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Universe 8e Lecture Chapter 8 Origin of Our Solar System

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Roger A. Freedman William J. Kaufmann III Universe Eighth Edition CHAPTER 8 Comparative Planetology II The Origin of Our Solar System * Figure 8-7 Conservation of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Universe 8e Lecture Chapter 8 Origin of Our Solar System


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Roger A. Freedman William J. Kaufmann III
Universe Eighth Edition
CHAPTER 8 Comparative Planetology II The Origin
of Our Solar System
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HW Chapter 8 Online Quiz due Monday 10/11
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By reading this chapter, you will learn
  • 8-1 The key characteristics of the solar system
    that must be explained by any theory of its
    origins
  • 8-2 How the abundances of chemical elements in
    the solar system and beyond explain the sizes of
    the planets
  • 8-3 How we can determine the age of the solar
    system by measuring abundances of radioactive
    elements
  • 8-4 Why scientists think the Sun and planets all
    formed from a cloud called the solar nebula
  • 8-5 How the solar nebula model explains the
    formation of the terrestrial planets
  • 8-6 Two competing models for the origin of the
    Jovian planets
  • 8-7 How astronomers test the solar nebula model
    by observing planets around other stars

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  • Overestimate of the true age
  • B. Underestimate of the true age

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Key Ideas
  • Models of Solar System Formation The most
    successful model of the origin of the solar
    system is called the nebular hypothesis.
    According to this hypothesis, the solar system
    formed from a cloud of interstellar material
    called the solar nebula.
  • This occurred 4.56 billion years ago (as
    determined by radioactive dating).

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Key Ideas
  • The Solar Nebula and Its Evolution The chemical
    composition of the solar nebula, by mass, was 98
    hydrogen and helium (elements that formed shortly
    after the beginning of the universe) and 2
    heavier elements (produced much later in the
    centers of stars, and cast into space when the
    stars died).
  • The heavier elements were in the form of ice and
    dust particles.

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Key Ideas
  • Formation of the Planets and Sun The terrestrial
    planets, the Jovian planets, and the Sun followed
    different pathways to formation.
  • The four terrestrial planets formed through the
    accretion of dust particles into planetesimals,
    then into larger protoplanets.
  • In the core accretion model, the four Jovian
    planets began as rocky protoplanetary cores,
    similar in character to the terrestrial planets.
    Gas then accreted onto these cores in a runaway
    fashion.

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Key Ideas
  • In the alternative disk instability model, the
    Jovian planets formed directly from the gases of
    the solar nebula. In this model the cores formed
    from planetesimals falling into the planets.
  • The Sun formed by gravitational contraction of
    the center of the nebula. After about 108 years,
    temperatures at the protosuns center became high
    enough to ignite nuclear reactions that convert
    hydrogen into helium, thus forming a true star.

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Key Ideas
  • Extrasolar Planets Astronomers have discovered
    planets orbiting other stars.
  • Most of these planets are detected by the
    wobble of the stars around which they orbit.
  • A small but growing number of extrasolar planets
    have been discovered by the transit method, by
    microlensing, and direct imaging.
  • Most of the extrasolar planets discovered to date
    are quite massive and have orbits that are very
    different from planets in our solar system.
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