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ELT CURRICULUM & INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 1 Compiled by Clarry Sada Email: clarrysada_at_yahoo.co.id Blog: clarrysada.wordpress.com * * What is curriculum? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Compiled by
  • Clarry Sada
  • Email clarrysada_at_yahoo.co.id
  • Blog clarrysada.wordpress.com

What is curriculum?
  • Curriculum is said to be a very ill-defined term
    (Huang, 1991).
  • It may carry different meanings when used by
    teachers, schools and academics. What makes the
    matter worse is that it is used interchangably
    with terms like syllabus, examination syllabus
    and instruction (Chang, 1998).
  • In this session, we would try to clarify what it

Syllabus and Curriculum
  • "A syllabus is typically a list of content areas
    which are to be assessed. (Print, 1993)
  • "A curriculum shows by what kind of educational
    activities the teacher will fulfill the
    requirements of the syllabus.... The curriculum
    is primarily concerned with method and therefore
    with education it is made up of pedagogical
    directives, intended to provide assistance,
    advice, suggestions and information to assist the
    teachers in carrying out his task successfully.."
    (Dottrens, 1962).

  • "The curriculum usually contains a statement of
    aims of specific objectives, it indicates some
    selection and organization of content, it either
    implies or manifest certain patterns of learning
    and teaching, whether because the objectives
    demand them or because the content organization
    require them. Finally it induces a program of
    evaluation of the outcomes." (Taba, 1952)

Curriculum and Instruction
  • "Curriculum is 'a system of planned actions for
    instruction' and instruction is the 'system for
    putting the plans into action. (MacDonald, 1965)
  • "Basically the curriculum is what happens to
    children in school as a result of what teachers
    do." (Kansas, 1958)

  • "By 'curriculum' we mean the planned experiences
    offered to the learner under the guidance of the
    school. (Wheeler, 1967)
  • "Instruction is the delivery of information and
    activities learners' attainment of intended,
    specific learning goals. In other words,
    instruction is the conduct of activities that we
    focused on learners learning specific things."
    (Smith Ragan, 1993, p.2)

Elements of a curriculum
Curriculum Dimensions
  • 1) Platform
  • 2) Objectives
  • 3) Student entry behaviours
  • 4) Assessment tools procedures
  • 5) Instructional materials
  • 6) Learning experiences
  • 7) Teaching strategies
  • 8) Content
  • 9) Time

The Tylerian Model
  • This model was developed by Ralph Tyler to
    simplify the curriculum development process.
  • Consists of four primary steps
  • Development of performance objectives
  • Development of activities
  • Organization of activities
  • Evaluation

The Tylerian Model was expanded by Doll (1986)to
  • Statement of need, based on assessment
  • Statement of objective
  • Content list and organizational plan
  • Description of learning experiences
  • Evaluation plan
  • Plan to solicit support for the curriculum

The final model that we will look at is the
Ten-Step Curriculum Planning Model.
  • This model first appeared in the NASSP
    Bulletin in 1984 in an article by Zenger and
    Zenger. It is an inclusive, organized approach
    that certainly meets the definition of
    systematic model. It is commonly used in the
    school setting.

The article is not available on the web as a full
text article, therefore, I will mail a copy to
Identify Curricular Need
Evaluate Curriculum
Implement New Curriculum
Ten-Step Curriculum Planning Process Model
Develop Goals and Objectives
Design New Curriculum
Identify Resources and Restraints
Select New Curriculum
Organize Curriculum Committees
Identify New Curriculum
Establish Roles of Personnel
Selecting and Organizing Content
  • Planning curriculum similar to guided tour
  • Various options of how to reach destination
    (broad program goals)
  • Planning itinerary in advance aids in avoidance
    of confusionsaves time
  • Broadest level involves selecting, structuring
    subject matter to be taught to reach broad
    program goals
  • Learning becomes development of a series of
    connections among concepts that hold real meaning
    and relevance for learner

Concepts Defined and Characterized
  • Concept is a key idea, topic, or main thought
  • What a person thinks about a particular subject
    or topic
  • Core and abstract meanings that an individual
    attaches to something

Core of meanings is enmeshed in feelings and
emotions that a person associates with itwords
or symbols used to communicate ideas or concepts
Developing Conceptual Outlines
  • Conceptual Outline product resulting from
    organization of selected concepts into logical
  • Developed for
  • Entire curriculum
  • Specific course
  • Workshop
  • Conference
  • Unit of study
  • presentation
  • First main or key topics identified
  • Second Sub-concepts under main concepts
  • Scope used to denote what subject matter topics
    are to be covered
  • Concepts organized in a sequence
  • Concepts often build upon each other

