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Building automation (intelligent building system)

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Title: Building automation (intelligent building system)


1
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2
Building automation (intelligent building system)
  • Building automation describes the functionality
    provided by the control system of a building.
  • The Building Automation system (BAS) is a
    computerized, intelligent network of electronic
    devices, designed to monitor and control the
    mechanical and lighting systems in a building.
  • The BAS functionality reduces building energy and
    maintenance costs when compared to a
    non-controlled building.

3
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4
The primary and secondary bus can be BACnet,
optical fiber, ethernet, ARCNET (an acronym from
Attached Resource Computer NETwork) , RS-232,
RS-485 or a wireless network. BACnet was
designed to allow communication of building
automation and control systems for applications
such as heating, ventilating, and
air-conditioning control, lighting control,
access control, and fire detection systems and
their associated equipment. LonTalk is a protocol
created by Echelon Corporation for networking
devices.
5
  • The BACnet protocol provides mechanisms for
    computerized building automation devices to
    exchange information, regardless of the
    particular building service they perform.
  • Analog inputs are used to read a variable
    measurement. Analog outputs control the speed or
    position of a device, such as a variable
    frequency drive or a valve or damper actuator.
  • A digital input indicates if a device is turned
    on or not. Digital outputs are used to open and
    close relays and switches.

6
Infrastructure
  • Controllers are essentially small, purpose-built
    computers with input and output capabilities.
  • Inputs allow a controller to read temperatures,
    humidity, pressure, current flow, air flow, and
    other essential factors. The outputs allow the
    controller to send command and control signals to
    slave devices, and to other parts of the system.
  • Controllers used for building automation can be
    grouped in 3 categories. Programmable Logic
    Controllers (PLCs), System/Network controllers,
    and Terminal Unit controllers.

7
  • PLC's provide the most responsiveness and
    processing power.
  • System/Network controllers may be applied to
    control one or more mechanical systems such as an
    Air Handler Unit (AHU), boiler, chiller, etc.
  • Terminal Unit controllers usually are suited for
    control of lighting and/or simpler devices such
    as a package rooftop unit, heat pump, VAV box, or
    fan coil, etc.

8
Occupancy (Operating Mode)
  • Occupancy is one of 2 or more operating modes for
    a building automation system. Unoccupied, Morning
    Warm up, and Night-time Setback are other common
    modes. In Occupancy mode, the BAS aims to
    provides a comfortable climate and adequate
    lighting. Some buildings rely on occupancy
    sensors to activate lighting and/or climate
    conditioning.
  • The BAS often factors in outdoor conditions and
    historical experience. An override is a
    manually-initiated command to the BAS.

9
Lighting
  • Lighting can be turned on and off with a building
    automation system based on time of day, or on
    occupancy sensors, photosensors and timers. A
    photocell placed outside a building can sense
    darkness, and the time of day, and modulate
    lights in outer offices and the parking lot.

10
Alarms and security
  • Many building automation systems have alarm
    capabilities. If an alarm is detected, it can be
    programmed to notify someone. Notification can be
    through a computer, pager, cellular phone, or
    audible alarm.
  • Common temperature alarms
  • Differential pressure switches on the filter
    to determine if it is dirty.
  • Status alarms. This can indicate a mechanical
    failure.
  • Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide sensors
  • Current sensors Refrigerant sensors

11
  • Some sites are programmed so that critical alarms
    are automatically re-sent at varying intervals,
    if power failures. A repeating critical alarm (of
    a uninterruptible power supply in 'by pass')
    might resound at 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and
    every 2 to 4 hours there after until the alarms
    are resolved.
  • Security systems can be interlocked to a building
    automation system.
  • Fire and smoke alarm systems can be hard-wired to
    override building automation.

12
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13
Smart Home
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14
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  • 1930?? -- ?????? (home automation)?
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15
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16
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    ogy)??????????? (Aware Home for Aging in Place)
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17
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18
Bill Gates House, Medina, Washington
  • 1,000 Million US,?? 6 ? 6 ????? (6,100 m2,
    ?2000?)
  • designed by James Cutler
  • The house occupies 50,000 square feet on 5.15
    acre land. Garage space and outbuildings occupy
    an additional 16,000 square feet
  • A 17 60 foot (5.1 18.2 metre) swimming pool,
    which has an underwater music system and a
    fossil-motif floor
  • Swimmers can dive under a glass wall and emerge
    outdoors by a terrace

19
  • Lights automatically come on when you enter a
    room
  • Speakers are hidden beneath the wallpaper to
    allow music to follow from room to room
  • Visitors to the residence are surveyed and given
    a microchip upon entrance. This small chip sends
    signals throughout the house, and a given rooms
    temperature and other conditions will change
    according to preset user preferences

20
  • grand staircase
  • large private library with a domed reading room
  • formal dining room
  • exercise room
  • outdoor sports courts
  • Property records indicate eight bedrooms and four
    building levels

21
  • Much of the Bill Gates house is built underground
    into the hill, so the house looks smaller than it
    actually is.
  • The beach sand on the bank of the lake is not
    from Lake Washington, it is barged in annually
    from a tropical beach in St. Lucia
  • The wood columns from main floor to roof in entry
    area are over 70 feet tall
  • Some of the interior passage doors weigh over 800
    lbs, but are balanced for easy use
  • The roofing is stainless steel

22
  • Hidden cameras are everywhere, including the
    interior stone walls
  • Gates insisted on saving a 40 year old maple
    adjacent to the driveway. The tree is monitored
    electronically 24 hours per day via computer. If
    it seems dry, it gets just the right amount of
    water automatically delivered
  • All woodwork is flawless. Much of the woodwork is
    of various rare types from all over the world -
    imported especially for this house
  • The theater (underground in a concrete shell) is
    the most state of the art theatre in the world
    according to specialty contractor

23
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24
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25
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26
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27
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28
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31
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32
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33
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39
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40
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