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The Need for Nitrogen Use Efficiency to Reduce Environmental Impacts on the Gulf of Mexico

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The Need for Nitrogen Use Efficiency to Reduce Environmental Impacts on the Gulf of Mexico BY Dually Bertholf BAE 4213 Spring 2003 Fun Facts http://www.epa.gov ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Need for Nitrogen Use Efficiency to Reduce Environmental Impacts on the Gulf of Mexico


1
The Need for Nitrogen Use Efficiency to
ReduceEnvironmental Impacts on the Gulf of Mexico
  • BY
  • Dually Bertholf
  • BAE 4213
  • Spring 2003

2
Fun Factshttp//www.epa.gov/msbasin/index.htmfac
ts
  • Length of the Mississippi River 3,705 kilometers
    (2,302 miles)
  • Area of Basin
  • 3.2 million square kilometers (1.2 million square
    miles).
  • 40 of the United States
  • 1/8 of North America
  • Population along the Mississippi Corridor 12
    million people live in the 125 counties and
    parishes that border the Mississippi River.
  • Amount of water discharged to the Gulf 612,000
    cubic feet per second
  • Provides habitat for
  • 241 fish species
  • 37 mussel species
  • 45 amphibians
  • 50 mammals
  • 40 of the nation's migratory birds

3
Mississippi River Basin
  • The Mississippi basin, the largest river basin in
    the United States, forms a wedge of 1,243,000
    square miles (3,220,000 sq. km.) in the center of
    the continent, and is made up of three major
    branches, the Mississippi which the middle
    branch drains 171,500 square miles (444,300 sq.
    km.), the Missouri drains approximately 530,000
    square miles (1,373,000 sq. km.), and the Ohio
    which drains 202,000 square miles (523,000 sq.
    km.). Below the Ohio, the lower Mississippi
    gathers water from several other smaller basins,
    namely the Arkansas and the Red River.

4
Mississippi River Basin Cont.
  • In 1990, Mississippi Basin farmers applied 21
    billion pounds of fertilizer. http//www.sierraclu
    b.org/ecoregions/missbasin.asp
  • A 12 percent reduction in nitrogen fertilizer use
    could have a 33 percent reduction in the nitrate
    flux in the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico.
    http//www.newswise.com/articles/20
    01/11/NITROGEN.UIL.html
  • Total nitrogen flux into the Mississippi river
    basin has been estimated to have tripled over the
    last 35 years.
    http//webserver.cr.usgs.gov/hypoxia/

5
Mississippi River Information
  • It drains 41 percent of the contiguous U.S.
  • Covers 55 percent of U.S. agricultural lands.
  • Includes 33 major river systems and 207
    estuaries.
  • Includes 27 percent of U.S. population.
  • Includes about 80 percent of U.S. corn and
    soybean
  • acreages, and much of the cotton, rice,
    sorghum,
  • wheat, and forage lands.

6
Mississippi River Information Cont.
  • Is the source of 72 percent of U.S. harvested
    shrimp,
  • 66 percent of the harvested oysters, and 16
    percent of
  • the U.S. commercial fish harvest
  • Has fisheries valued annually at over 700
    million at
  • dockside. Its commercial and recreational
    fisheries
  • have a combined value of 2.4 billion per
    year.

7
Definitions
  • Hypoxia Hypoxia refers to dissolved oxygen
    concentrations less than 2 mg/L (milligrams per
    liter). Hypoxia can cause stress or death in
    bottom-dwelling organisms that can not leave the
    zone. Hypoxia is caused primarily by excess
    nitrogen delivered from the Mississippi River in
    combination with seasonal stratification of Gulf
    waters. Nitrogen promotes algal and attendant
    zooplankton growth. The associated organic matter
    sinks to the bottom where it decomposes,
    consuming available oxygen. Stratification of
    fresh and saline waters prevents oxygen
    replenishment by mixing of oxygen-rich surface
    water with oxygen-depleted bottom water.

8
Definitions Cont.
  • EutrophicationThe process of being enriched in
  • dissolved nutrients, especially nitrate
    (NO3) and
  • phosphate. Eutrophication can enhance
    phytoplankton
  • (microscopic, passively floating plants)
    growth.
  • This increased growth can cause an increase
    in
  • organic matter deposition. As the organic
    matter
  • from dead phytoplankton and fecal residues
    from
  • zooplankton (which feed on the
    phytoplankton)
  • drops to the bottom waters, microorganisms
    decompose
  • it and deplete dissolved O2 from the water.
  • drops to the bottom waters, microorganisms
    decompose
  • it and deplete dissolved O2 from the water.

