Non-drug Factors Affecting Pharmacologic Effects Of Drugs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Non-drug Factors Affecting Pharmacologic Effects Of Drugs PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4964f3-NzIxM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Non-drug Factors Affecting Pharmacologic Effects Of Drugs

Description:

Non-drug Factors Affecting Pharmacologic Effects Of Drugs Group I Members: Chitcaj,Pumchandh Chou,Hsin-Yi (Chou) De Los Reyes, Ellen Marie De Los Santos, Marinelle – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:151
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: CAAN3
Learn more at: http://www.caangay.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Non-drug Factors Affecting Pharmacologic Effects Of Drugs


1
Non-drug Factors Affecting Pharmacologic Effects
Of Drugs
  • Group I Members

Andaya, Erwin B Brar, Rita Caangay, Ephraim Chen,Chun-Huang(Alex) Chen,Chun-Yu(Kim) Chen,I-Chung(Afra) Chen.I-Ling(Claire) Chitcaj,Pumchandh Chou,Hsin-Yi (Chou) De Los Reyes, Ellen Marie De Los Santos, Marinelle De Mesa, Andrea Duh, Yidow Huang, Lin-Yi (Tracy)
2
Purpose
  • Basically, there are three types of drug. And
    each of them will let human produce different
    effects

3
The Stimulant Effect
  • Substance that causes an increase in activity in
    various parts of the nervous system or directly
    increases muscle activity

4
The Depressant Effect
  • One of various substances that diminish
    functional activity, usually by depressing the
    nervous system. And it have various modes of
    action and effects. Some are primarily used
    medically to relieve emotion stress, anxiety, and
    tension others induce sleep, and still others
    are used to relieve pain

5
The Placebo Effect
  • Inert substance given instead of a potent drug.
    Placebo medications are sometimes prescribed when
    a drug is not really needed or when one would not
    be appropriate because they make patients feel
    well taken care of. But A traditional placebo's
    lack of side effects. placebo effect is an
    apparent improvement in health due not to any
    treatment but only to the patient's belief that
    he or she will improve

6
Methodology
  • Each subject will be given one or two capsules of
    the same color from marked containers. The
    identity of the drug is coded and will be
    revealed to the members of the class only at the
    end of the conference, unless adverse reactions
    by any participants require immediate
    intervention. Students who are not subjects will
    be divided as observers, recorders and
    reporters.Control observations before taking the
    drug should be done. Observations should be
    repeated every 15 minutes or as necessary.

7
Methodology
  • Changes in observation are noted. All
    observations should be appropriately
    recorded.Subjects should stay apart from each
    other, do not communicate nor compare reactions.
    Observers should refrain from asking leading
    questions e.g. Do you feel sleepy? Avoid
    giving preconceived ideas. Do not inject fear or
    apprehension to the subject.

8
Methodology
  • The subject will be observed for the following
  • Psychological ( self-rating assessment )
  • Physiological observations ( objective assessment
    )
  • Other reactions

9
Methodology
  • Rate the degree of reactions of the subject
    before and after intake of the drug according to
    the following scale
  • 0 - absent
  • - present
  • If the reaction is present, take note of the
    intensity according to the followingPresence
    of
  • lt3 effects- mild to moderately
    intense
  • gt4 effects significantly intense
  • For the physiological parameters, compute for the
    increase or reduction
  • lt10 reduction/increase mild to
    moderate
  • gt10 reduction/increase
    significant

10
Parameters used
EFFECT CONTROL 15 MINS AFTER 30 MIN 45 MIN gt1HOUR REMARKS
A. Physiological Cheerful Talkative Alert Tense Jittery Irritable Easy-going Drowsy Sulggish Tired Relaxed Calm Sleep Weakness
11
Parameters used
EFFECT CONTROL 15 MINS AFTER 30 MIN 45 MIN gt1HOUR REMARKS
B..Physiological Pulse Resp.rate Bld Pressure Pupil Size
12
Parameters used
EFFECT CONTROL 15 MINS AFTER 30 MIN 45 MIN gt1HOUR REMARKS
C. Other Effect Tremors Sweating Flushing Headache Dizziness Difficulty in concentration Abdominal Discomfort
13
What is a Placebo
  • It is an inert material with exactly the same
    physical appearance , odor, consistency as the
    active form

