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FIRE SAFETY Fire Science Fire Science is the science of preventing and mitigating the adverse effects of fire. Prevention decreases the likelihood that an emergency ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Fire Science
  • Fire Science is the science of preventing and
    mitigating the adverse effects of fire.
  • Prevention decreases the likelihood that an
    emergency will occur.
  • Mitigation actions are steps that eliminate or
    reduce the loss of life or property damage.
  • Fire-science programs cover all aspects of fire
    prevention, control, response and post-incident

Fire Prevention
Definition of Fire
  • Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the
    exothermic chemical process of combustion,
    releasing heat, light, and various reaction
  • Usually fire occurs when a source of heat comes
    in contact with combustible material in presence
    of air.

Fire Elements
  • Three (3) elements are required for combustion
    to occur
  • Fuel to vapourise and burn
  • Oxygen to combine with fuel vapour
  • Heat to raise the temperature of the fuel
    vapour to its ignition temperature

Fire triangle
  • Fire triangle or combustion
  • triangle is a simple model
  • for understanding the
  • ingredients necessary for
  • occurrence of a fire.

Fire triangle..
  • The triangle illustrates a fire requires three
    elements heat,fuel and oxygen.
  • The fire is prevented or extinguished by removing
    any one of them. A fire naturally occurs when
    elements are combined in right mixture.

Fire triangle.
  • Fire cannot begin if either heat or oxygen is
  • When oxygen-fuel mixture is in right proportion
    and the heat source is of adequate intensity to
    initiate ignition of oxygen fuel mixture, fire
    will occur.

Fire tetrahedron
  • Fire tetrahedron is an addition to the fire
    triangle. It adds the requirement for the
    presence of the chemical reaction which is the
    process of fire.

Combustion Process.
  • The occurrence of combustion is associated with a
    spontaneous acceleration of the rate of oxidation
    reaction in the system. The process of
    spontaneous acceleration of the rate of oxidation
    turning into combustion can be attributed to
    three basic processes--
  • -- heat
  • -- chain

  • -- heat-chain reaction

Combustion Process
  • The heat theory explains the autoignition by the
    activation of oxidation and increased chemical
    reaction due to heat.
  • The chain theory states self- ignition to the
    branching of the chains of chemical reaction.
  • In practice, combustion process occurs by
    heat-chain mechanism.

Combustion of gases
  • Fire and explosion hazards from gases are
    determined by
  • the concentration limits of ignition (more
    commonly known as the explosive range),
  • ii) ignition source intensity,
  • iii) combustion temperature and
  • iv) rate of flame spreading.

Combustion of gases.
  • A gaseous combustible mixture will burn only if
    it contains the right proportion of fuel.
  • The lowest amount of fuel at which combustion
    may take place is known as the lower
    concentration limit of the explosive range.
  • The highest concentration of fuel in a
    combustible mixture at which combustion may still
    take place is called the upper concentration
    limit of the explosive range.
  • The range of concentration is called the
    explosive range (or range of ignition).

Combustion of gases.
  • The minimum intensity of ignition is the lowest
    value of the electric discharge spark intensity
    sufficient to ignite the most rapidly ignitable
    mixture of the given gas, vapor or dust with air.
  • A gas is termed combustible if its mixture with
    air ignites at temperatures below 55C.
  • Gases such as acetylene, hydrogen and hydrogen
    sulfide which have a wide explosive range, low
    lower limit of the explosive range, low ignition
    intensity and high flame speed are the most

Combustion of liquids
  • All combustible liquids ,are known to evaporate
  • combustion takes place only in the vapor
    phase over the liquid surface.
  • The amount of vapor formed depends on the
    temperature of the liquid.
  • Combustion will take place only when the
    concentration of vapor reaches the explosive
    range limit.

Combustion of liquids.
  • The lowest liquid temperature at which the
    proportion of vapors in air is sufficient for the
    mixture to ignite in the presence of an open
    flame heat source without consequent steady state
    combustion is known as the flash temperature (or
    flash point).
  • A liquid is termed combustible if it keeps
    burning when ignited and after the ignition
    source has been withdrawn.
  • The flash point of such liquids is not above 61C
    (in closed crucible) or not above 66C (in an
    open crucible).

Combustion of liquids.
  • The flash point is known as the temperature at
    which a liquid become extremely dangerous as
    regards fires. It has, therefore, been adopted
    for classifying combustible liquids by their
    hazard of fire.
  • Fire and explosion risks involved in liquids can
    be characterized also by the temperature limits
    of the explosive range of their vapors.

