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Summary of prostaglandin treatments during the puerperium in the cow

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Author: Steven Mercieca Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Szenci Ott ll 2012 Overview Introduction Parturition, puerperium and post partum period Post-partum events and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Summary of prostaglandin treatments during the puerperium in the cow


1
Summary of prostaglandin treatments during the
puerperium in the cow
  • Author Steven Mercieca
  • Supervisor Prof. Dr. Szenci Ottó
  • Üllo
  • 2012

2
Overview
  • Introduction
  • Parturition, puerperium and post partum period
  • Post-partum events and normal uterine involution
  • Prostaglandins
  • Mechanism of action of PGF2a
  • PGF2a serum stable metabolite
  • PGF2a treatment on day 14 post partum
  • Effect of PGF2a on reproductive parameters
  • Hormonal treatment of uterine infections
  • RFM
  • Clinical (puerperal) metritis
  • Endometritis and pyometra
  • Conclusion

3
Introduction
  • Importance of reproduction in cattle
  • Reproductive inefficiency
  • PGF2a as treatment
  • functional corpus luteum uterine infections
  • non-functional corpus luteum increase immunity
    and uterine motility

4
Parturition, puerperium and post partum period
  • Hormonal changes associated with parturition
  • Oxytocin and PGF2a myometrial contraction
    Estrogen, PGF2a and relaxin softening of cervix
    and relaxation of pelvic ligaments
  • Puerperium and post partum period
  • Immediate period after birth, till responsiveness
    to GnRH. Usually 10-21 days post partum
  • Presence or absence of suckling main inhibitor
    of estrus cyclicity

5
Hormonal changes during late pregnancy,
parturition and post partum period (Stevenson,
2006)
6
Prostaglandins
  • Natural, produced by endometrium. Auto/paracrine
    function
  • Defined by Speroff Ramwell (1970)
  • Derivatives from the C20 Prostanoic acid
  • Main indications
  • -estrus synchronization
  • -regression of corpora lutea
  • -abortion
  • -induction of parturition
  • -treatment of various uterine dysfunctions (RFM,
    metritis, endometritis, pyometra)

7
Prostaglandins
  • PGF2a natural or analogue
  • IM vs intravaginal doses of natural PGF2a
  • IM doses for cattle
  • Cloprostenol-Na 0.5 mg
  • Fenprostalene 1 mg
  • Dinoprost tromethamine (Lutalyse) 25 mg
  • Guay et al (1988) no significant difference
    among treatment with the 3 compounds above

8
Structures of natural PGF2a (dinoprost
tromethamine) and PGF2a analogue (cloprostenol)
(Lauderdale, 2004)
9
Mechanism of action of PGF2a
  • Induces luteolysis by triggering a series of
    endogenous events
  • Luteolysis ? decreased P4 ? dominant follicle
    maturation ? increased E2 ? LH surge ? ovulation.
  • PGF2a increases myometrial contractions directly
    and by increasing oxytocin release in posterior
    pituitary
  • Less uterotonic effect if hypocalcemia

10
PGF2a serum stable metabolite
  • PGFM ( 15-keto-13,14-dihydroPGF2a)
  • Relationship between PGFM and uterine involution
  • Repeated treatment of exogenous PGF2a leads to a
    refractory phase of uterus
  • Thompson (1986) PGFM levels in normal and
    uterine infected postpartum cows

11
Plasma PGFM concentrations (ng/ml) on different
post partum days in healthy and uterine infected
cattle (Thompson, 1986)
12
PGF2a treatment on day 14 post partum and effects
on reproductive parameters
  • Lopez-Gatius Camon Urgel, (1989)
  • Single IM injection of PGF2a-THAM (25 mg) on 14th
    day PP
  • No influence on various reproductive parameters
    by single IM injection in cattle with normal
    puerperium.
  • Cattle with dystocia, RFM or both, responded to
    PGF2a treatment early pp and a 2nd treatment on
    14th day pp (Risco et al, 2006)

13
Effect of PGF2a on reproductive parameters
  • Young et al. (1984). 25 increase in first
    service conception rate when PGF2a treatment
    between 14-28days PP.
  • Burton Lean (1995). No increase in first
    service conception rate with early PP PGF2a
    treatment, but decrease in number of open days.

14
Hormonal treatment of uterine dysfunctions/infecti
ons
  • Rectal palpation and vaginal examination
    (speculum)
  • Production losses especially dairy
  • Uterine immunity immune suppression persistence
  • Extended luteal phase (PGE production)
  • Unsanitary calving environment and improperly
    conducted obstetrical procedures

15
Hormonal treatment of uterine dysfunctions/infecti
ons
  • Treating PP uterine ailments
  • Estrogen
  • Oxytocin
  • PGF2a combination with oxytocin (200 IU, IM
    dose) resulting in uterine activity increase
  • Non-physiological puerperal period cattle
    respond better to exogenous PGF2a treatments

16
Retained fetal membranes
  • Normal expulsion within 3-8 hours
  • Pathological RFM 7 occurrence. May be 1or 2
  • PGFM elevated from 6d pre-partum
  • Main impact risk of metritis and endometritis
  • Treatment
  • Immediate PP treatment with PGF2a
  • If fever Intrauterine infusion of 5g OTC
  • IF fever 5 day ceftiofur IM treatment (1.1 mg/kg)

17
Retained fetal membranes
  • Positive correlation between RFM and metritis
  • Prevention
  • Multifactorial cause
  • Increase peripartum immunity
  • Increase feed intake in early PP period
  • Vit E and Se in early PP period

18
A post partum cow suffering from retained fetal
membranes (Eilts, 2009).
19
Clinical (puerperal) metritis
  • Grade 2 metritis
  • First 7 d PP
  • Systemic signs of illness
  • If no systemic signs, grade 1 metritis
  • Reddish brown, watery, fetid, smelly discharge
  • Occurrence between 18-37
  • May lead to grade 3 metritis (toxemia) and others
  • Acute form contamination with Arcanobacterium
    pyogenes and other Gr -ve bacteria

20
Clinical (puerperal) metritis
  • Uterine involution and fertility using 2 doses of
    PGF2a (Melendez et al., 2004)
  • 2 PGF2a treatments 8 hrs apart on day 8 PP
    together with Ceftiofur HCl for 5 days (when
    suffering from puerperal metritis)
  • Azawi et al. (2008)
  • Systemic Oxytetracycline treatment followed by
    PGF2a

21
Post mortem uterus from first-calving heifer with
clinical (puerperal) metritis (Plahotnik, 2007).
22
Endometritis and pyometra
  • Mild/superficial or severe.
  • Endometritis develops 2-4 weeks post partum.
  • Clinical endometritis
  • PGF2a treatment for management of endometritis by
    decreasing incidence of clinical metritis.
  • Pyometra
  • PGF2a treatment followed by evacuation of uterus
    in 3-9 days.
  • Rarely clinical signs besides anestrus
  • Endometrium heals in 30 days and fertility
    re-established.

23
Conclusion
  • Importance of PGF2a in reproduction
  • Induction of estrus
  • Temporary elevation of uterine defenses
  • Immunity in transitional period.
  • Management of uterine dysfunctions similar to
    management of health and production
  • More research needed on use of PGF2a as a
    uterotonic compound
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