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Acculturation in Psychology: From psychological anthropology to cultural psychology


Acculturation in Psychology: From psychological anthropology to cultural psychology Dr. R. G. Tonks Camosun College March 26th 2002 Acculturation in Psychology: From ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Acculturation in Psychology: From psychological anthropology to cultural psychology

Acculturation in PsychologyFrom psychological
anthropology to cultural psychology
  • Dr. R. G. Tonks Camosun CollegeMarch 26th 2002

Acculturation in PsychologyFrom psychological
anthropology to cultural psychology
  • Overview of systems in psychology
  • From the early days of psychology culture to
    contemporary studies
  • Cross-Cultural Psychology
  • Cultural Psychology
  • An Eriksonian interpretation of identity and

Systems of Psychology
  • Classic styles of the history of psychology
    involve examining the systems or paradigms of
  • Beyond the various specific theories and
    perspectives two broad worldviews are present.

Two worldviews Tonks (1997)
  • Natural Science
  • Objective
  • Deductive Explanation (Erklaren)
  • Literal
  • Univocal Laws
  • Universal(Etic)
  • Human Science
  • Subjective
  • Interpretive Understanding (Verstehen)
  • Expressive
  • Equivocal Pluralism
  • Contextual (Emic)

Experimental-Behavioristic vs. Humanistic from
Staats (1987)
  • Experimental
  • Objective events
  • Atomistic
  • Laboratory
  • General (nomothetic)
  • Precision Measurement
  • Prediction Control
  • Humanistic
  • Subjective events
  • Holistic
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Individual(idiographic)
  • Qualitative Description
  • Understanding

Staats cont
  • Scientific Determinism
  • Mechanistic in Causation
  • Passive Respondent
  • Conditioning Modification
  • Valueless Science
  • Self-Determination Freedom
  • Spontaneity in Causation
  • Originality, Creativity Activity
  • Self-actualization Personal Growth
  • Values in Science

Two Psychologies of culture
  • Cross-cultural studies the causal
    relationships to behaviour and cultural
    experience, with a focus on the
    generalisability(Berry et al., 1992)
  • Cultural principles
  • Mediation through artifacts
  • Historical Development
  • Practical Activity(Cole, 1996)

The early years and beyond
  • Many views present at the turn of 20th century
    including . . .
  • Psychological Anthropology
  • Völkerpsychologie
  • Cross-cultural psychology
  • Indigenous Psychologies
  • Cultural Psychology

Psychological Anthropology
  • Edward Burnet Tylor (1832-1917) proposed a
    quantitative approach to the study of
    institutions by looking at their common features
  • William Halse Rivers (1864-1922) Studied sensory
    functioning in "primitives" and refuted theory of
    superior sensory acuity

  • Lazarus Steinthal (1860) Journal of
    Folk-Psychology and Philology
  • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Historical studies of
    language, custom, myth, art, tools - Four Ages
    of Mankind
  • Frans Boas (1858-1942) historical
    environmental influences on art and mythology,
    language and thought.

Indigenous Approaches
  • Malinowski (1884-1942) - need to take the
    natives perspective.
  • Heelas Lock (1981)Indigenous Psychologies The
    anthropology of the self.
  • Kim Berry (1993) Indigenous psychologies
    Research and experience in cultural context

Cross-Cultural Psychology
  • Price-Williams (1979) identifies the roots of
    Cross-cultural psychology in anthropology but
    distinguishes it from sociology with an emphasis
    on the impact of the social setting on the
  • Berry et al. (1992) identify Cross-Cultural
    psychology with the following goals

Berry et al. (1992) cont
  • Test and transport testing theories and
    hypotheses as universal etics
  • Explore and Discover in overcoming testing
    failures find new phenomena
  • Integrate bring together various studies to
    establish a universal theory of psychology
    explaining similarities and differences

Berrys Acculturation Model
  • Anthropological Roots
  • Based upon Multicultural Ideology
  • Framework - fourfold classification
  • Related Characteristics

Inroads from Anthropology
  • Redfield, Linton and Herskovits (1936)
  • Acculturation "those phenomena which result
    when groups of individuals having different
    cultures come into continuous first-hand contact,
    with subsequent changes in the original cultural
    patterns of either or both groups" (p. 149,
    italics added).

