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The Anglo-Saxon Period The Beginning of the English Language Highlights from Chapter One of Your Text


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Title: The Anglo-Saxon Period The Beginning of the English Language Highlights from Chapter One of Your Text

The Anglo-Saxon Period The Beginning of the
English Language Highlights from Chapter One of
Your Text
The Difference Between Great Britain, The United
Kingdom and The British Isles
  • Great Britain is all of following
  • England
  • Scotland
  • Wales
  • United Kingdom is
  • Great Britain
  • Northern Ireland
  • All of the above equal THE BRITISH ISLES

  • ttp//

The First Settlers in England
  • The Iberians
  • First settlers believed to come from Iberian
    Peninsula, todays peninsula of Spain and
  • The Celts Second settlers. What can you infer
    about them from this image? ?

The Celts
  • The Celts
  • Second settlers- Tall, blond warriors, Arrived
    4th century BC. Came to Britain for farming
    better soil.
  • - A subgroup of the Celts called The

Celts and the Brythons
  • - Representation of the Celts and Brythons

The Celts
The Brythons
  • What does this image suggest about Celtic
    religion and spirituality?

The Celts Religious/Spiritual Beliefs
  • Celtic religion/spiritual beliefs was called
  • animism- comes from the Latin word spirit.
  • Celts believed spirits were everywhere, in
    rivers, trees, fire, etc. These spirits
    controlled everything in existence
  • Spirits had to be pleased sacrifices offered,
    some in human form sacrificial dances,
    celebrations held in honor of spirits

Animism, cont.
  • The religion had leaders called Druids.
  • Druids were the go-between for the followers of
    the religion and their gods.
  • Druid means Knowing of the Oak Tree
  • Performed ceremonies in Oak Tree groves. Oak
    Trees considered sacred, including the mistletoe
    that grew in the trees
  • Believed in transmigation of souls- this means
    that the soul is immortal. The soul is
    continually passed in death from one person to

  • Some scientists/ archeologists believe Stonehenge
    was used for religious ceremonies by the Druids.
  • Some archeologists also believe that Stonehenge
    is a resting place for the dead, in addition to
    acting as a memorial
  • Others believe Stonehenge was a type of sundial
  • /way of interpreting the
  • stars
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New Findings
  • According to National Geographic, a small village
    has been found (2006) that is thought to have
    housed the builders of Stonehenge

Celtic Literature
  • What can you infer about Celtic lit from these
    images? Themes? Gender roles?

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Celtic Literature and its Influence
  • Mythology of the Celts inspired British/Irish
  • Much of British writing has borrowed from Celtic
  • legend
  • The legend of King Arthur (a British legend) has
    come from the Celtic culture
  • Celtic legends are filled with strong women, two
  • Boadicea led a revolt against the Romans
  • Queen Maeve battled over ownership of a
    white bull
  • Early Anglo-Saxon literature is filled with
    legends, myths, love affairs, adventure
  • http//

  • Based on this image, what group can we infer
    invaded Celtic territory?

The Roman Invasion
  • The Holy Roman Empire was the empire of the
    world the Roman invasion of Briton was led by
    Julius Caesar in 55 BC
  • Romans conquered the Celts were able to
    establish a great army to hold off serious
  • Christianity began to spread the Celtic ways
    began to fade
  • Spread of Christianity due to Irish
  • continental missionaries

Romans, cont.
  • Provided roads, wall/fortresses, many which are
    still left today
  • Back home, in Rome, the Empire was being attacked
    by Barbarians Romans left Britain in 409 AD, all
    troops and armies left Britain defenseless.

Anglo-Saxon Invasion
  • The Angles and the Saxons came from Germany The
    Jutes come from Denmark
  • Their language became the dominant tongue/ they
    changed the name of the land to Engla land or
    England, from the Angles
  • The Celts put up resistance against the
    Anglo-Saxons and Jutes finally fled to Wales,
    western part of England.

Map of Anglo-Saxon Migration
Alfred the Great
  • Alfred the Great (871-899)
  • Led Anglo-Saxons against invading Danes
  • What can we infer?

Alfred the Great
  • The Danes were fierce Vikings destroyed and
    stole everything that they could Danes
    eventually settled in Northeast parts of England
  • This helped to make England a unified nation
  • Alfred also helped to spread Christianity
  • Christianity helped to provide
  • common faith
  • system of morality
  • correct conduct
  • linked England with Europe

The End of Alfred the Great
  • Alfred and his descendents continued a long
    battle with the Danes until 1066
  • William, the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invaded
    from France
  • Anglo-Saxon rule ended in 1066

  • William, the
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Sutton Hoo A Glimpse At Anglo-Saxon Life
  • Burial site of a 7th century Anglo-Saxon king,
    found in Suffolk, England.
  • A ship grave filled with jewels, the kings
  • gold these were to join the king on his
    trip to the afterlife a body was not found
  • Discovered in 1939

What Was Found in Sutton Hoo
Anglo-Saxon Life
  • What can we infer?

Anglo-Saxon Life
  • Lives led by warfare
  • Order of a people was responsibility of the
  • Success, fame, survival depended on ones loyalty
    to their leader
  • success measured in the gifts a leader gave his
  • Anglo-Saxons lived close to their animals, other
    tribes people,
  • Buildings protected by a fence to keep out
    barbarians provide a close community

Anglo-Saxon Religion
  • What can we infer?