9
N Source Short Tons
Mineralized soil N 7,497,404
Fertilizer N 7,497,094
Legume N fixation 4,445,155
All manure N 3,582,911
Atmospheric wet and dry deposition of nitrate-N 1,461,656
Atmospheric deposition of ammonium-N 663,497
Municipal point sources of N 221,266
Industrial point sources of N 94,370
http//www.ppi-ppic.org/ppiweb/ppinews.nsf/webcon
tents/A1A0DBBD5BBAF52185256903006E5E90/file/99176
-Hypoxia.pdf
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Nflux 0.049F2 36Q - 0.094R1
  • Nflux Nitrate flux to the Gulf, in metric tons
    per year.
  • F2 Fertilizer use in the entire basin 2 years
    previous, in metric tons.
  • Q Current year mean annual discharge to the
    Gulf, in cubic meters per second.
  • R1 Nitrogen residual for the previous year, in
    metric tons.

http//ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/pubs/fact-sheets/f
s.135-00.html
14
Nflux 0.049F2 36Q - 0.094R1R² of 0.89
http//ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/pubs/fact-sheets/
fs.135-00.html
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Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico
  • Hypoxic waters are distributed from shallow
    depths near shore (4 to 5 m) to as deep as 60 m,
    but are present more typically between 5 and 30
    m. Hypoxia occurs mostly in the lower water
    column but encompasses as much as the lower half
    to two-thirds of the column. http//www.nos.noaa
    .gov/products/hypox_t1final.pdf pg.17 par.5
  • Hypoxia covers broad regions of the shelf for
    extended periods in mid-summer. In 198592, the
    midsummer bottom areal extent of hypoxic waters
    (lt 2 mg/l O2, or ppm) averaged 8,0009,000 km2
    in 1993 97 it increased to 16,00018,000 km2.
    The estimated extent was 12,500 km2 in mid-summer
    of 1998. http//www.nos.noaa.gov/products/hypox_t1
    final.pdf pg.17 par.3

19
Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico Cont.
  • Hypoxia occurs not only at the bottom near the
    sediments, but well up into the water column (see
    Sections 3.2 and 3.4). Depending on the depth of
    the water and the location of the pycnocline(s),
    hypoxia may encompass from 10 to over 80 of the
    total water column, but normally encompasses
    2050. Hypoxia may reach to within 2 m of the
    surface in a 10-m water column, or to within 6 m
    of the surface in a 20-m water column. Anoxic
    bottom waters can occur, along with the release
    of toxic hydrogen sulfide from the sediments.
    http//www.nos.noaa.gov/products/hypox_t1final.pdf
    pg.24 par.2

20
Factors That Influence Hypoxia Levels in the Gulf
of Mexico
  • Changes in precipitation patterns and quantities
  • within the Mississippi River Basin
  • Increased Mississippi River flow and fresh water
  • stratification over salt water
  • Complex interactions among marine organisms
  • Increased or sustained large fisheries harvests
  • Gulf storms and hurricanes
  • Tidal currents and their characteristics
    (temperature,
  • circulation, etc.)
  • Loss of coastal wetlands (25-35 square miles/year
    in
  • Louisiana alone)
  • Nutrients from re-suspended N sediments and
  • upwelling off the Yucatan Peninsula

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Thoughts
  • Increase Nitrogen Use Efficiency by stressing the
    importance to the plant breeders, so they will
    develop more efficient breeds of plants.
  • Use site specific farming practices to only apply
    fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides.
  • Only apply what is needed for the specific areas
    and at the appropriate time.
  • With the help of new technologies and the
    willingness of the people we will have a safe and
    productive future.

36
Questions?
37
References
  • http//www.nos.noaa.gov/products/pubs_hypox.html
  • http//wwwrcolka.cr.usgs.gov/midconherb/hypoxia.ht
    ml
  • http//www.sws.uiuc.edu/docs/hypoxia/HYPOXIA.asp
  • http//www.epa.gov/msbasin/actionplan.htm
  • http//www.csc.noaa.gov/products/gulfmex/html/raba
    lais.htm
  • http//coastwatch.noaa.gov/GOMxhypoxia/
  • http//www.ppi-far.org/ppiweb/usams.nsf/webindex/
    A265C63DD1C7B81E86256966006C22C0?opendocumentnavi
    gatorhomepage
  • http//www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/Bibliographies/eb9702
    .html
  • http//webserver.cr.usgs.gov/hypoxia/
  • http//www.tfi.org/Issues/hypoxiapage.asp
  • http//ca.umces.edu/president/hypoxia.htm
  • http//toxics.usgs.gov/highlights/hypoxia.html