Berrys Multicultural Ideology
  • Political activism in Australia
  • Trudeaus 1971 multicultural policy
  • The assumptions for positive identity
  • 1 maintenance of cultural traditions
  • 2 fostering of positive inter-group contact
  • 3 development of tolerance for diversity
  • 4 learning of the two official languages

The policyintends to ...
The Frameworktradition maintenance other group
  • Yes to maintenanceYes to contact
  • Integration
  • Yes to maintenanceNo to Contact
  • Separation
  • No to maintenanceYes to contact
  • Assimilation
  • No to maintenanceNo to contact
  • Deculturation
  • Marginalisation

Related Characteristics
  • Integration almost universally demonstrates a
    "substantial relationship with positive
    adaptation" (1997, p. 24). . . And "integration
    seems to be the most effective strategy if we
    take long term health and well-being as
    indicators"(Schmitz cited in Berry, 1997, p. 25).

. . . Continued . . .
  • Marginalisation consistently is found to be least
    successful in positive adaptation (Berry, 1997
    Sam Berry, 1996).
  • Acculturative Stress has been characterised as
    one form of stress that is due to challenges in
    the process of acculturation...

Acculturative Stress
  • lowered mental health status (especially
    anxiety, depression), feelings of marginality and
    alienation, heightened psychosomatic symptom
    level, and identity confusion. (Berry et al.,
    1992, p. 284).
  • Found to be higher amongst involuntary migrants,
    nomadic peoples, women, more aged, middle

Acculturation Identity
  • Bridging Berrys model with Marcias
  • Traditional Cross-cultural approach
  • Methodological concerns
  • Applying the acculturation model to the
    cultures of psychology

Ego-identity Framework
  • Yes to search
  • Yes to Commitment
  • Achievement
  • Yes to search
  • No to commitment
  • Moratorium
  • No to Search
  • Yes to Commitment
  • Foreclosure
  • No to search
  • No to commitment
  • Diffusion

  • SubjectsSample contained 111 females and 29
  • Mean age was 21.37 years SD 3.07
  • Mean years in Canada were 16.97, SD 7.42
  • Measures include updated version of Berrys
    questionnaire (20 culture domains)
  • EOMEIS-II - paper and pencil version of Marcias
    ego-identity interview
  • Jean Phinneys (1992) Ethnic Identity Development

Scale Means
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Methodological Challenges
  • Questionnaire form of EOMEIS-II doesnt clearly
    distinguish Moratorium from Diffusion
  • Participants expressed concern over double-
    barreled nature of acculturation questions

The Cultural Critique
  • Misra Gergen (1993) critique Cross-cultural
    psychology indicating that it is about variables,
    not culture and imposes western etic dimensions
  • Carl Ratner (1997) similarly suggests that it
    involves Fragmentation (atomism) and Qualitative
    Invariance (reduction of qualitative differences
    to quantities)

Acculturation of Psychologists
  • Paranjpe (1993) indicates that the debate between
    cross-cultural psychologists and cultural
    psychologists parallels the conflict over culture
    facing people in acculturation.
  • Tonks (1996) follows this up, suggesting that an
    integrative approach might best serve both
    psychology and the individuals performing
    research on psychology culture (i.e., Berry

An Integrative Approach
  • Drawing from both traditions
  • General Approach to find common themes and
    predictive trends
  • Specific Approach to find greater meaning and
    personal experience

Metropolis Study on Immigrant Youth Identity
  • Participants 53 immigrant youth ages 15 - 25
    with a mean age of 19.9 years from a variety of
    countries of origin.
  • Measures Immigrant Identity Interviewenables
    exploration of identity and acculturative styles
    along with stress and adjustment.
  • Quantitative and Qualitative

