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Lines and Circles: A Contrastive Study of Western and Chinese Cultures ?????

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Lines and Circles: A Contrastive Study of Western and Chinese Cultures (Part V) 5. Mode of thinking W ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lines and Circles: A Contrastive Study of Western and Chinese Cultures ?????


1
Lines and CirclesA Contrastive Study of
Western and Chinese Cultures?????
??????(Part V)
2
5. Mode of thinking ????
Linear analysis and circular synthesis
????
??????????,????,?????? ,???????
  • W Dissecting things into parts and analyzing
    their relationships, thinking in terms of logic
    (????)and abstract reasoning (????)

??????????,????,?????? ,???????
C Synthesizing parts and examining the whole,
thinking in terms of images (????)and acquiring
intuitive insight (????)
3
Mode of thinking ????
The mode of thinking consists of such
elements as knowledge, ideology, methodology,
intelligence, emotion, willpower, language and
habits. The inter-relationship and interaction of
these elements form a dynamic complex system
known as the mode of thinking.
?????????????????????????????????????????????
?,????,??????????????????
4
Mode of thinking ????
The mode of thinking is closely related
to the worldview. It is the concentrated
embodiment of all cultural and psychological
properties and is shaped in a certain historical,
social and geographical environment.
????????????,???????????????,?????????????????
??
Conversely, a persons established mode
of thinking conditions and even determines
his/her formation of judgment and pattern of
behavior in a certain situation.
???,??????????????????/????????????????
5
Western Mode
Chinese Mode
Analytical, abstract, logical ???????????
Holistic, imaginal, intuitive ???????????
Concept, judgment, inference ????????
Intuition, insight, imagination ????????
6
Mode of thinking ????
  • Referring to Western mode of thinking, Qian
    Xuesen (1986) said Abstractive thinking seems
    to be linear or branch-like. ??????????????
    ???
  • Referring to Chinese mode of thinking, Shen
    Xiaolong (1990) said This is a circular
    dialectic mode of thinking with a strong plastic,
    flexible and stochastic nature.
    ????????????????????????????? ???