38
References Cont.
  • http//www.fumento.com/hypoxiacolumn.html
  • http//www.cop.noaa.gov/Fact_Sheets/NGOMEX.htm
  • http//www.ncat.org/nutrients/hypoxia/hypoxia.html
  • http//www.capitolink.com/sections/issues/hypoxia.
    html
  • http//www.beachbrowser.com/Archives/Environment/A
    ugust-99/HYPOXIA-IN-THE-GULF-OF-MEXICO.htm
  • http//www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/hypoxia.html
  • http//www.lammonia.com/news_a.htm
  • http//invasions.si.edu/Fouling/CB_Hypoxia.htm
  • http//www.soildoctor.com/Hypoxia.html
  • http//nigec.ucdavis.edu/publications/annual97/sou
    thcentral/project6.html
  • http//www.cast-science.org/pubs/hypo_nr.htm
  • http//state-of-coast.noaa.gov/bulletins/html/hyp_
    09/national.html

39
References Cont.
  • http//www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dfwmr/marine/hy
    poxia.html
  • http//www.nstl.gov/research/nitrogen/hypoxia.html
  • http//www.dasnr.okstate.edu/nitrogen_use/
  • http//www.co2science.org/subject/n/nitrogeneffici
    ency.htm
  • http//www.nps.ars.usda.gov/publications/publicati
    ons.htm?SEQ_NO_115125547
  • http//water.usgs.gov/wrri/97grants/ne97ncr1.htm
  • http//res2.agr.ca/initiatives/manurenet/env_prog/
    gp/efp/pin/pin.html
  • http//www.oznet.ksu.edu/pr_prcag/vrnm-research.sh
    tml
  • http//www.regional.org.au/au/asa/1993/papers/pape
    r-26.htm
  • http//www.agron.missouri.edu/cgi-bin/sybgw_mdb/md
    b3/Term/62080
  • http//www.msue.msu.edu/misanet/Abstracts/throop_p
    _a.htm
  • http//soil4213.okstate.edu/Student_Presentations/
    1

40
References Cont.
  • http//precision.agri.umn.edu/Literature/Abstracts
    00/156.html
  • http//www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsyst
    ems/DC6125.html
  • http//www.hort.purdue.edu/rhodcv/hort640c/nuse/nu
    00007.htm
  • http//search.yahoo.com/search?pnitrogenuseeffi
    ciencyb61hchs1xargs0
  • http//n2001.esa.org/n2004.html
  • http//www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/newsltr/v11n1/technic
    al1.htm
  • http//www.ntechindustries.com/
  • http//ag.arizona.edu/swes/research/program5.htm
  • http//www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/research/pubs/n-rate-2
    001.html
  • http//frec.cropsci.uiuc.edu/1999/
  • http//esa.sdsc.edu/hypox5.htm
  • http//ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/pubs/fact-sheets/f
    s.135-00.fig5.gif

41
References Cont.
  • http//www.epa.gov/msbasin/economy.htm
  • http//www.epa.gov/msbasin/actionplan.htm
  • http//wwwrcolka.cr.usgs.gov/midconherb/descriptio
    ns.html
  • http//wwwrcolka.cr.usgs.gov/midconherb/hyp.rpts.h
    tml
  • http//wwwrcolka.cr.usgs.gov/midconherb/links.html
  • http//umbc7.umbc.edu/tbenja1/baumann/mod2.html
  • http//www.usda.gov/nass/pubs/agstats.htm
  • http//www.sierraclub.org/ecoregions/missbasin.asp
  • http//wwwrcolka.cr.usgs.gov/midconherb/st.louis.h
    ypoxia.html
  • http//ca.umces.edu/ian/commonground/missnflux.pdf
  • http//www.ppi-far.org/ppiweb/usams.nsf/webindex/
    014300E14A66969186256C40007D7A82?opendocumentnavi
    gatorhomepage

42
References Cont.
  • http//www.newswise.com/articles/2001/11/NITROGEN.
    UIL.html
  • http//www.ppi-ppic.org/ppiweb/ppinews.nsf/webcon
    tents/A1A0DBBD5BBAF52185256903006E5E90/file/99176
    -Hypoxia.pdf
  • http//www.nstl.gov/research/onepage/onepagni.html
  • http//ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/pubs/fact-sheets/f
    s.135-00.html
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