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## Numerical Methods

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Title: Numerical Methods

1
Numerical Methods
• Numerical Methods are techniques by with
mathematical problems are
formulated so that they can be solved on
computers
• Powerful analytical methods doesnt yield easily
to non-linear, complex geometrical and high
dimension problems
• Numerical methods are extremely powerful
problem-solving tools. They are capable of
handling large systems of equation,
nonlinearities and complicated geometries
impossible to solve analytically.
• MATLAB and its toolbox contains an extensive
library for solving many practical numerical
problems e.g. root-finding, interpolation,
numerical calculus, solving systems of linear and
non linear equation , Ordinary Differential
equation.

2
Numerical Methods
• Contents
• Solving linear equation of system
• Matrix Factorization/Decomposition Techniques
• Curve fitting and polynomials operations
• Interpolation
• Numerical Integration and Differentiation
• Ordinary Differential Equation
• Non-linear equations

3
Linear Algebra
• Solving a linear system
• 5x 3y - 2z 10
• 8y 4z 3x 20
• 2x 4y - 9z 9
• Cast in standard matrix form
• A x b

4
Linear Equations
• A 5 -3 2 -3 8 4 2 4 -9
• b 10 20 9
• Left Division Method
• x A \ b
• Check solution
• c Ax
• c should be equal to b.

5
Gaussian Elimination
• Pivoting
• C A b augmented matrix
• row reduced echelon form
• Cr rref(C)
• Cr
• 1.0000 0 0 3.4442
• 0 1.0000 0 3.1982
• 0 0 1.0000 1.1868

6
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
• The problem A v ? v
• With pencil-paper, we must solve for
• det (A - ?) 0
• then solve the linear equation
• MATLAB way
• V, D eig(A)
• V,D EIG(X) produces a diagonal matrix D of
eigenvalues and a
• full matrix V whose columns are the corresponding
eigenvectors so that XV VD.

7
Eigenvectors Eigenvalues
8
Interpretation of Eigenvectors Eigenvalues (1)
9
Matrix Factorizations
• LU decomposition
• L, U lu(A)
• such that LU A, L is a lower triangular
matrix,
• U is an upper triangular matrix.

10
Matrix Factorization
• QR factorization Application in Curve fitting,
• Q, R qr(A) mgtn over determined
• If nrank(A) then A?Q,R ? Anxn
• such that QR A Q is orthogonal matrix
,independent row/coloums and R is upper
triangular matrix. QTQ-1, QTQI

11
Matrix factorization
• Singular Value Decomposition
• U, D, V svd(A)
• such that UDV A, where U and V are orthogonal
and D is diagonal matrix Eigen values.
• DSP Blockset
• A 1 1 1 2 -1 2 -1 4 3 4 2 1 3 -3 4
• b 1 2 -1 4 8
• S svd(A)
• U,S,V svd(A)
• USV'

12
Sparse Matrix
• See
• help sparfun
• for detail
• The sparse function generates matrices in the
MATLAB sparse storage organization.
• S sparse(A) converts a full matrix to sparse
form by squeezing out any zero elements. If S is
• A1 0 1 0 2 0 3 3 0
• Ssparse(A)
• is 1 3 2 3 1,js 1 1 2 2 3,as 1 3 2 3 1
• Ssparse(is,js,as) Tabular..

13
Curve Fitting Polyfit Polyval-
• Polynomial curve fitting
• apolyfit(x,y,n)
• do a least-square fit with polynomial of degree
n. x and y are data vectors, and a is
coefficients of the polynomial, a an, an-1, ,
a1, a0
• Store data and perform the fit
• x 1 2 4 5 data
• y 1 2 2 3 data
• c polyfit(x,y,n) n1 degree
• Evaluate and plot the fit with
• xfit0 6
• yfit c(1)xfit c(2) yc(1)x c(2)
• plot(x,y,o ,xfit,yfit,-)
• grid

14
Curve Fitting- Non Linear Functions
• y polyval(a, x)
• compute the value of polynomial at value x
• y a(1) xn a(2) x(n-1) a(n) x
a(n1)
• The Polynomial is evaluated
at x5, 7, and 9 with
• p 3 2 1
• polyval(p,5, 7, 9)
• CURVE FITTING TOOLBOX

15
Curve Fitting- Least Square Fit
Normal Equations Consider the problem Ax?b, where
A is an (m,n) matrix with m?n , rank(A) n, b is
an (m,1) vector, and x is the (n,1) vector, to be
over determined. More equation than unknowns. In
such case exact solution is not obtained
Axb b ?c Least
square provides the solution such that ?