Combustion of liquids.
  • The temperature of a liquid at which the
    concentration of its saturated vapour in a
    limited air volume is capable of igniting in the
    presence of a source of ignition (heat) is known
    as the lower temperature limit of the explosive
  • The temperature of the liquid at which the
    concentration of its saturated vapors in a
    limited air volume is still capable of igniting
    in the presence of an ignition source is called
    the upper temperature limit of the explosive

Combustion of dusts
  • Dust, by fire hazard, is many times more
    dangerous than the material (product) from which
    it is formed. This is explained by a greater
    specific surface of dust particles as compared
    with that of a solid body.
  • The properties of pulverized material are quite
    different from those of the same material in a
    solid state. The oxidation surface is so large
    that the heat losses into the environment are
    minimum and the dust becomes liable to
    self-ignition (dust of aluminum, iron, brass).

Combustion of dusts.
  • Like the combustible air, gas and air vapor
    mixtures, dusts may explode when their
    concentrations in the air reaches the explosive
  • The lower explosive limit of dusts is most
    important characteristic because dust
    concentrations corresponding to this limit may be
    formed both inside the machine treating solid
    materials, and almost everywhere in production

Combustion of dusts..
  • Dust is said to be more dangerous, the lower its
    lower explosive limit and the lower its auto -
    ignition temperature.
  • The risk of explosion are high with dusts whose
    lower concentration explosive limit is below
    65g/m3 (Pulverized sulfur, sugar, flour).

Fire Behaviour
  • Fires behave differently. Some burn slowly and
    evenly others are extremely hot, burning
    violently and quickly.
  • Different fires have different coloured flames.
    Some fires start easily others dont. Some fires
    produce deadly gases and smoke which may be the
    cause of death if not ventilated

Fire Behaviour
  • The behaviour of the fire often depends on the
    fuel. Other factors or variables may include
    where the fuel is situated and how near it is to
    other fuels, the weather (especially wind and
    relative humidity), oxygen concentration.
  • Different fuels catch fire at different
    temperatures. It takes a certain amount of heat
    energy to change any particular material into a
    gas (if it is not already). Then it takes more
    heat energy to trigger the reaction with oxygen

Fire Behaviour
  • The amount of heat produced depends on the
    molecules that make up the fuel. The most
    flammable fuels are hydrocarbons (contain carbon
    and hydrogen) that recombine with oxygen quite
    easily to form carbon dioxide, water and other
  • Size or surface area of fuel determine how
    quickly a fuel catches fire and burns For
    example, large pieces of wood take a lot longer
    to absorb heat energy to ignition temperature.
    Thin wood catches fire easily because it heats up

Fire Behaviour
  • The bigger the area of the surface of the fuel,
    the more oxygen molecules can collide with the
    surface. The more oxygen molecules that collide
    per second with the fuel, the faster the
    combustion reaction is.
  • A powder has the largest surface area and will
    have the fastest reaction rate

Fire Behaviour
  • Amount of fuel available to burn is known as the
    fuel load. The bigger the fuel load, the more
    intense the fire will be in terms of heat energy
  • Oxygen availability will affect the rate of
    burning. A low concentration of oxygen will slow
    the burning right down.

Fire Behaviour
  • An example of dangerous fire behaviour that can
    occur in a situation where there is a low
    concentration of oxygen is called backdraught (an
    explosive surge in a fire produced by the sudden
    mixing of air with other combustible gases).
  • This is when an enclosed fire has used up most of
    the oxygen and is just smouldering. If there is a
    sudden influx of oxygen (like someone opening a
    door or window), the fire will immediately
    explode into flame

Fire Behaviour
  • Relative Humidity reflects the amount of moisture
    in the air. If relative humidity is low, it will
    contribute to the drying of fuels. If it is high,
    fuels will absorb moisture from the air, making
    ignition more difficult.
  • Wind is a major factor in determining fire
    spread. Wind affects the rate of oxygen supply to
    the burning fuel (controlling combustion) and it
    tilts the flame forward so that unburned fuel
    receives energy by radiation and convection at an
    increased speed. Wind can also dry out the fuel

Common gases and smoke
  • The particular gases produced by a fire depend
    mainly on the fuel.
  • The most common hazardous gases are carbon
    dioxide (CO2), the product of complete
    combustion, and carbon monoxide (CO), the product
    of incomplete combustion.

