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Learning Words Inside and Out: Vocabulary Instruction Grades 1-6

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Learning Words Inside and Out: Vocabulary Instruction Grades 1-6 Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words inside and out: Vocabulary instruction that boosts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Words Inside and Out: Vocabulary Instruction Grades 1-6


1
Learning Words Inside and Out Vocabulary
Instruction Grades 1-6
  • Frey, N., Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words
    inside and out Vocabulary instruction that
    boosts achievement in all subject areas.
    Portsmouth, NH Heinemann.

Podcasts, Videos, and study guide available at
http//books.heinemann.com/learningwords/
2
Todays Purposes
  • Discuss the impact of vocabulary on language
    acquisition and subject area learning
  • Examine barriers to vocabulary acquisition and
    instruction
  • Use a self-assessment rubric on vocabulary
    development at your school

3
How Often Has This Occurred?
  • In a 2nd grade Social Studies class studying
    maps, a student is asked to use the word legend
    in a sentence

Native Americans had a legend about coyotes.
4
What led the student to this incorrect response?
  • Background knowledge?
  • Understanding of how to use resources?

5
  • The students are told to write vocabulary words
    in the form of a sentence

Wash is a word. Green is a word. Would is a
word. Work is a word.
6
What led the student to this incorrect response?
Lack of feedback? Inappropriate instructional
routine?
7
Vocabularys Impact on Learning
  • Significant predictor of reading comprehension
    (Baker, Simmons, Kameenui, 1998)

8
Vocabularys Impact on Learning
  • Vocabulary size in kindergarten serves as a
    strong predictor of reading comprehension level
    in later grades (Scarborough, 2001)

9
Vocabularys Impact on Learning
  • Context-embedded vocabulary instruction
    promotes language acquisition for second language
    learners (Tong, Irby, Rafael, Mathes, 2008)

10
Vocabulary is Essential
11
Vocabulary is Essential
Role in text complexity Predictive of student
difficulty Tier 2 words often overlooked in favor
of Tier 3 Difference between words worth
knowing and those that are essential to
understanding Difference between knowing the
definition and knowing the meaning
12
Children Build Schema Long Before They Begin
Reading
Types
Attributes
DOG
Behavior
13
How Do Young Children Build Schema?
  • Authentic experiences
  • Close observation
  • Dialogue with others

These are the same conditions that contribute to
vocabulary development
14
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15
An Intentional Vocabulary Initiative
  • Make it intentional through word selection and
    intentional instruction.
  • Make it transparent through teacher modeling of
    word-solving and word learning.
  • Make it useable with collaborative learning.
  • Make it personal by fostering student ownership.
  • Make it a priority with schoolwide practices.
  • Frey, N., Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words
    inside and out Vocabulary instruction that
    boosts achievement in all subject areas.
    Portsmouth, NH Heinemann.

16
Assessing Our Needs
17
Step 1 Make it Intentional with Careful Word
Selection
18
Our Purpose
How does your school select vocabulary for
instruction?
19
Influence of Background Knowledge
Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for
kids.New York Little, Brown.
20
Possible Vocabulary to Teach
  • More and more garbage! Every day people throw
    more trash away. As the world population
    increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage
    trucks come to pick it up, but where does all
    this trash go?
  • Blue General vocabulary
  • Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for
    kids.New York Little, Brown.

21
Possible Vocabulary to Teach
  • More and more garbage! Every day people throw
    more trash away. As the world population
    increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage
    trucks come to pick it up, but where does all
    this trash go?
  • Blue General vocabulary
  • Green Specialized vocabulary
  • Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for
    kids.New York Little, Brown.

22
Possible Vocabulary to Teach
  • More and more garbage! Every day people throw
    more trash away. As the world population
    increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage
    trucks come to pick it up, but where does all
    this trash go?
  • Blue General vocabulary
  • Green Specialized vocabulary
  • Red Technical vocabulary
  • Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for
    kids.New York Little, Brown.

23
The Problem Too Many Words!
  • Must be narrowed, but how?

24
Questions for Selecting Vocabulary
  1. Representative
  2. Repeatability
  3. Transportable
  4. Contextual Analysis
  5. Structural Analysis
  6. Cognitive Load
  • Is it critical to understanding?
  • Will it be used again?
  • Is it needed for discussions or writing?
  • Can they use context to figure it out?
  • Can they use structure?
  • Have I exceeded the number they can learn?

Frey, N., Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words
inside and out Grades 1-6. Portsmouth, NH
Heinemann.
25
Dolch Sight Words
Foundational Words
26
Analyze the Standards
Foundational words
Content-specific terms
27
Content-specific words
Foundational words
Word Part Lists
Word derivations
28
Step 2 Make it Transparent with Modeling
29
Check Your Rubric
  • How do you model your vocabulary thinking?