16
Normal Equation Least Square curve Fit
Fit x,y data to x 0.955 1.380 1.854 2.093
2.674 3.006 3.225 3.940 4.060 y5.722 4.812
4.727 4.850 5.011 5.253 5.617 6.2282
6.255 A1./x x Coefficients matrix of
overdetermined system c(AA)\(Ay) Solve
Normal equation xf linspace(min(x),
max(x)) yfc(1)./xf c(2)xf Af1./xf
xf yfAfc plot(x, y,o,xf, yf,-) grid

17
Curve Fit Multivariate Least Square
• Fitting Data to a plane
• The equation can be solve for cs as
• overdetermined
• mgtn

A c Z c Z/A
18
Curve Fit Multivariate Least Square
• clf
• x-414'
• y4 -3 5 -4 1 -3 4 -1 3'
• z18.74 -1.10 19.88 -5.71 6.20 -10.37 4.96 -5.30
1.54'
• Ax y ones(size(x))
• cA\z
• xglinspace(-5,5,10)
• ygxg
• X,Ymeshgrid(xg,yg)
• Zc(1)Xc(2)Yc(3)
• plot3(x,y,z,'k.')
• hold
• surf(X,Y,Z)
• grid
• hold off

19
Polynomials
• Polynomials are widely used in engineering
• How does Matlab represent a polynomial
• How can we use this?

p1 3 -6 -2 7 -12 p p 1 3 -6
-2 7 -12
polyval(p,1) ans -9 polyval(p,-1) ans
-13 polyval(p,3.32) ans 537.4667 polyval(p,0)
ans -12
20
Polynomial Operations
• There are a number of things we might like to do
with polynomials
• find roots roots(p)
• reconstruct from roots poly(p)
• multiplication conv(p1,p2)
• division q,rdeconv(pnum,pdenom)
• derivative polyder(p)
• rational well leave this for an advanced class!
• curvefitting polyfit(x,y,ndeg)

21
Types of Interpolation
• Interpolation involves computing approximate
values between limiting or endpoint values
• constant (zeroth order, nearest neighbor)
• linear
• cubic
• spline
• Equivalent to what is often called table lookup
• Matlab yiinterp1(x,y,xi,method ) function
• x,y are vectors defining the table of values
• xi is the independent variable
• yi is the interpolated result
• method is linear (default), nearest, cubic,
spline
• this function can treat xi,yi as vectors

22
Interpolation
• This example compares different interpolation
methods for 6 points defining a sine function

echo on hold off clf xlinspace(0,2pi,6) ysin(x
) plot(x,y,'or') hold on pause xilinspace(0,2pi
,100) yiinterp1(x,y,xi,'nearest') plot(xi,yi) p
ause yi2interp1(x,y,xi) plot(xi,yi2,'g') pause y
i3interp1(x,y,xi,'cubic') plot(xi,yi3,'k') pause
yi4interp1(x,y,xi,'spline') plot(xi,yi4,'c') pa
use plot(xi,sin(xi),'r') legend('data','nearest',
'linear','cubic','spline','sine') xlabel('X'),
ylabel('Y')
23
2D Interpolation interp2()
• A bivariate function z-sin(x2y2) is interpolated
on the square -1?x ?1, -1?y ?1 using linear and
cubic methods
• x,ymeshgrid(-1 0.251)
• zsin(x.2 y.2)
• xi, yimeshgrid(-10.051)
• ziinterp2(x,y,z,xi,yi,linear)
• surf(xi, yi, zi),title(Bilinear-interpolant to
sin(x2y2))
• ziinterp2(x,y,z,xi,yi,cubic)
• surf(xi, yi, zi),title(Bicubic-interpolant to
sin(x2y2))

24
Numerical Integration
25
Numerical Integration
26
Numerical Differentiation
• .Backward Difference
• .Forward Difference
• .Average of mA and mB
• .diff() function Central Diff.
• x0pi/50pi
• nlength(x)
• tdcos(x)
• ysin(x)- 0.05(rand(1,51)-0.5)
• d1diff(y)./diff(x) Backward Diff.
• subplot(2,1,1), plot(x(2n),
• td(2n),x(2n),d1,o)
• xlabel(x), ylabel(Derivative)
• axis(0 pi 2 2)
• d2(y(3n)-y(1n-2))./(x(3n)-x(1n-2))
• subplot(2,1,2), plot(x(2n-1),
• td(2n-1),x(2n-1), d2,o),xlabel(x),ylabel(De
rivative),
• axis(0 pi 2 2),title(Central Diff.),grid

27
Numerical methods for Root finding
• Numerical methods are recipes that allow us to
solve generic problems, e.g. Root finding
• Bisection, false position, secant method,
Newtons Method
• To use these methods effectively requires we
• Have a basis for comparing between alternatives
• Know when each will and wont work and why
• Study of numerical methods involves
• Development of algorithms
• Study of their properties, e.g. convergence,
stability, etc.

28
Recap - Newtons method
• The iteration formula for Newtons method is
• Can think of Newtons method as a fixed point
iteration scheme with
• The derivative of g(x) is
• Hence for Newtons Method to converge

29
Roots of Polynomials and function
30
Secant methodRoots
General form of iteration equation
31
Secant method .Roots
Point The secant method can be interpreted as
Newtons method with an approximated gradient.