Common gases and smoke..
  • Carbon monoxide is the more dangerous of the two.
    When air mixed with carbon monoxide is inhaled,
    the blood absorbs the CO.
  • The result is an oxygen deficiency in the brain
    and body. Exposure to a 1.3 concentration of CO
    will cause unconsciousness in two or three
    breaths and death in a few minutes.

Common gases and smoke..
  • Carbon dioxide works on the respiratory system.
    CO2 concentrations in the air reduce the amount
    of oxygen that is absorbed in the lungs. The body
    responds with rapid and deep breathing, which is
    a signal that the respiratory system is not
    receiving sufficient oxygen.
  • When the oxygen content of air drops from its
    normal level of 21 to about 15, human muscular
    control is reduced. At 10 to 14 oxygen in air,
    fatigue sets in. Unconsciousness usually results
    from oxygen concentrations below 10.

Common gases and smoke..
  • Depending upon the fuel source, there may be
    several other gases generated by a fire that are
    of equal concern. e.g.
  • i) Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is produced when
    nylon, wool etc. are involved in fire. Hydrogen
    cyanide arrest the activity of all forms of
    living cells of body muscles and nerves.
  • ii) Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is produced when
    polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is decomposed at fires.
    If inhaled, HCl will damage the upper respiratory
    tract and lead to asphyxiation or death.

Common gases and smoke..
  • Smoke is a visible product of fire that adds to
    the problem of breathing. It is made up of carbon
    and other unburned substances in the form of
    suspended particles.
  • It also carries the vapors of water, acids and
    other chemicals, which can be poisonous or
    irritating when inhaled

Smoke detector
  • A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke,
    typically as an indicator of fire. Smoke
    detectors are typically housed in a disk-shaped
    plastic enclosure about 150 millimetres (6 in) in
    diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) thick.
  • Most smoke detectors work either by optical
    detection (photoelectric) or by physical process
    (ionization), while others use both detection
    methods to increase sensitivity to smoke.

Smoke detector..
  • All smoke detectors consist of two basic part a
    sensor to sense the smoke and a very loud
    electronic horn to wake people up. Smoke
    detectors can run off of a 9-volt battery or
    120-volt house current.
  • Test requirements for smoke detectors fall
    broadly into two categories - Functional (or
    Operational) Testing and Calibration (or
    Sensitivity) Testing. Functional checking is
    accomplished by introducing a smoke, from the
    protected area through the vents of a detector to
    the sensor (s). Sensitivity testing confirms
    whether the detectors performance is within the
    acceptable parameters.

Smoke detector..
  • While regular testing is essential in making sure
    that the
  • smoke detector is working properly, regular
    maintenance is a
  • very good idea as well to ensue that no dust,
    hair or fiber
  • particles are hiding the grates in the smoke
  • preventing the detector to detect a problem,
    or even cause
  • damage to the interior workings.

Smoke Exhaust System
  • Smoke Exhaust is used to remove smoke from
    buildings to enable emergency evacuation as well
    as improved firefighting.
  • Smoke Exhaust System is a mechanical or gravity
    system intended to convey smoke from one portion
    of a building to the outdoors and usually
    includes a venting system, as well as exhaust

Fire door
  • Fire door is a door with a fire-resistance rating
    (the duration for which a fire protection
    system can withstand a standard fire resistance
    test) and used as part of a fire protection
    system to reduce the spread of fire or smoke
    between compartments and to enable safe egress
    from a building.

Fire door.
  • Fire doors may be made of a combination of
    materials, such as
  • i) timber
  • ii) steel
  • iii) gypsum (calcium sulphate )
  • iv) vermiculite (natural mineral that expands
    with the application of heat)
  • V) glass sections
  • Fire doors maintain its structural integrity
    for a period of time in the event of a fire.

Exit sign
  • An exit sign is a device in a building denoting
    the location of the emergency exit, guiding
    people to the closest exit in case emergency
    including fire.. Most relevant codes (fire,
    building, health or safety) require exit signs to
    be permanently lit.
  • Exit signs shall be preferably in pictogram
    form, with text supplement.