7
Holistic ??
Analytical ??
8
Intuitive ??
Logical ??
9
Ethical ??
Cognitive ??
10
Fuzzy ??
Accurate ??
11
Intentional ??
Objective ??
12
Imaginal ??
Positivistic ??
13
Convergent ??
Divergent ??
14
Past-focused ??
Future-focused ??
15
Inward ??
Outward ??
16
Inductive ??
Deductive ??
17
Chinese Mode Western Mode
Holistic ??? Analytical ???
Intuitive ??? Logical ???
Fuzzy ??? Accurate ???
Ethical ??? Cognitive ???
Intentional ??? Objective ???
Imaginal ??? Positivistic ???
Convergent ??? Divergent ???
Past-focused ??? Future-focused ???
Inward ??? Outward ???
Inductive ??? Deductive ???
18
Chinese Mode Western Mode
Holistic ??? Analytical ???
Intuitive ??? Logical ???
Fuzzy ??? Accurate ???
Ethical ??? Cognitive ???
Intentional ??? Objective ???
Imaginal ??? Positivistic ???
Convergent ??? Divergent ???
Past-focused ??? Future-focused ???
Inward ??? Outward ???
Inductive ??? Deductive ???
19
Holistic ??
Analytical ??
20
Holistic ??
Analytical ??
Holistic thought involves an orientation
to the context or field as a whole, including
attention to relationships between a focal object
and the field, and a preference for explaining
and predicting events on the basis of such
relationships. Nisbett (2001)
Analytic thought involves detachment of
the object from its context, a tendency to focus
on attributes of the object in order to assign it
to categories, and a preference for using rules
about the categories to explain and predict the
objects behavior.
???????????????????,???????????????,?????
??????????????
???????????????????,????????????,????????
??????????????
21
What have you seen in the picture below?
22
Holistic ??
Analytical ??
Westerners tend to be analytical and pay
more attention to the key, or focal objects in a
scene for example, concentration on the woman
in the Mona Lisa, as opposed to the rocks and
sky behind her.
Chinese, by contrast, tend to be holistic.
They look at the whole picture and rely on
contextual information when making decisions and
judgments about what they see.
??????????,??????????????????,?????????
??,??????????????????
?????????,??????????,????????????????????
???????
23
Western Encyclopedia arranged by
classification Animals, plants, objects are
divided, sub-divided ???????????,???????
Classification Units of Plants and
Animals kingdom, division, class, order, family,
genus, species
?????????????
24
Chinese Leishu A
collection of political, social and ethical data
arranged circularly in an emperor-centered
fashion. ???????????????????
?????????????? ???????????????
25
Western Articles Clear
division in the organization of articles
title, sub-title, chapters, sections, paragraphs
topic sentences
????,????????????,?????????,????,?????
26
Chinese Articles
???? Introduction, elucidation, transition and
summing-up
??? ????,????????????? Unity,
harmony, transition and correspondence are given
much attention.
27
Western medicine, examine parts of the
body through tests, X-rays, NMR, etc.
????,????????????????????,????,?????
Chinese medicine, general physical
condition, pulse, complexion, tongue coating
????,???????,???????????? ?
28
Intuitive ??
Logical ??
29
Intuitive ??
Logical ??
Debate was prominent in ancient Greece, and
logic was invented. Logic is applied by stripping
away the meaning of statements and leaving only
their formal structure intact. This makes it
easier to see whether an argument is valid or
not.
Tao cannot be expressed by words and what
can be done so is not Tao. Tao is motionless and
shapeless. It can be handed down but not taught
and can be attained but not displayed.
?????????,????????????,?????????,????????
???,??????????????????
????,????,?????,??????,???????
?????
30
Western Logic
Aristotle formal logic Bacon inductive
method of science Russell mathematical
logic Hegel dialectical logic
Syllogism (????) A 3-step argument 1. Major
premise (???) 2. Minor premise (???) 3.
Conclusion (??)
????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????
31
Syllogism (????)
Whatever is M is P S is M Therefore S is P.
All fruits grow on trees. The apple is a
fruit. Therefore, the apple grows on trees.
All women like shopping. Alice is a
woman. Therefore Alice likes shopping.
Either P or Q. Not P. Therefore, Q.
Either Class A or Class B wins. Class A does not
win. Therefore, Class B wins.
32
Logic and Accuracy
The logical reasoning and the either/or
mentality result in accuracy.
The world could be understood through logical
approaches to their meaning, without reference to
the world of the senses. If the senses seemed to
contradict conclusions reached from first
principles and logic, it was the senses that had
to be ignored.
Plato
33
Chinese Intuition
Creativity comes from awakening and spontaneous
perceptiveness.
??????? ????? Knowledge can be acquired
without reasoning. Zhuangzi
????,???? ? ?????? Zen Buddhism A
purified mind spontaneously attains
perceptiveness and the natural insight enables
one to become a Buddha.
????, ?? Understand the
thorough meaning suddenly. ????
?? Be suddenly enlightened.
34
Intuition and Fuzziness
?? ???? Tao, Qi, Tai Chi
???,??????,???? ??? The Tao that can be
explained is not an eternal Tao The names that
can be named are not eternal names.
????,????? ?? What
is written does not express all that one has to
say What is said does not convey all that is on
ones mind.
????,????? ?? It
can be sensed but not expressed in words.
35
  • Western cuisine
  • strictly-followed recipe,
  • ingredients of precise quantity
  • ??????,????????,?????????

Chinese cuisine casual mixing of
ingredients intuitive acquisition of the skill
through repeated practice
???????,????????,??????,?????????????
36
Western painting Accurate likeness in
appearance with emphasis on details lines,
shades of color, light spectrum
??????????,??????????????????
  • Chinese Painting
  • fuzzy resemblance in spirit or essence with
    emphasis on general effect by using imagination,
    exaggeration
  • ?????????,????????????????????????

