specific assessment aimed at answering assessment
    questions

71
Analysis of Assessment Plan
  • Review data cant do or wont do?
  • Calculate discrepancy between baseline and
    acceptable level of performance
  • Baseline is median of three measures
  • Indicate standard
  • Make an informed statement as to why the problem
    is occurring
  • Make a prediction regarding intervention
  • Chart and set goal

72
Analysis of Assessment Plan
  • Prediction and goal setting
  • Without goal setting, impossible to judge
    progress and determine effectiveness of
    intervention
  • Goal statements are based on baseline data
  • Written in specific and measurable terms

73
Analysis of Assessment Plan
  • Definition
  • Goal statement specific description of change you
    expect to see in students behavior as a result
    of the intervention
  • Includes behavior to change
  • Conditions that will bring about change
  • Level of behavior that is expected

74
Analysis of Assessment Plan
  • Definition
  • Short-term goals describe progress student is
    expected to make in a short period of time
    during and intervention phase
  • Long term goals describe progress student is
    expected to make in a year often associated
    with a program, sometimes with intervention
    phases
  • Program modification or exit goal statements
    identify requirements necessary to student to
    have program adjusted or exit program - EC

75
Analysis of Assessment Plan
  • Goal statement
  • Behavior needs to be measurable, observable, and
    specific focus on increasing positive
    behaviors, rather than decreasing negative ones
  • Conditions (timeline, measurement situation, and
    measurement materials used)
  • For behavioral issues, conditions include (
    timeline, setting, environmental stimuli)

76
Analysis of Assessment Plan
  • Goal statement
  • Level of behavior that is expected several ways
    to establish this
  • Norms/percentile cutoffs
  • Expectations
  • Realistic/ambitious growth
  • Growth rates
  • More details and application in CBM

77
Analysis of Assessment Plan
  • Examples of goal statements
  • Long-term In 30 weeks, when presented with
    random reading passages from Basic Skill
    Builders, level 5, Sam will read aloud at a rate
    of 50 words correct per minute
  • Short-term Each week, when presented with a
    reading passage from Basic Skill Builders, level
    5, Sam will increase his oral reading rate by two
    words correct per minute
  • Non-academic In nine weeks during math class,
    Sam will complete all daily written assignment by
    the end of each math period

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Development of Intervention Plan
  • In general, based on data, identify interventions
    with highest likelihood of success
  • Interventions involve explicit instruction and
    progress monitoring
  • Interventions are not accommodations and
    modifications
  • Decision making for progress monitoring data
    three below?
  • Roles, responsibilities, and timeline

80
Development of Intervention Plan
  • Accommodations
  • Supports or services provided to help access
    curriculum and demonstrate learning examples
  • Modifications
  • Changes made to content and performance
    expectations - examples

81
Development of Intervention Plan
  • Characteristics
  • Focus on modifying students environment to
    improve performance consider time allocated for
    instruction, engagement time, questioning
    techniques, feedback, contingencies
  • Intervention and monitoring is continuation of
    hypothesis testing
  • No magic interventions
  • Implement, monitor, adjust

82
Development of Intervention Plan
  • Characteristics
  • Interventions need to be feasible implementers
    must agree, understand, be committed, and possess
    the necessary skills
  • Team must share responsibility and accountability
    for outcome

83
Development of Intervention Plan
  • Develop intervention plan, then consider
  • In what setting should the plan be implemented?
  • Would it be best for this plan to be implemented
    on an individual level, an entire classroom, an
    entire school building?

84
Development of Intervention Plan
  • Procedures
  • Brainstorm interventions
  • Evaluate ideas potential to succeed, ease of
    use, compatibility with existing programs, time,
    cost
  • Select intervention focus on increasing
    positives, rather than decreasing negatives

85
Development of Intervention Plan
  • Procedures
  • Write action plan identify roles and
    responsibilities, when, where, how, need for
    programs, progress monitoring, goals as a result
    of intervention
  • Implement the intervention support
    interventionist, progress monitor, evaluate
    integrity of intervention, make adjustments

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ORF
Siggy
89
ORF
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ORF
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Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when
Implementing RtI
  • School-based collaborative process
  • Uses problem solving approach to identify
    academic/behavioral needs
  • Involves data-based decision-making
  • Primary purpose is to design useful interventions
    in the regular education environment

93
Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when
Implementing RtI
  • The focus is on Problem Solving
  • Not a mechanism for referring
    students to special education
  • It is Not a Pre-referral team
  • Assessment is functional diagnostic
  • Interventions based on data
  • Not a guessing game

94
Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when
Implementing RtI
  • Interventionists
  • School Volunteers
  • Any available staff member
  • Peer tutoring
  • Parents
  • Teachers Aides
  • Intervention Specialist
  • Key Training !

95
Final Thoughts and Conclusions
  • OWNERSHIP
  • Administrators are key !

96
Final Thoughts and Conclusions
  • Change in mind-set
  • Areas for training
  • Team Building
  • PSM
  • CBM
  • Local Norming
  • Research-Based Interventions for reading, math,
    written expression, and behavior
  • Progress monitoring and charting
  • etc

97
Final Thoughts and Conclusions
  • Research has shown repeatedly that all of the
    time, effort, and money is worth it !

98
Critical Skills/Competencies
  • Problem solving-interviewing skills
  • Behavior assessment including CBM
  • Powerful instructional interventions
  • Powerful behavior change interventions
  • Relationship skills
  • Tailoring assessment to referral concerns

99
General education/special education changes
  • Send us your tired, your hungry, your poor. Your
    students who arent performing.
  • Shift from placement to high quality
    interventions
  • Progress of ALL students (tied with NCLB AYP)

100
Questions Regular Educators May Ask
  • What is a high quality intervention?
  • How do I do more in my class?
  • How do I collect and use data to make decisions?

101
Special Educators
  • Skills in individualized, remedial interventions
  • Share with general educators!
  • Classroom, teacher, and individual student
    support

102
Roles of District and School Leaders
  • District
  • Support
  • Provide vision
  • Reinforce effective practices
  • Expect accountability
  • Provide support for systems change effort
  • Training
  • Coaching
  • Technology
  • Policies
  • Batsche Curtis, 2005

103
Roles, cont
  • Principal
  • Vision of Problem-Solving Process
  • Supports development of expectations
  • Allocation of resources
  • Facilitates priority setting
  • Ensures follow-up
  • Supports program evaluation
  • Monitors staff support/climate
  • Batsche Curtis, 2005

104
Questions
http//www.ncpublicschools.org/ec/development/lear
ning/responsiveness/rtimaterials
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