Exit sign.
  • Since visibility may be reduced in a fire, due to
    smoke or failure of electric lighting, the sign
    is often permanently illuminated, usually by
  • i) electric light, with the building's
    emergency lighting circuits providing back-up
    power from a UPS and/or a generator in case
    normal power fails , or
  • ii) electric light, with a local rechargeable
    power source

Emergency lighting
  • An emergency light is a battery-backed lighting
    device that comes on automatically when a
    building experiences a power failure as a
    result of a fire or a power cut to avoid
    darkness and a possible danger to occupants
    either throuh physical danger or panic.
  • The system normally used is lead acid batteries
    to store a full 120-volt charge.
  • Electrical devices are used to switch on the
    lights and battery supply in the event of a power
    failure automatically

Treatment following inhalation of gases and
  • Treatment varies with the severity of the damage
  • The primary focus of treatment is to maintain an
    open airway and provide an adequate level of
  • If the airway is open and stable, the individual
    may be given high-flow humidified 100 percent
    oxygen by mask.
  • If swelling of the airway tissues is closing off
    the airway, the person may require the insertion
    of a breathing tube to artificially maintain an
    open airway.

Treatment following inhalation of gases and
  • Oxygen is often the only medication necessary.
    However, people who have a cough with wheezing
    (bronchospasm), indicating that the bronchial
    airways are narrowed or blocked, may be given a
    bronchodilator to relax the muscles and increase
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy ( treatment of the
    entire body with 100-percent oxygen at greater
    than normal atmospheric pressures ) may be used
    to treat smoke inhalation, resulting in severe
    carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning. This
    treatment requires a special chamber in which the
    person receives pure oxygen at three times the
    normal atmospheric pressure, thus receiving more
    oxygen faster to overcome loss of consciousness
    and other associated illnesses.

Treatment following inhalation of gases and
  • There are also antidotes for specific poisonous
    gases in the blood e.g. hydroxocobalamin  against
    hydrogen cyanide, dosage is dependent upon the
    level indicated by blood tests. Oxygen works as
    an antidote against carbon monoxide as it
    increases the removal of carbon monoxide from
    hemoglobin, in turn providing the body with
    normal levels of oxygen.
  • Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiant gas and not
    classified as toxic or harmful. There is no
    antidote to be administered to counteract the
    effects of inhalation of hydrogen chloride. In
    case of severe inhalation exposure, humidified
    supplemental oxygen should be administered.

Extinguishment Theory
  • The extinguishment of fire is based on an
    interruption of one or more of the essential
    elements in the combustion process.  
  • With flaming combustion the fire may be
    extinguished by reducing temperature, eliminating
    fuel or oxygen, or by stopping the chemical
    chain reaction. 
  •  If a fire is in the smoldering mode of
    combustion, only three extinguishment options
    exist  reduction of temperature, elimination of
    fuel or oxygen

Extinguishment Theory.
  • Extinguishment by Temperature Reduction
  • One of the most common methods of
    extinguishment is by cooling with water. 
  •   The process of extinguishment by cooling is
    dependent on cooling the fuel to a point where it
    does not produce sufficient vapour to burn.  If
    we look at fuel types and vapour production, we
    find that solid fuels and liquid fuels with high
    flash points can be extinguished by cooling.
  • Low flashpoint liquids and flammable gases
    cannot be extinguished by cooling with water as
    vapour production cannot be sufficiently reduced.

Extinguishment Theory.
  • Extinguishment by Fuel Removal
  • In some cases, a fire is effectively
    extinguished by removing the fuel source. 
  •  This may be accomplished by stopping the flow
    of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing solid
    fuel in the path of the fire. 

Extinguishment Theory.
  • Extinguishment by Oxygen Dilution
  • The method of extinguishment by oxygen
    dilution is the reduction of the oxygen
    concentration to the fire area. 
  •  This can be accomplished by introducing an
    inert gas into the fire or by separating the
    oxygen from the fuel.
  • Carbon dioxide or nitrogen, are the two most
    common extinguishing agents.

Extinguishment Theory.
  • Extinguishment by Chemical flame Inhibition
  • Some extinguishing agents, such as dry
    chemicals interrupt the flame producing chemical
    reaction, resulting in rapid extinguishment.  
  • This method of extinguishment is effective
    only on gas and liquid fuels as they cannot burn
    in the smoldering mode of combustion.