History Making of Identity
  • Built on Eriksons notion of identityA sense of
    identity means being at one with oneself as one
    grows and develops and it means, at the same
    time, a sense of affinity with a community's
    sense of being at one with its future as well as
    its history--or mythology (1974, pp. 27-28,
    italics added)

Hermeneutical methods
  • Case history making through clinical interview
    methods. Using disciplined subjectivity and
    grounding of case in community history and
  • Rennie (1999) Grounded theory uses
  • Hermeneutics
  • Sociology of knowledge
  • Qualitative criteria

Elliot, Fischer Rennie (1999)
  • Provide a number of criteria, including
  • Owning one's perspective
  • Situating the sample
  • Grounding in examples
  • Coherence
  • Resonating with readers

  • 36 females 17 males from
  • Hong Kong (23)
  • Taiwan (16)
  • Asia (8)
  • World (6)

Age, Residence and Arrival vs. Acculturative
Correlations among Stress Arrival, Residence
  • Vivian reported moderate (7) stress at arrival
    due to loss of friends, 2 years later (10)
  • "I start dating my boyfriend at age 15. My mom
    get really, really, really crazy because my dad
    not living here. Kind of like there is a major
    problem . . . .mom like say kill me. She hate me
    so much she can't control herself. And there is
    times that I don't want to go home. I left home.
    I cry so many times. I find that while I still
    live here, I hate it here so much, and my mom too
    I think she gets so depressed, cause that time my
    mom didnt get work. She stay home all the time.
    Like she has nothing to do.

  • Tony (age 14) reported great stress at arrival
    (9.5)"I didn't that I feel belong to both
    groups. . . But I totally didn't feel I
    belonged to the Canadian . . . that is one of
    the most difficult time for me because you really
    don't feel like you belong anywhere I always
    missed my friends back in Taiwan. I missed them a
    lot. And I felt troubled that I couldnt
    understand why that I didnt have friends here. I
    guess one reason I acknowledge now is that I was
    too young. There was just too many things that I
    didnt do now. I guess coming here at that young
    age, facing that kind of problem, I think would
    be difficult for most people. And of course there
    is so many other Asians living right here, I
    found that people find different ways to cope
    with that problem. Some of them sticks to their
    own groups, some of them who came a lot earlier
    dont feel that transition as much as people who
    came at my age. And I mean there was a lot of

Percentage of people for Birth Place vs.
Percentage of people for Birth Place vs.
Mean Age of Arrival Residence across Birth Place
Mean Age of Arrival Residence across Family Type
Mean Other Stress across Family Type
  • Vivian talks about her mother She stay home
    all the time. Like she has nothing to do.
  • Like I talked to my dad like for many times but
    still like the problem wouldnt solve that much.
    But like as times go by, I think it take like one
    to two years for our family to get more easier,
    get like, I dont know how to say it but that
    time is just so dramatic. I dont know how I
    handle it. . . . Yeah, very difficult.
  • Yeah, when I get older and when she accept me
    that I have a boyfriend. I still have my

  • Marcus reports on his involuntary migration as
    part of a satellite familyWell, pretty bad .
    . . Its not about like, like its two fold
    right. One is that my parents didnt listen to
    me, didnt listen to my feelings. Thats one
    thing because Ive been living in Hong Kong for
    eighteen years and then . . . like they sent me
    here. Um, by that time I was really unsure about
    this place and also I was worried because I
    didnt know whether I can get use to this life.
  • That was one major problem because in particular
    like, well my parents, well I will respect them
    but I wasnt very close with them because I was
    raised by a nanny. So....I usually talk to my
    friends and stuff and more than my family.

  • Marcus reports feeling
  • "just depressed. . . Well, feeling not like I
    very much want to go out because I don't know the
    place. . . Well, I got depressed, I got depressed
    for other reasons now. . . Im not just like
    exaggerating. Im more pessimistic person laugh
    . . . . feeling negative all the time because
    things are not that good . . . . I still feel shy
    especially in class . . . I feel like
    uncomfortable just to say it out loud, like
    drawing peoples attention because I think its
    interrupting other people. . . . Thats why I
    think its important to know about English. That
    makes you a lot more confident about yourself."

