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Simulating aerosol deposition in the lung: how realistic are the current models?

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Another area where aerosols are widely use is inhalation therapy. Today, aerosol therapy extends from the treatment of rhinitis to potentially gene therapy of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Simulating aerosol deposition in the lung: how realistic are the current models?


1
Simulating aerosol deposition in the lung how
realistic are the current models?
  • Chantal Darquenne, Ph.D
  • Dept. of Medicine
  • University of California, San Diego

2
Aerosol gas particles
  • Deposition mechanisms
  • Impaction gt5 µm
  • Sedimentation 1-8 µm
  • Diffusion lt1 µm

3
Why aerosols are important?
  • Atmospheric pollutants
  • Health risk ? Respiratory diseases
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Aerosol drug therapy
  • Drug targeting ? Increases efficiency
  • Decreases side effects

4
1D models of aerosol transport
  • Implicit assumptions
  • Instantaneous radial diffusion
  • Uniform velocity and concentration over the
    cross-section

(From Weibel E.R. (1963) Morphometry of the
human lung)
5
1D models of aerosol transport
(Taulbee and Yu, J. Appl. Physiol., 1975)
(Darquenne and Paiva., J. Appl. Physiol., 1994)
6
1D models of aerosol transport
(Darquenne et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 1997)
7
Multi-dimensional models
  • Conducting airways

(Comer et al., J. Fluid Mech., 2001)
  • Flow field solution of the Navier-Stokes
    equation
  • Particle transport

8
Conducting airways (contd)
(Nowak et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng, 2004)
The results of this study suggest that under
most conditions, an idealized model based on the
Weibel dimensions is not sufficient to predict
deposition
9
Conducting airways (contd)
(van Ertbruggen et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2005)
10
Multi-dimensional models
  • Conducting airways (contd)

(van Ertbruggen et al., Proc. ATS, 2006)
INSPIRATION 500 cm³/s, 7 mm 1011 part/m³
11
Multi-dimensional models
  • Conducting airways (contd)

(van Ertbruggen et al., Proc. ATS, 2006)
12
Multi-dimensional models
  • Acinus

(Tsuda et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 1994)
13
Acinus (contd)

90
Z3
150
Z3
Z2
Z1
265
575
Z2
Z3
Z3
(Darquenne, J. Aerosol. Sci., 2001)
14
Acinus (contd)
(Darquenne, J. Aerosol. Sci., 2001)
2 ?m
Deposited Suspended
(Harrington et al, J. Aerosol. Sci., 2006)
15
Acinus (contd)
(Darquenne and Paiva., J. Appl. Physiol., 1996)
16
Acinus (contd)
(Haber et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2003)
(From Henry et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2002)
17
Acinus (contd)
(Harrington et al, J. Aerosol Med., 2003)
18
Flow in rigid-walled model
Flow
Generation 18
19
Recirculation zone is moved proximally in MW model
Flow
Generation 18
20
Recirculation zones disappear in alveolar sacs
Flow
Generation 23
21
Increase in deposition is greatest for small
particles
22
Summary
  • 1D models
  • Simulations in whole lung
  • Continuous description of aerosol transport
  • Cons instantaneous radial diffusion
  • uniform velocity and concentration
  • Multi-dimensional models
  • Simulations in sections of lung at a time
  • Use of CFD packages (Navier-Stokes eq. particle
    transport)
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