Classification of fire and their distinguishing
Fuel Source Class of Fire Type of Extinguisher (Extinguishing Agent)
Ordinary combustibles(e.g. trash, wood, paper, cloth) A Water chemical foam dry chemical
Flammable liquids(e.g. oils, grease, tar, gasoline, paints, thinners) B Carbon dioxide (CO2) halon dry chemical aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)
Electricity (e.g. live electrical equipment) C CO2 halon dry chemical
Combustible metals(e.g. magnesium, titanium) D Dry powder (suitable for the specific combustible metal involved)
Combustible Cooking(e.g. cooking oils animal fats, vegetable fats) K Wet chemical (Potassium acetate based)
Classification of fire and their distinguishing
  • Halon(Chlorodifluorobromomethane)extinguishers
    are no longer made but some may still be in use.
    Dangerous gases are formed when halon is used to
    put out fires.
  • Wear proper respiratory equipment,
    particularly in enclosed spaces. After use, do
    not allow anyone to enter the area until it has
    been well ventilated.

Fixed Fire protection Equipments
  • Fixed in-plant fire protection equipment includes
    water equipment such as sprinklers, hydrants.
  • Sprinklers
  • A fire sprinkler discharges water when the
    effects of a fire have been detected, such as
    when a predetermined temperature has been
    exceeded. Each sprinkler is held closed by
    either a heat-sensitive glass bulb or a metal
    link held together with fusible alloy such as
    lead, tin, cadmium, zinc.
  • The glass bulb or link applies pressure to a
    cap which acts as a plug and prevents water from
    flowing until the ambient temperature around the
    sprinkler reaches the design activation
    temperature of the individual sprinkler.

Fixed Fire protection Equipments..
  • Since each sprinkler head is automatically
    triggered by fire-specific temperature, just one
    or two sprinklers can quickly extinguish and / or
    contain a fire to the room where it started and
    cause little property damage.
  • Inspection and servicing of fire sprinklers
    shall be carried out by highly trained
    technician as per manufacturers recommendation.

Fixed Fire protection Equipments..
  • Hydrant
  • A fire hydrant is an above-ground connection
    that provides access to a water supply for the
    purpose of fighting fires. Every hydrant has one
    or more outlets to which a fire hose may be
    connected. It also have one or more valves to
    regulate the water flow.
  • In order to provide sufficient water for
    firefighting, hydrants are sized to provide a
    minimum flowrate of about 945 liters per minute.

Fixed Fire protection Equipments..
  • Fire hydrants shall be maintained through
    flushing, inspection, lubricating, cleaning, and
    painting on a semi annual basis or as required.
    The main reason for hydrant maintenance is to
    insure that they will function correctly at times
    of fire.
  • Fire engines hold a maximum of 5-6 minutes of
    water available for fire attack.  An improperly
    or non-functioning hydrant could cause a fire
    engine to run out of water.

Fixed Fire protection Equipments..
  • A fire hose is a high-pressure hose used to
    carry water to a fire to extinguish it.
    Outdoors, it is attached either to a fire engine
    or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can be permanently
    attached to a building's standpipe or plumbing
  • The usual working pressure of a fire hose can
    vary between 8 and 20 bar (116 and 290 psi),
    while its bursting pressure can be up to 83 bar
    (1,204 psi).
  • After use, a fire hose is usually hung to dry
    as standing water that remains in a hose for an
    extended period of time can deteriorate the
    material and render it unreliable or unusable.

Electrical Fire Hazards and Control Measures
  • Electricity can be the source of heat to
    ignite flammable materials. Current flow in a
    conductor produces heat because of the
    conductors resistance to the flow of
    electricity. Increased heat in electrical
    conductors can be expected when
  • The wire size is too small to carry the
    current (trying to run an electric motor on a
    lamp cord)
  • The electrical load is too great
  • The electrical connections are loose, and
    increased resistance develops.

Electrical Fire Hazards and Control Measures
  • Common protective devices are
  • Fuses
  • Circuit breakers
  • Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs)
  • Fuses are either a screw-in or cartridge
    type. A metal strip melts when the circuit is
    overloaded and interrupts the circuit. The fuse
    must be replaced. The main power switch should
    be shut -off before changing fuses.

Electrical Fire Hazards and Control Measures
  • Circuit breakers look like switches. When a
    bi-metal strip (two different metals) is heated
    from electrical overload, the metal becomes
    distorted in shape and causes the circuit breaker
    to cut out. The overload problem must be
    corrected and the switch returned to the on
  • Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters look like
    a circuit breaker. These GFCI devices break the
    circuit in microseconds when a difference in
    current is sensed. These devices are used where
    moisture is found e.g. milk room, kitchen etc.