Steps in Developing Conceptual Outline
  • Brainstorm to generate list of all possible
  • Base list of input factors and accompanying
    implications drawn in relation to the learners
  • Consider time frame
  • Eliminate concepts seen as least importantadd
    others proposed by colleagues or learners
  • Take concepts remaining organize into logical
    sequence of concepts

Principles of Curriculum Organization
  • Use outline format
  • State concepts clearly and concisely
  • List sub-concepts below related concept
  • Provide detail
  • Work from what learners already know, introduce
    new material at appropriate pace and learning
  • Present simple concepts first
  • Present concrete before abstract concepts
  • Take advantage of opportunities to repeat
    concepts in various aspects of curriculum
  • Reassess, adjust conceptual outline as needed

Chapter 3 Chamberlain Cummings, 2003
What is curriculum development and what do
curriculum developers do?
  • Traditionally, curriculum development has been
    seen as planning for a sustained process of
    teaching and learning in a formal institutional
  • Curriculum comes from Latin word for race
  • The curriculum can be likened to a race (or,
    better, obstacle) course through a given terrain
    of human endeavor
  • The assumptions usually are
  • Time is too short to allow for learner
  • The real world is too messy a place for learners
    and other immature people
  • Messy reality needs to be translated into
    schemas and logical orderings (subject matter) so
    immature minds can grasp it quickly and avoid
    wasting time, materials, or injuring the learner
    or others

What is curriculum development and what do
curriculum developers do?
  • Curriculum development always involves
  • Assumptions about the nature of learners (and
  • Assumptions about the purposes of schools
  • Assumptions about what kind of knowledge is
  • Assumptions about what kind of world we live in
  • Assumptions about what kind of world we want to
    live in
  • (Different curriculums and different schools are
    more or less likely to reveal these assumptions)

What are some philosophical questions that come
up in curriculum development?
  • Should children be coddled or pushed?
  • How important is it to achieve uniformity of
    behavior or belief?
  • Should individual differences be exalted or
  • Should students be able to choose what they
  • Should schools seek to change (improve) society
    or sustain it?
  • Should tolerance and understanding outweigh
    nationalism and distrust? (What is the schools
    role in this?)
  • Should everything that is learned have practical
    or economic value?
  • Should schools seek to further parental goals or
    goals defined outside the family?
  • What are the relative values of reading, writing,
    figuring, playing, working, sweating, debating,
    talking, listening, agreeing, disagreeing,
    relaxing, persisting, resisting, conforming,
    participating, expressing, creating,
    problem-solving, thinking, experimenting?

Eight Common Curriculum Design
  • 1. Content-based instruction
  • purpose knowledge, acquisition
  • activity facts, data, and representative form
  • 2. Shell Based Instruction
  • purpose process and manipulation
  • activity practice, ordering application
  • 3. Inquiry Approach
  • purpose awareness, interest
  • activity unknown, sampling
  • 4. Conceptual Learning
  • purpose understanding
  • activity big ideas, familiarity

Eight Common Curriculum Design
  • 5. Interdisciplinary Learning
  • purpose making connection
  • activity application
  • 6. Cooperative Learning
  • purpose coordinating social skills
  • activity group work
  • 7. Problem Solving
  • purpose apply skills
  • activity current events
  • 8. Critical and Creative Thinking
  • purpose construction of new forms
  • activity model building, imagination

  • Plans are like road maps
  • Move learners forward toward important
    goals---improve quality of their lives
  • Goals derived from input factors
  • Curriculum selection
  • Select portions of other available curricula
  • Add new material
  • Rework portions
  • Shape new, up-to-date curriculum

  • Involves multiple levels
  • Block plans for entire year, long-term program,
    or conference
  • Unit plan for respective topics within block plan
  • Daily lesson, session, or workshop plan
  • Plans
  • Concepts
  • Generalizations
  • Objectives
  • Learning experiences
  • Resources
  • Assessment techniques

  • Gather of information to determine
  • Teacher success
  • Learner success
  • Curriculum material success
  • Process involves honest appraisal of both
    strengths and weaknesses of
  • Program
  • Progress as an educator
  • Productlearners knowledge

Assessment Sources
  • Testing procedures
  • Informal non-testing
  • Conversations/input from
  • Advisory board members
  • Parents/guardians
  • Administrators
  • Supervisors
  • Former students
  • Current learners
  • Employers
  • Business leaders
  • Other educators

Using Feedback
  • Once feedback is receiveddetermination of what
    went well and what needs improvement is next
  • Information discovered goes back into the
    curriculum development process
  • Educating is a process of continual change

Steps in Curriculum Development Process
Drawing Implications
Implementing the Plan
Gathering Data from Input Factors
Subject-Matter Trends
Societal Trends
Community Characteristics
Educational Psychology
Using Feedback
Chapter 3 Chamberlain Cummings, 2003
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