14
Types of Placebo
  • Pure/Insert Placebo are those that are devoid
    from any action, be it pharmacologic al, surgical
    etc.
  • contain starch, flour, sugar
  • Impure/Active placebo are those that actually
    have actions that may not be specific to the
    disease
  • contain starch and vitamin C

15
Placebo Effect
  • It is the psychological effect of any medication
    or procedure given with the therapeutic intent,
    which is independent of, or minimally related to
    the specific effects of the procedure and which
    operates through a psychological mechanism

16
Placebo theories
  1. Psychological theory
  2. Nature taking its course
  3. Process of Treatment

17
Psychological Theory
  • The belief that the placebo effect is caused by
    just believing that the given substance or
    procedure will work.
  • The power of suggestion, beliefs, and hopes about
    the treatment may have a significant biochemical
    effect

18
Nature Taking Its Course Theory
  • The placebo effect is due to an illness or injury
    just taking its course.

19
Process of Treatment Theory
  • By giving the placebo it displays the process of
    treatment that involves showing attention, care,
    affection etc to the patient or subject.
  • This process is encouraging and hopeful and this
    may trigger the physical reaction in the body to
    promote healing.

20
Advantages of Placebo
  • The Placebo effect can supplement pharmacological
    effects
  • In trials, can represent the difference between
    success and failure

21
Disadvantage of the Placebo
  • Because the physician is deceiving the patient,
    there may be an adverse effect on the
    physician-patient relationship
  • If the deception is discovered, then the patient
    will feel betrayed by the physician and the
    confidence will be impaired.

22
DEPRESSANTS
  • Any substance that diminishes functional
    activity.
  • Usually depressing the Central Nervous System
  • 2 major categories of depressant drugs used as
    medicines are Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines
    - referred to as sleeping pills, tranquilizers,
    sedatives or anxiolytic or hypnotic drugs.

23
Barbiturates
  • Actions include
  • CNS depression
  • Respiratory depression
  • Enzyme induction
  • Anesthetic
  • Anticonvulsant.
  • Consequences include
  • Induction of drug tolerance
  • Physical dependence (addiction)
  • Severe Withdrawal symptoms
  • Can cause coma in toxic dose

24
Doses and Effect
  • Small amount produce calmness and relax muscles
  • Moderate cause drowsiness, confusion, inability
    to concentrate, loss of coordination, tremors and
    slurred speech.
  • Large doses produce depressed pulse rate,
    dilated pupils, and shallow breathing. Such doses
    may easily cause unconsciousness and death.

25
Barbiturates Pharmacodynamics
  • Work by enhancing the action of a brain
    neurotransmitter that is in charge of inhibiting
    parts of the brain.
  • Facilitate the activity of one of the main
    inhibiting neurotransmitters (GABA).
  • Leads to inhibition of polysynaptic transmissions
    in the CNS
  • Commonly abused include amobarbital (Amytal),
    pentobarbital (Nembutal), and secobarbital
    (Seconal).

26
Benzodiazepines
  • Actions include
  • Reduction of anxiety
  • Sedative and hypnotic agent
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Muscle relaxant
  • Consequence include
  • Drowsiness, confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Weight gain
  • Memory loss

27
Benzodiazepines Pharmacodynamics
  • Activates all 3 specific gamma amino butyric
    acid-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZ) binding sites of
    GABA receptors
  • Opens chloride channels and reduces the rate of
    neuronal and muscle firing.

28
STIMULANTS
  • Any agent temporarily increasing functional
    activity.
  • Stimulants may be classified according to the
    organ upon which they act, as follows cardiac,
    bronchial, gastric, cerebral, intestinal,
    nervous, motor, vasomotor, respiratory, and
    secretory.
  • Commonly used stimulants include caffeine, low
    doses of ethanol, methamphetamines, and cocaine.

29
Cocaine
  • Used as a local anesthesia
  • Self administered by chewing, intranasal
    snorting, smoking, and IV.

30
Cocaine
  • Actions include
  • Produce intense euphoria
  • Powerful stimulation of cortex and brainstem
  • Increased sympathetic fight/flight response
  • Consequences include
  • Hypertension
  • Tachycardia
  • Paranoia
  • Depression
  • Seizures
  • Overdosage is fatal
  • Addictive

31
Caffeine
  • stimulates the central nervous system and of
    gastric acid and pepsin secretion, elevation of
    free fatty acids in plasma, diuresis, basal
    metabolic rate increase, total sleep time
    decrease, and possible blood glucose level
    increase.
  • Caffeine is considered an ergogenic aid in
    athletics because it tends to enhance endurance
    and improves reaction time.
  • Adverse effects include drug dependence and
    withdrawal in some habitual users.