Fire Fighting Water Requirement
  • The required fire fighting water flow rate is
    given by

Where, Qf the heat release rate of the fire
(kW), ?ab is the
cooling efficiency, i.e., the efficiency of the
water in absorbing the energy from the fire (0 ?
1), and QW is the rate at which energy can
theoretically be absorbed by the water (2605
Fire Fighting Water Requirement.
  • The cooling efficiency is a factor used to
    account for the fact that not all of the water
    applied to a fire will be converted to steam.
  • The value of QW is based on the fact that one
    litre of water will absorb 2.605 MJ of energy
    when it is heated from 0C to steam at 100C.

General Principles of Firefighting
  • When sufficient manpower isnt available to
    effect both rescue and extinguishment at the same
    time, rescue must be given priority.
  • When you dont have sufficient manpower to
    perform all of the needed tasks, first perform
    those that protect the greatest number of human
    lives first.

General Principles of Firefighting
  • Remove those in greatest danger first.
  • When sufficient personnel are available to
    perform both functions, they must carry out a
    coordinated fire attack.
  • When there is no threat to occupants, the lives
    of firefighters shouldnt be unduly endangered.

  • Objective
  • The main objectives of Fire Drill and
    Emergency Evacuation procedure are as below
  • To provide an orderly emergency response
    plan for all occupants.
  • To ensure all exit routes, emergency
    staircases are not obstructed and can be used in
    an orderly fashion during emergencies.

  • To ensure fast, organised and smooth evacuation
    of buildings during emergencies.
  • To train fire drill and emergency evacuation
    officers to conduct their duties successfully.
  • To test the working conditions and
    effectiveness of all fire and emergency
    equipments for all buildings.

  • Planning
  • Below are issues to be considered in planning
    and organising a fire drill and emergency
  • Fire Protection
  • Type of warning signs.
  • Fire extinguisher, hose reel and fire
    fighting team.
  • Preparedness to call / contact the Security
    Department and Fire Brigade.
  • Selection of personnel from every building /
    floor to asssist in emergency evacuations.

  • Escape Route
  • The sufficiency of existing evacuation
    routes for emergency evacuation and their
    clearance from any obstruction.
  • Measure the distance that occupants have to
    travel to get to the emergency assembly area
    during emergency
  • evacuation.
  • Ensure a safe and accessible emergency
    assembly area.
  • Emergency lights and availability of other
    emergency equipments.

  • Every personnel involved in the emergency
    response team need to be trained in assisting
    people during emergency evacuations.
  • All activities conducted during fire drill
    and emergency evacuations are to be recorded and

  • Preparation to Conduct Drill
  • The items below are to be prepared prior to
    conduct a fire drill
  • Formation of emergency action committee for
  • area. The appointments of officers shall
  • Emergency Evacuation officer and assistants
  • Floor leaders and assistants

  • Clarify the roles and responsibilities of every
    officer involved in the emergency action
  • Prepare the floor plan and action plan.
  • Determine the Assembly Area.
  • Determine the evacuation route, exit doors, and
    emergency staircases are not obstructed.

  • Actions to be taken when conducting the Drill
  • Sound the fire alarm (break the nearest
    break-glass panel to sound the fire alarm) and
    shout FIRE, FIRE, FIRE..
  • If you encounter a small fire, try putting
    the fire out using the available fire fighting
    equipment closest to the scene. Try to control
    the situation.
  • If you encouter a fire victim, rescue the
    victim without endangering yourself.
  • Leave / evacuate the building and report at
    Assembly Area.

  • Gather and Report to the officer in charge
    at the Evacuation Area. Ensure that your name is
    called during a headcount.
  • When evacuating building, DO NOT
  • Use the lift
  • Return to the office / room to take things
  • Overtake or push other evacuees
  • If there are occupants who are sick, hurt or
    disabled, assist them to evacuate the building.
  • Occupants may re-enter the building in an
    orderly fashion only AFTER the building is
    declared safe.

Fire Safety Inspection
  • Fire Safety Inspection should cover the
    following subjects
  • i) Automatic fire suppression systems (eg
    sprinkler systems).
  • ii) Fire hose reels.
  • iii) Fire hydrants.
  • iv) Automatic fire detection and alarm
  • v) Fire doors.
  • vi) Fire extinguishers.
  • vii) Smoke exhaust systems.
  • viii) Exit signs.
  • ix) Emergency lighting.