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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory

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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Chapter 5: Account Management MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory * Global Groups A ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory


1
MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows
Server 2008 Active Directory
  • Chapter 5 Account Management

2
Objectives
  • Explain how to manage user accounts
  • Work with user profiles
  • Describe factors in managing group accounts
  • Work with computer accounts
  • Describe tools for automating account management

2
3
Managing User Accounts
  • User accounts have two main functions in AD
  • Provide a method for user authentication to the
    network
  • Provide detailed information about a user
  • Windows machines not part of a domain store
    accounts in the Security Accounts Manager (SAM)
    database on the local machine
  • User accounts created in AD are referred to as
    domain user accounts. These accounts can usually
    log on to any computer thats in the AD forest.

4
Managing User Accounts (cont.)
  • Following guidelines apply to the built-in
    Administrator account
  • Local administrator account has full access to
    all aspects of a computer, while domain
    administrator account has full access to all
    aspects of the domain
  • Default Administrator account should be renamed
    and given a strong password
  • Administrator account should only be used while
    performing administrative operations
  • Administrator account can be renamed or disabled
    but not deleted

5
Managing User Accounts (cont.)
  • Following guidelines apply to the built-in Guest
    account
  • Guest account is disabled by default after
    install, and must be enabled before it can be
    used for log on
  • Guest account can have a blank password
  • Should be renamed if it is to be used
  • Account has limited access to a computer or
    domain, but does have access to any resource for
    which the Everyone group has permission

6
Creating and Modifying User Accounts
  • When creating a user account in an Active
    Directory domain, keep the following
    considerations in mind
  • User accounts must be unique throughout the
    domain
  • Account names arent case sensitive, and can be
    from 1 to 20 characters, and can use letters,
    numbers, and special characters (with some
    exceptions)
  • Develop a standard naming convention. (Example
    John Doe, j.doe)
  • By default, complex passwords are required.
    Passwords are case sensitive
  • Defaults only require a logon name and password
    to create a valid user (with DSADD), but
    additional information should be provided to
    facilitate AD searches

7
Creating and Modifying User Accounts (cont.)
  • When you use AD Users and Computers to add users,
    you must enter a value for the following
    attributes
  • Full name
  • User logon name
  • User logon name (pre-Windows 2000)
  • Password and Confirm Password
  • User must change password at next logon
  • User cannot change password
  • Password never expires
  • Account is disabled

8
Using User Templates
  • A user template is simply a user account thats
    copied to create users with common attributes
  • Tips for creating user templates
  • Create one template account for each department
    or OU
  • Disable the template account to eliminate
    security risks
  • Add an underscore or other special character to
    the beginning of a template accounts name to
    make it easy to recognize
  • Fill in as many common attributes as you can so
    that after the account is created, less
    customizing is necessary
  • Not all attributes can be copied, creating some
    limitations

9
Modifying Multiple Users
  • Selecting multiple users using ctrl click or
    shift click allows them all to be edited
    simultaneously
  • Following actions can be performed
  • Add to a group
  • Disable account
  • Enable account
  • Move
  • Send Mail
  • Cut
  • Delete
  • Properties

10
Understanding Account Properties
  • Some account changes can be made only by right
    clicking a user account or using the action menu
    of AD Users and Computers
  • Reset a password
  • Rename an account
  • Move an account Accounts / AD objects can be
    moved with one of three methods
  • Right click the user and click move
  • Right click the user and click cut
  • Drag the user from one container to another

11
The General Tab
  • Contains descriptive information about the
    account, but does not affect the users account
    logon, group memberships, rights, or permissions.
    Fields worth mentioning
  • Display name
  • Same as the CN when account is first created
  • E-mail
  • Can be used to send an E-mail to the user using
    the default mail application
  • Web page
  • Can contain a URL and allows you to open the
    specified URL by right-clicking the user account

12
The Account Tab
  • Contains the information that most affects a
    users logon to the domain
  • User logon name and User logon name (pre-Windows
    2000)
  • Logon Hours
  • Log On To
  • Unlock account
  • Account options
  • Store password using reversible encryption
  • Smart card is required for interactive logon
  • Account is sensitive and cannot be delegated
  • Account expires

13
The Profile Tab
  • Used to specify the location of files that make
    up a users profile, a logon script, and the
    location of a home folder
  • Profile path
  • Vista or Server 2008 has the profile in the
    C\Users\username directory
  • Windows XP uses C\Documents and
    Settings\username
  • Logon Script
  • Will run a script when user logs on
  • Preferred to use group policy, but Windows NT and
    9x cant use group policies
  • Home folder
  • Can be a local path or a drive letter that points
    to a network share

14
The Member Of Tab
  • Lists groups the user belongs to
  • Can be used to change group memberships
  • Set Primary Group button is needed only when a
    user is logging in to a Macintosh, Unix, or Linux
    client computer