32
Roots .
33
Differential Equations
• Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) arise in
almost every field
• ODEs describe a function y in terms of its
derivatives
• The goal is to solve for y

34
Numerical Solution to ODEs
• In general, only simple (linear) ODEs can be
solved analytically
• Most interesting ODEs are nonlinear, must solve
numerically
• The idea is to approximate the derivatives by
subtraction

35
Matlabs ODE solvers
• Matlab has several ODE solvers
• ode23 and ode45 are standard RK solvers
• ode15s and ode23s are specialized for stiff
problems
• several others, check help ode23 or book

36
Euler Method
37
Euler Method
• Simplest ODE scheme, but not very good
• 1st order, explicit, multi-step solver
• General multi-step solvers

(weighted mean of f evaluated at lots of ts)
38
Runge-Kutta Methods
• Multi-step solvers--each N is computed from N at
several times
• can store previous Ns, so only one evaluation of
f/iteration
• Runge-Kutta Methods multiple evaluations of
f/iteration

39
Ordinary Differentional Equation-ODE
40
ODE Example
41
Example differential equation
General ODE This example is model of an
electronic circuit with a nonlinear vacuum tube,
called van den Pol equation.
42
Example differential equation
• Construct an m-file function for the right-hand
side of

fvdp.m
function dxdt fvdp(t,x) dxdt fvdp(t,x)
van der Pol equation dxdt x(2,) ...
(1-x(1,).2).x(2,)-x(1,)
Solve the ODE in the time span 0lttlt10 t,x
ode45(fvdp,0,10,20) plot(t,x) plot(x(,1),
x(,2))
43
OPTIONAL MATERIAL Solving ODEs
• Matlab includes a number of functions to solve
Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs),
including Initial Value Problems (IVPs),
Boundary Value Problems (BVPs) and Partial
Differential Equations (PDE)
• Lets consider a simple IVP in the form of a
familiar ODE (an sdof vibration problem)
• Matlabs ode23() and ode(45) functions use the
Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method to solve ODEs
expressed as

This is advanced material you will cover in your
next math classes. Matlab will be there when you
need it!
44
Solving an ODE setup
• We can convert an Nth order ODE into N first
order ODEs using a simple algorithm
• In more compact forms

or
45
Matlab ode45( ) Syntax
gtgt help ode45 ODE45 Solve non-stiff
differential equations, medium order method.T,Y
ODE45(ODEFUN,TSPAN,Y0) with TSPAN T0 TFINAL
integrates the system of differential equations
y' f(t,y) from time T0 to TFINAL with initial
conditions Y0. Function ODEFUN(T,Y) must return a
column vector corresponding to f(t,y). Each row
in the solution array Y corresponds to a time
returned in the column vector T. To obtain
solutions at specific times T0,T1,...,TFINAL (all
increasing or all decreasing), use TSPAN T0 T1
... TFINAL. (truncated)
• T,Y are the returned values and each row
defines a value of t where the solution is
computed along with the corresponding solutions,
yi , in successive columns.
• But we need to provide a function to compute
f(t,y) whenever ode45( ) needs it
• We also need to specify the start and end times
and initial conditions in the arguments to ode45(
)

46
rhs( ) function for ode45( )
• m-function will compute f(t,y) for ode45( )
• returns the RHS column vector

NOTEIf you need to pass parameter values to
compute the RHS (e.g, zeta or g(t)), these can be
added to the ode45( ) function call (see help
ode45)
47
Solving the Problem
See help ode45 for more options
gtgt tt,yyode45('rhs', 0 35,1 0') gtgt whos
Name Size Bytes Class tt
205x1 1640 double array yy
205x2 3280 double array Grand total
is 615 elements using 4920 bytes gtgt
plot(tt,yy(,1))
You supply this m-function
• Note the sizes of the returned variables
• You can plot either column of yy as needed
• How would you construct a phase plane plot (e.g.,
y versus y)?

48
A More Interesting RHS
• Note how g(t) is formed here

Result is familiar square pulse with ringing
oscillations
49
Best thing to do is to go through an example
2nd order, constant coefficient, linear
differential equation
Response to a step command
50
Get an equivalent block diagram for the system
use mouse to drag blocks into the model window
and to connect blocks with arrows
use integrators to get dy/dt and y
51
52
53
54
Now, double click the blocks to open and set the
blocks parameters
set gain value
set initial condition
set variable name
set output format to array
55
To set the simulation parameters.
select Simulation -gt Simulation Parameters
set Start and Stop time (in seconds)
set numerical integration type
56
Time to run the simulation
click the run button to begin the simulation
when the simulation is complete, Ready appears
at the bottom
57
Simulink will automatically save a variable named
tout to the workspace.
This variable contains the time values used in
the simulation, important for variable time
integration types
Simulink also will create the output variable(s)
you specified
58
plot(tout,yoft)
graph of the step response
59
Another approach to solving the 2nd order single
DOF problem, is to cast it as a 1st order 2 DOF
problem
In Matrix (or State Space) form.
60
1st Order State-Space Models
61
Multi Input Multi Output Systems
use Mux and Demux blocks to combine and extract
vector signals
specify number of signals
62
Non-Linear Function
63
Non-Linear Function
64
Non-Linear Function
65
Non-Linear Function
66
END