Thunor (A-S) Thor (Norse)
Woden (A-S) Odin (Norse)
Anglo-Saxon Religion
  • Believed in warrior gods
  • Anglo-Saxons beliefs focused on heroic deeds
    during life did not believe in hope for an
  • Woden/Odin God of death, magic, poetry (others
    mentioned in text)
  • The dragon death personified, or guardian of a
    grave its treasure
  • ( more information in text)

  • Dragons as guardians of treasure and graves

Singing Stories
  • The meadhall, or communal hall was where
    storytellers told their tales
  • Scops- storytellers, sang of heroes and their
  • Scops were seen as important as warriors
  • Creating poetry very important
  • Songs reflected concerns of the time
  • Anglo Saxon literature very elegiac (mournful)
  • Scops were able to memorialize heroic deeds in

  • Why would Ireland have been able to evade
    invaders from various lands? Why was it not
    attacked like Britain?

The Luck of the Irish
  • England was sinking into constant warfare,
    confusion, and ignorance
  • Ireland was having a Golden Age ( 432-750)
  • Irish monks were founding monasteries where
    learning took place a place for scholars
  • Christianity was flourishing in Ireland
  • Monasteries preserved Latin and Greek Beowulf
  • survived in a monastery
  • Monks wrote in scriptoriums-writing rooms
  • Wrote on vellum- stomach lining of sheep

From Latin to English
  • Latin was the primary language
  • Spoken and written by the educated
  • King Alfred gathered information for The
    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle- history of England it was
    written in Old English first important work of
  • Under Alfred, Old English was preserved

  • Beowulf (8th century)
  •   Hwæt, we gardena in geardagum, Lo! We of the
    spear-Danes in days of old,   þeodcyninga þrym
    gefrunon have heard of the greatness of the
    kings   hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. how the
    princes carried out deeds of valour.   Oft Scyld
    Scefing sceaþena þreatum, Often Scyld Scefing
    from troops of foes,   monegum mægþum meodosetla
    ofteah, from many nations took mead benches
    away.   egsode eorlas, syððan ærest wearð He
    terrified the earls, after he was
    first   feasceaft funden he þæs frofre
    gebad found destitute. He received consolation
    for that,   weox under wolcnum weorðmyndum
    þah, prospered under the heavens, lived in high
    honour   oð þæt him æghwylc ymbsittendra until
    each of the neighbouring peoples   ofer hronrade
    hyran scolde, across the whale-road had to obey
    him   gomban gyldan þæt wæs god cyning. pay him
    tribute. That was a good king!
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  • The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (890AD)
  •   Her ledde Beornhelm abbud In this year took
    Abbot Beornhelm   West-Seaxna elmessan to Rome 7
    Ælfredes cyninges. the alms of the West Saxons to
    Rome and of King Alfred.   7 godrum se norþerna
    cyning forþferde, And Guthrum, the northern king,
    passed away,   þæs fulluht nama wæs
    Æþelstan, whose baptismal name was
    Athelstan.   se wæs Ælfredes cyninges godsunu, He
    was the godson of King Alfred,   7 he bude on
    East-Englum, and he dwelt in East Anglia,   7
    þæt lond ærest gesæt. and was the first to take
    possession of that land.   7 þy ilcan geare for
    se here of Sigene to Sant Laudan And the same
    year the army went from the Seine to Saint Lô,
      þæt is betueoh Brettum 7 Francum, which lies
    between the Bretons and the Franks   7 Brettas
    him wiþ gefuhton 7 hæfdon sige, and the Bretons
    fought against them and were victorious,   7 hie
    bedrifon ut on ane ea 7 monige adrencton. and
    drove them out into a river and drowned many.
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  • An epic, or heroic, poem
  • What other epics have you read in high school?
  • What are the characteristics of epics?
  • Hero is a great leader loved by people
  • vast setting often supernatural realms (like
    the underworld or dead)
  • Great journey, quest, battle(s)
  • gods or supernatural beings or forces
  • story told in heightened language

  • Beowulf is to England what Odyssey is to Greece
  • First great work of English national literature
  • It is an oral epic
  • Compared to Homers works, this is short
  • app. 3,200 lines instead of 15,000

  • composed in Old English
  • in Northumbria (Northern England) between 700
    and 750
  • Story, though, takes place in early 6th century
  • Based on early folk legends Celtic and
  • Christian elements
  • may have been written by a monk

  • only manuscript we have dates back to 1000
    found in 18th century (1700s)
  • British museum of London
  • was burned and stained survived Henry VIIIs
    destruction of monasteries 200 years earlier

Beowulf characters
  • Beowulf a Geat, son of Edgetho and nephew od
    Higlac, King of the Geats
  • Grendel man-eating monster who lives at the
    bottom of a foul mere, or mountain lake. His name
    might be related to the Old norse grindill,
    meaning storm, or grenja, bellow.
  • Herot golden guest hall built by King Hrothgar,
    the Danish ruler. It was decorated with the
    antlers of stags the name means hart stag
    hall. Scholars think Herot might have been built
    near Lejre on the coast of Zealand, in Denmark

Beowulf characters cont.
  • Hrothgar king of the Danes, builder of Herot.
    He had once befriended Beowulfs father. His
    father was called Healfdane (which probably means
    half dane.)
  • Wiglaf a Geat warrior, one of Beowulfs select
    band and the only one to help him in his final