32
Physiologic Effects
  • CNS usual doses of 50-200 mg. causes a decrease
    in fatigue and mental alertness.
  • CVS positive inotropic and chronotropic effects
    on the heart.
  • Renal system mild diuretic action that
    increases urinary output of sodium, chloride and
    potassium
  • GI system stimulates secretion of gastric acid
    and digestive enzymes

33
Clinical uses
  • Relaxation of the smooth muscle of the
    bronchioles
  • Theophylline, widely used in asthma therapy
    previously.
  • For vasomotor headache
  • Facilitates falling asleep in elderly people and
    hypertensive patients

34
Adverse Effects
  • Sensitive to low dose sleeplessness,
    tachycardia, diarrhea
  • Moderate dose Insomnia, anxiety, agitation
  • High dose emesis, convulsions, restlessness,
    decreased attention span, tremors
  • Lethal dose cardiac arrhythmias

35
Pharmacodynamics
  • Inhibition of phosphodiesterase, thereby
    increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine
    monophosphate (cAMP)
  • Directs effects on intracellular calcium
    concentration
  • Indirect effects on intracellular calcium
    concentration via cell membrane hyperpolarization
  • Uncoupling of intracellular calcium increasing
    with muscle contractile elements
  • Antagonism of adenosine receptors

36
The Results
37
Psychological Stats of DRUG A
Time Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects
0 III III
15 IIII II II
30 IIII I
45 II I
60 IIII II 0
38
Vital Stats of Subject A
39
Psychological Stats of DRUG B
Time Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects Other Effects
0 III I
15 III III Dizziness Diuresis
30 II IIII Tremors
45 IIII IIII
60 IIII IIII Flushing Cold Extremities
40
Vital Stats of Subject B
41
Psychological Stats of DRUG C
Time Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects
0 IIII III
15 IIII IIII
30 IIII IIII
45 IIII IIII
60 IIII I IIII
42
Vital Stats of Subject C
Blood Pressure reading was not taken at time 15
min
43
Psychological Stats of DRUG D
Time Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects
0 IIII III
15 IIII III
30 IIII III
45 IIII III
60 IIII III
Control data (physical), may have be skewed due
to the possibility that the patient was excited
to be the volunteer and that we did not have
lecture )
44
Vital Stats of Subject D
45
Conclusions
46
Stats of Subject A
Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects
21 7
47
DRUG A
  • Experimental Conclusion
  • The drug is probably a
  • Depressant

48
Stats of Subject B
Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects
16 18
49
DRUG B
  • Experimental Conclusion
  • The drug is probably a
  • Stimulant

50
Stats of Subject C
Blood Pressure reading was not taken at time 15
min
Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects
24 23
51
DRUG C
  • Experimental Conclusion
  • The drug is probably a
  • Depressant

52
Stats of Subject D
Depressant Effects Stimulant Effects
24 15
53
DRUG D
  • Experimental Conclusion
  • The drug is probably a
  • Depressant

54
Summary of Results and Conclusion
  • Drug A Depressant
  • Drug B Stimulant
  • Drug C Depressant
  • Drug D Depressant

55
Back with the Suggestions Recommendationspost
game show
  • But first, a word from our sponsors. . . . .

56
Medical Supplies Le Medique
  • Conveniently located, just behind the school
  • On hand stock of commonly needed items
  • Special orders welcomed

57
Quick Snacks Waffle Dog
  • Conveniently located
  • Same hours as school
  • Prices start at only P14

58
Liquid Refreshments
  • Detox
  • Clean up
  • Chill Out

59
Suggestions and Recommendations
  • (How we can improvethe experiment.)

60
S R Consistency in the subject, data
collection, statistical tools, environment
setting
  • Have the control time equal the experimental time
    (includes readings for the hour)
  • Have same person collect measurements
  • Guidelines need to be established prior to taking
    initial measurements
  • Clearer guidelines for psychological factors
  • Strict application adherence to the scientific
    method
About PowerShow.com