37
Ethical ??
Cognitive ??
38
Ethical ??
Cognitive ??
Western mode of thinking is
exterior-oriented, giving more attention to the
cognitive exploration of Nature (the objective
world), with emphasis on science and theories.
Chinese mode of thinking is
interior-oriented, focusing more on the moral
inquiry into human nature (the subjective world)
with emphasis on ethics and social practice.
??????????,???????(???)??????,????????
??????????,???????(??)???????,??????????
39
Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), line of
conquest (Macedonia, Greece, Palestine, Syria,
Iran, India, Egypt) ??????????,???????,???
?????
  • The First Qin Emperor (259-210 BC), circle
    of defense (the Great Wall, the Himalayas, the
    Ocean)
  • ?????????,????????

40
Chinese Mode Western Mode
Holistic ??? Analytical ???
Intuitive ??? Logical ???
Fuzzy ??? Accurate ???
Ethical ??? Cognitive ???
Intentional ??? Objective ???
Imaginal ??? Positivistic ???
Convergent ??? Divergent ???
Past-focused ??? Future-focused ???
Inward ??? Outward ???
Inductive ??? Deductive ???
41
The Advantages of Each Mode of Thinking
The linear mode of thinking characterized by
analytical reasoning and emphasis on clarity and
precision is conducive to theoretical
construction. The circular mode of thinking
characterized by synthetic insight and stress on
fuzziness and implicitness contributes to
empirical revelation of truth.
?????????? ????????????,??????,???????????
????????,??????,????????
42
5. Mode of thinking ????
Linear analysis and circular synthesis
????
  • W Dissecting things into parts and analyzing
    their relationships, thinking in terms of logic
    (????)and abstract reasoning (????)

??????????,????,?????? ,???????
C Synthesizing parts and examining the whole,
thinking in terms of images (????)and intuitive
insight (????)
??????????,????,?????? ,???????
43
6. Linguistic expression ????
  • Linear branch-like connection
  • and circular wave-like moving
  • ????

English tree-type sentence structure with
different parts connected like branches and
sub-branches to the trunk line
?????????????????????,????,????,??????????
Chinese topic-prominent sentence structure and
wave-like moving of the discourse
???????????????????,????,????,??????????
44
English tree-like sentence structure???????????
  • Trunk line S V (O) ???????(??)
  • Branches and sub-branches Adverbials and
    attributes ???????????
  • Hypotactic, connectives ????,????
  • explicit cohesion ????
  • Product and facilitator of abstract thinking and
    formal logic ?????????????????,??????????
    ?????????

45
English linear tree-like sentence structure
(??????)
  • As a nation of gifted people who
    comprise about one-fourth of the total population
    of the earth, China plays in world affairs a role
    that can only grow more important in the years
    ahead. Jimmy Carter ????

Trunk line S V (O)
Branches and sub-branches Adverbials and
attributes
46
Chinese wave-like discourse?????????
  • Paratactic fewer connectives and lack of
    inflections ??????????,??????
  • Implicit coherence ????
  • context and language feel ??????
  • Topic prominent Structure flexible
    Composite construction loose and plastic
    ????,????,????,?????
  • Discourse evolve freely in wave-like
    manner ????????????,????,????,????,???????(??)???
    ??

47
Chinese wave-like sentence structure (????)
  • ??????????????,?????,???,??,????,?????

At first Mother and I wouldnt let
Father smoke. After ( ) contracted the fatal
disease, ( ) thought differently. ( ) Just
( ) smoke, ( ) buy the best cigarettes, (
) smoke whenever ( ) liked to.
At first Mother and I wouldnt let
Father smoke. After ( Father ) contracted the
fatal disease, (we ) thought differently. (We
would) Just (let him) smoke, (and we would) buy
the best cigarettes, (and let him) smoke whenever
(he) liked to.
48
H. W. Fowler (1858 1933)
Rhythmic speech or writing is like waves
of the sea, moving onward with alternating rise
and fall, connected yet separated, like but
different, suggestive of some law, too complex
for analysis or statement, controlling the
relations between wave and wave, waves and sea,
phrase and phrase, phrases and speech.