30
The Power of Modeling
  • Mirror neuron systems

31
Look Inside the Word Morphology
  • Affixes
  • Root words
  • Derivations
  • Cognates for English learners

32
Look Outside the Word Context
  • Definition/Explanation
  • Restatement/Synonym
  • Contrast/Antonym
  • Inference/General Context
  • Punctuation

33
Look Outside the Word Resources
  • Peer resources from productive group work
  • Dictionaries
  • Bookmark Internet resources
  • Model how you use these (Phone a Friend,
    dictionary use on doc camera)

34
Step 3 Make it Useable by Collaborating with
Peers
35
Check Your Rubric
  • How do you foster peer collaboration to allow
    learners to consolidate vocabulary knowledge?

36
Oral Language and Vocabulary
  • Learners need to use vocabulary in meaningful
    exchanges with others.

37
What better way than with word games?
38
25,000 Pyramid
Nutrition
Ways to Stay Healthy
Types of Dark Green Members of
Vegetables the Meat
and Beans Group
Food Groups Types of Whole Grains
Things to Avoid
39
Clues Developed by Student Partners
40
Concept Circle for a Dog
41
Concept Circle for a Square Which Attribute
Doesnt Belong?
Four equal angles
Four equal sides
Two lines parallel
Four equal diameters
42
Shades of Meaning
Grahams Second Grade Science Vocabulary
freezing
cold
warm
hot
43
Step 4 Make it Personal with Individual
Activities
44
Check Your Rubric
How do you use independent learning of vocabulary
to promote spiral review and metacognition?
45
Generative Sentences
  • The teacher states a condition for a sentence,
    and students compose.

46
Writing Frames
  • Students integrate academic language with
    vocabulary knowledge about animal habitats
  • I knew that ______ live in _____. I learned some
    new facts about _____. I learned that _____ live
    in ____. I also learned that _____ do not like to
    live _____. Another fact I learned was ____. The
    best thing I learned was _____.

47
Alphabet Vocabulary Chart
A-B Bald Eagle Bell C-D E-F Flag G-H
I-J K-L M-N Mount Rushmore O-P
Q-R S-T U-V-W X-Y-Z
48
A-B Bald Eagle Bell America the Beautiful C-D Dollar Capitol building Declaration of Independence E-F Flag G-H
I-J Jefferson Monument K-L Lincoln Memorial Liberty Bell M-N Mount Rushmore National Anthem O-P Pledge of Allegiance
Q-R S-T U-V-W White House Washington Monument X-Y-Z
49
Students assess themselves to see their own
progress.
50
Step 5 Make it a Priority by Creating a
Schoolwide Focus
51
Check Your Rubric
How could you use a schoolwide approach for
promoting vocabulary learning?
52
Use English, Science, and Social Studies content
to make the most of vocabulary instruction.
53
Use gateway affixes to increase access to
unfamiliar vocabulary
-s, -es, -ed, and -ing account for 65 of all
suffixed words
Re-, dis-, un-, in-/im- account for 50 of all
the prefixed words readers will ever see
Cunningham, 2002
54
Words of the Week
  • Five words a week (Port to, out )
  • airport, transport, portable, port, report
  • Grouped by affix or derivation
  • Grade levels propose words
  • Goal is to build vocabulary and teach patterns
    for unfamiliar words
  • Consider creating separate K-2 and 3-6 lists.
  • Primary lists can draw from Dolch and Ogden Basic
    English word lists

55
Ideas for Extending WOW Efforts
  • Post the words on classroom word walls
  • Extra credit for using WOW words in writing
  • Post words each week on school website and in
    newsletter
  • Use words in games
  • (Bingo, Password,
  • Concentration)

56
Incidental Learning Through Wide Reading
  • Cumulative effect of reading 60 minutes per day
    x 5 days a week 2,250,000 words per year
  • 2,250 words learned per year this way (Mason,
    Stahl, Au, Herman, 2003)
  • A bargain, considering that only 300-500 words
    can be directly taught each year

57
Revisiting the Rubric
58
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59
Intentional Word Selection
60
Intentional Word Selection
Transparent Modeling
61
Intentional Word Selection
Transparent Modeling
Useable through Peer Collaboration
62
Intentional Word Selection
Transparent Modeling
Personalized Individual Activities
Useable through Peer Collaboration
63
Intentional Word Selection
Transparent Modeling
Personalized Individual Activities
Priority on Content
Useable through Peer Collaboration
64
Intentional Word Selection
Transparent Modeling
Learning Words Inside and Out
Personalized Individual Activities
Priority on Content
Useable through Peer Collaboration
65
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66
Learning Words Inside and Out Vocabulary
Instruction Grades 1-6
Podcasts, Videos, and study guide available At
http//books.heinemann.com/learningwords/
  • Frey, N., Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words
    inside and out Vocabulary instruction that
    boosts achievement in all subject areas.
    Portsmouth, NH Heinemann.
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