Mean Stress Symptoms by Stress Reported
  • Helen reported having a boyfriend, a fact that
    her mother was enraged by. Her symptoms included
  • Losing hair was the main thing. And I was
    actually scared that I was going to be bald.
    laugh. Not that bad but then when you wash your
    hair you think, wow this is too much. Actually,
    now its getting back and I have really thick
    hair and but I just lost almost half of it when
    I came here.
  • Language (ESL) was also a great stress for her as
    she reports that ...

  • Basically I can say the counsellor wrecked my
    life because he wouldnt look at my problems and
    I go into, I got into all regular classes just
    because my English teacher was a horrible teacher
    and he even criticised me by telling me that my
    English level in only in grade three. For me,
    English was my strongest subject in Hong Kong. I
    cant say Im really good but among a lot of
    student, Im seventh position out of two hundred
    and thirty eight so that is not really bad over
  • Then he put me into what they call communication
    English, you cant go into university directly if
    you have that English because that is not ESL but
    its like not as higher level English. And so
    that is why right after high school I felt
    depressed and Im like Im not gonna ever get
    into university.

  • . . . and then my parents was really upset
    cause for them university is a big thing. They
    think the only reason why I am bringing you here
    is to get a better education, to get a better
    life. Not only a better life, but like want you
    to become a better person. And if you cant get
    into university and definitely I will be
    depressed, I will be a worse person laugh and
    my lifestyle is gonna be not as good. And
    basically for them, its a mistake for bringing
    you over here.
  • And one very thing for Chinese parents is
    theyll never blame anyone else but their kids.
    If you say this teacher is a whatever, then
    theyll say, it must be you being bad. It must
    be you, not hard working enough. Thats why you
    get a c or d.

Mean Stress Symptoms by Person Talked to on bad
  • Suni reports "I dont tell anybody of my bad
    things . . . I dont do anything. I just have to
    sit there and clear my mind. Thats all I do. Or
    when I am stressed sometimes, I get angry for
    some reason. Like anything that makes me feel
    bad, I turn it into anger. And then I just like
    slam doors, yell at people. Like I wouldnt yell
    at my friends. I would take it out on my family.
    Like even if my dad asked me like an innocent
    question like, what are you going to be doing
    today? Im like I dont know!!!
  • I feel bad, I do. And I still do that. Im very
    irritable. I really dont know why. You can ask
    anybody in my family like they will know it
    shes really moody

  • Mary (19) from Taiwan also reports that "I
    just keep to myself" and that the most stressful
    sources is "the control from my relatives and my
    parents and school work." She experiences some
    trouble sleeping.
  • Diana (20) from Britain has lived in Canada for 8
    years and reports having had severe ulcers when
    she was younger, not long after she first moved
    here. She Reports

  • "I can say it to myself, like I know if something
    is going wrong, like, 'this is not right,' but I
    dont, like I would never tell my sister that
    something is going wrong. Were pretty close but
    I wouldnt go tell her something is going wrong.
    I would never tell my parents. I might tell (?)
    depending on what it was that was going on.
  • Thats an English trait I think. I dont think
    that British people talk about their feelings
    very much. So But if something is going wrong,
    you wouldnt admit it if you were English,
    privately to anybody.
  • No, I dont, if things go wrong I dont tell
  • she responds to the following question

  • Q So what would you do, just sort of think
    about it?
  • Keep it inside. I had ulcers laugh for a long
  • After recovering from that earlier bout with
    stress she has adopted techniques to combat it,
    including writing it out and exercise, and she
    says that
  • "I think as I am becoming more Canadian, umI
    talk more about that kind of stuff. But I still
    find it really hard to say something is going
    wrong. I do."

Gender Percentages reporting language mean
other stress