??????????????????,?????????,????,??????
??????,??????,???????????????????????????????????
??????????
49
The Advantages of Each Type of Linguistic
Expression The linear language rigid in
structure with emphasis laid on explicit cohesion
is a facilitator of logical thinking. The
circular language flexible in structure with
importance attached to implicit coherence
promotes thinking in images.
???????????? ????????,?????????,????????
????????????,?????????,?????????????
50
6. Linguistic expression ????
  • Linear branch-like connection
  • and circular wave-like moving
  • ????

English tree-type sentence structure with
different parts connected like branches and
sub-branches to the trunk line
?????????????????????,????,????,??????
????
Chinese topic-prominent sentence structure and
wave-like moving of the discourse
???????????????????,????,????,???????
???
51
??? ????
Worldview Linear Division and Circular
Enclosure
52
??? ????
  • Core Values
  • Linear individuality
  • and
  • circular integrity

53
??? ????
  • Outlook on Time
  • Linear Extension
  • and
  • Circular Rotation

54
???? ????
Mode of Thinking Linear Dissection and
Circular Synthesis
55
???? ????
  • Linguistic Expression
  • Linear Branch-like Connection
  • and Circular Wave-like Moving

56
??? ????
  • Outlook on Arts
  • Linear Strength
  • and
  • Circular Grace

57
Chinese Culture Western Culture








Farming Culture Fishing Hunting Culture
Land Culture
Ocean Culture
Tranquil Culture
Moving Culture
Harmony and Stability Stressed Exploration
and Innovation Stressed
Unified Integrity Advocated
Individual Independence Respected
Strength in Image Thinking Strength
in Logic Thinking
Integration Implicitness Sought Division
Explicitness Valued
Inward Inclusive Culture Outward
Enterprising Culture
58
???? ????








???? ????
???? ????
???? ????
?????? ??????
?????? ??????
?????? ??????
???????? ????????
???????? ????????
59
Conclusion ??
Western culture is comparatively linear.
Chinese culture is relatively circular.
???? ????????
???? ????????
60
Magazine Review ??????
No generalization can be pushed to an
extreme, but Prof. Zuo does not push. On the
contrary, his symbolic contrast between Western
Anglo-American and Eastern Sinitic worldviews is
insightful, stimulating, challenging and
potentially useful in fostering intercultural
understanding.
????????,??????????????????,??????(????)
?????(????)???????????????,????,??????????????????
??????
John Algeo, University of
Georgia, Emeritus professor
and Editor of the Quest
magazine
??????
??????????? ??????
61
Afterthought ????
  • Difference a matter of degree ????????
  • Exceptions and counter-evidence ???????
  • Purpose not to judge, but to promote
    understanding ?????????????,???????
  • The moon of the west is not rounder and the sun
    of the east has its spots as well.
    ?????????,?? ????????

62
????????,????
63
?????? ???????? ????????
The integration of the line and the circle The
line extends in the form of a circle. The circle
rotates in the form of a line.
64
Create an even more splendid world
civilization!?????????????!
Thank you!
65
Email zuobiao212_at_163.com
66
Westerners eat apples by cutting them
linearly into pieces.
???????,???????,?????????
Chinese people eat apples by peeling them
circularly and preserving the round shape.
???????????????,???????
67
Chinese Articles
???? Introduction, elucidation, transition and
summing-up
???????,????????????? Unity, harmony, transition
and correspondence are given much attention.
The Eight-leg Essay ??????????????????????????
???????????????????????4???,???????????,??????????
?,????????
?? setting the topic ?? exposition ?? further
explanation ?? clarifying the range ?? giving
the first leg ?? the middle leg (central
argument) ?? the rear leg ?? the ending leg ??
conclusion
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