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Towards the Global Positioning and Monitoring of Skills in the Education-for-All Architecture? Challenges and Opportunities

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Title: Towards the Global Positioning and Monitoring of Skills in the Education-for-All Architecture? Challenges and Opportunities


1
Towards the Global Positioning and Monitoring of
Skills in the Education-for-All Architecture?
Challenges and Opportunities
  • 28 October 2008
  • Kenneth King

2
Presentation outline
  • 1. The Changing Global Context for Skills Goal in
    the 21st Century Drivers and Meanings
  • 2. Skills and Education for All from Jomtien to
    the present day
  • 3. Monitoring technical and vocational skills
    systems
  • what challenges?
  • what opportunities?
  • 4. Conclusions on the Policy History of Skills
    and their Increasing Salience

3
GLOBAL DRIVERS OF SKILL
  • Success of EFA and challenge of Post-EFA lead to
    interest in skills
  • Skills for competitiveness and poverty reduction
  • Skills within sector-wide approaches
  • Politics of skills-for-employment and
    skills-for-security
  • Skills for enterprise productivity and individual
    prosperity

4
MULTIPLE MEANINGS OF SKILL IN EFA AND POST-EFA
  • Core skills (3Rs, ICT, texting emailing) in EFA
    and Post-EFA
  • New skills, soft skills, higher order skills in
    EFA and Post-EFA
  • Attitudinal skills e.g. confidence, perseverance
    in EFA and Post-EFA
  • Traditional technical and vocational manipulative
    design skills
  • Entrepreneurial employability skills

5
THE DIFFERENT WORLDS OF LIFE SKILLS AND WORK
SKILLS?
  • Life skills as psycho-social and interpersonal
  • Close links to health, and protection from
    diseases, including AIDS
  • Livelihood and work skills link to enterprise and
    employability
  • Complementarity of life, livelihood and work
    skills

6
THE DISCOURSES OF TVET/VET AND OF SKILLS
DEVELOPMENT
  • TVET or VET still widely used in ministries of
    education and labour
  • TVET/VET school- and institute-based, whether
    public or private
  • TVET/VET also non-formal, adult and
    community-based
  • Skills development institution- and
    enterprise-based, whether formal or informal
  • Compromise Technical and Vocational Skills
    Development

7
SKILLS AT JOMTIEN (1990) AND DAKAR (2000)
  • Jomtien basic training in other essential
    skills required by youth and adults
  • Dakar Goal 3 equitable access to appropriate
    learning and life skills programmes
  • Jomtien a suggested national target Dakar a
    Global EFA Goal
  • Neither is a sacred text, but the terminology has
    been very problematic

8
THE CHALLENGE OF SKILLS FOR THE GMR PROCESS,
2002-8
  • All EFA Goals in special GMR volumes except Goal
    3
  • Little on Goal 3 in annual GMR review of all Six
    Goals
  • GMRs only TVET indicators total young people
    in TVET in schools and girls in TVET

9
SKILLS AS AN EFA ENTITLEMENT AND AS A LINK TO WORK
  • Core skills, soft skills, attitudinal skills and
    life skills a right within EFA
  • Skills for employability and orientation to work
    also a right within EFA
  • Specialised technical, vocational, design and
    technology skills post EFA
  • Business, marketing and entrepreneurial skills
    post EFA

10
SKILLS IN A FUTURE GMR?
  • GMRs are moving beyond the sole focus on EFA
    Goals, e.g. GMR 2009 2010
  • Good moment to review a domain that is both EFA
    and post-EFA
  • As with the GMRs on Literacy and Quality, many
    challenges for a Skills GMR
  • But also many new opportunities

11
MONITORING TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SKILLS SYSTEMS
  • International monitoring of technical and
    vocational skills systems by UNESCO and the ILO
  • UNESCOs GMRs
  • 2006 UNESCO-UIS/UNEVOC report
  • ILOs Key Indicators of the Labour Market
  • ILO is producing statistics on skills only at the
    project level

12
MONITORING TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SKILLS
SYSTEMS WHAT OPPORTUNITIES? (1)
  • Make better use of what information and data
    sources do exist at the country level.
  • E.g. skills data in population censuses,
    household or labour surveys, formal education
    data collection instruments or from individual
    ministries, TVET institutes and project
    evaluations.
  • Limited by capacity constraints.

13
MONITORING TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SKILLS
SYSTEMS WHAT OPPORTUNITIES? (2)
  • Developing new approaches
  • E.g. Several agencies (e.g. ETF and UNESCO) have
    been making progress towards better monitoring of
    technical and vocational skills development.
  • ETFs Euro-Mediterranean Partnerships Education
    and Training for Employment (MEDA-ETE) project,
    esp. in Jordan
  • UNESCO developing a framework to monitor
    non-formal education

14
NATIONAL MONITORING OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL
SKILLS SYSTEMS
  • Limited nationwide monitoring at present in most
    countries. Why?
  • General paucity aggregated data, esp. outside
    MoEs
  • Fragmented provision of skills
  • Weak information systems
  • Lack the capacity and funds
  • Methodological challenges
  • The risk of developing too many indicators

15
MONITORING TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SKILLS
SYSTEMS WHAT NEXT? WHAT PURPOSE FOR A SKILLS GMR?
  • The Skills GMR should seek to better compile and
    analyse what existing data sources countries have
    related to skills
  • Not possible to develop more than a few
    internationally comparable indicators
  • But a Skills GMR can point the way towards more
    comprehensive national monitoring of skills
    systems, across the different domains of skill

16
MORE COMPREHENSIVE COUNTRY-LEVEL MONITORING (1)
  • Suggest approaches to developing a set of more
    comprehensive national indicators that better
    captures the different domains of skills
    acquisition.
  • Suggest how to improve TVET sections of
    labour-force and household-based surveys
  • Compile an inventory of survey instruments and
    available data sources.

17
MORE COMPREHENSIVE COUNTRY-LEVEL MONITORING (2)
  • Illustrate the need to complement quantitative
    and qualitative indicators with contextual
    analysis at the country/regional level
  • Suggest other necessary steps
  • Conduct additional tracer surveys
  • Strengthen capacity, information systems and data
    collection mechanisms in countries.
  • A Skills GMR would need a 2 year cycle

18
CONCLUSIONS ON THE POLICY HISTORY OF SKILLS AND
THEIR INCREASING SALIENCE (1)
  • A GMR on skills kick-starting international and
    national monitoring of technical and vocational
    skills
  • A GMR on skills is much more than simply
    fulfilling the Jomtien and Dakar commitments.
  • 5 main impacts of a Skills GMR

19
CONCLUSIONS ON THE POLICY HISTORY OF SKILLS AND
THEIR INCREASING SALIENCE (2)
  • 5 main impacts of a Skills GMR (cont).
  • Raised international profile of skills
  • Better conceptual understanding of skills
  • Make the case for a sustainable, long-term
    comprehensive global effort with regard to skills
    data collection, indicator development and
    analysis at the national level.
  • Draw together the existing international
    experience
  • Encourage national governments to think and act
    more comprehensively about skills.

20
CONCLUSIONS ON THE POLICY HISTORY OF SKILLS AND
THEIR INCREASING SALIENCE (3)
  • The need to improve cross-agency dialogue and
    promote joint learning on technical and
    vocational skills development

21
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