15
Terminal Services Tabs
  • Settings in these tabs affect a users session
    and connection properties when connecting to a
    Windows Server 2008 Terminal Services server
  • Terminal Services Profile
  • Remote Control
  • Environment
  • Sessions

16
Using Contacts and Distribution Lists
  • A contact is an Active Directory object that
    usually represents a person for informational
    purposes only
  • Most common use of a contact is for integration
    into Microsoft Exchanges address book
  • Distribution lists are created in the same way as
    groups
  • Distribution lists are also used with Microsoft
    Exchange to send e-mails, but to several people
    at once

17
Working with User Profiles
  • A user profile is a collection of a users
    personal files and settings that define his or
    her working environment
  • Some key folders in a users profile (N/A denotes
    that folder doesnt exist in Windows XP)
  • AppData (N/A)
  • Desktop
  • Documents (My Documents)
  • Downloads (N/A)
  • Favorites
  • Music (My Music)
  • Pictures (My Pictures)
  • Ntuser.dat

18
Working with User Profiles (cont.)
  • A local profile is a user profile stored on the
    same system where the user logs on
  • Local profiles are created from a default profile
    when the user first logs on to a specific machine
  • Changes on one local profile will not migrate to
    another local profile on another machine
  • For consistent profiles that reflect changes made
    on multiple machines, use roaming profiles

19
Roaming Profiles
  • A roaming profile follows the user no matter
    which computer he or she logs on to.
  • Profile is copied from a network share when the
    user logs on to a computer in the network
  • Creates a local copy of the roaming profile,
    called a profiles cached copy
  • Changes made to the profile are then replicated
    from locally cached copy back to the profile on
    the network share when the user logs off

20
Roaming Profiles (cont.)
  • The roaming profile is created from one of two
    locations
  • The NETLOGON share
  • The Default profile on the local system
  • To customize the default roaming profile
  • Create a user with a local profile
  • Log on to a system as the user you created
  • Customize your environment
  • Log off and log on as Administrator
  • Use Control Panels User Profiles applet to copy
    the users profile to the NETLOGON share on your
    domain controller in a folder named Default
    User.V2

21
Configuring Roaming Profiles
  • Two parts to configuring roaming profiles
  • Configuring a shared folder to hold roaming
    profiles
  • Configuring each user accounts properties to
    specify the roaming profiles location
  • The default or existing local profile will be
    copied to the roaming profile
  • Folder with users logon name and .V2 are created
    automatically with appropriate permissions
  • .V2 distinguishes a roaming profile from a
    pre-Vista roaming profile

22
Mandatory Profiles
  • Used when you dont want users to be able to
    change their profile, or only have the ability to
    make temporary changes
  • Commonly used in situations where a common logon
    is assigned for multiple users
  • Works like a roaming profile, but changes made to
    the profile will not be copied to the server

23
Super Mandatory Profiles
  • Normal mandatory profiles will allow using a
    temporary profile based on the default profile,
    should the roaming or mandatory profile be
    unavailable due to network issues
  • Super mandatory profiles prevent a user from
    logging on to the domain when the mandatory
    profile is unavailable

24
Managing Profiles
  • Profiles can be managed in the User Profiles
    dialog box with these three buttons
  • Change Type
  • Delete
  • Copy To
  • Many aspects of a users profile can be managed
    by using group policies

25
The Cost of Roaming Profiles
  • Profiles can become bloated
  • If a profile is detected to be newer on a server
    than the version of the profile on the machine a
    user is logging into, the whole profile must be
    copied. The reverse is also true, if the profile
    on the local machine should prove to be more up
    to date
  • Some problems caused by roaming profiles can be
    reduced by folder redirection

26
Group Types
  • A distribution group is used to group users
    together mainly for sending e-mails to several
    people at once with an Active Directory
    integrated e-mail application, such as Microsoft
    Exchange
  • Can have the following objects as members
  • User accounts
  • Contacts
  • Other distribution groups
  • Security groups
  • Computers

27
Group Types (cont.)
  • Security groups are the main AD object
    administrators use to manage network resource
    access and grant rights to users
  • Can contain the same types of objects as
    distribution groups
  • If a contact is part of a security group that is
    assigned permissions to a resource, the contact
    does not make use of the permissions because a
    contact is not a security principal

28
Converting Group Type
  • Group type can be changed from security to
    distribution and vice versa
  • Only security groups can be added to a DACL if a
    security group is converted to a distribution
    group, the entry will remain in a DACL, but it
    has no effect on access to the resource
  • Converting group types is not commonly done

29
Group Scope
  • Group scope determines the reach of a groups
    application in a domain or a forest
  • Three group scope options are possible in a
    Windows Server 2008 forest
  • Domain local
  • Global
  • Universal
  • Fourth scope called local applies only to groups
    created in the SAM database of a member computer
    or stand-alone computer

30
Group Scope
31
Domain Local Groups
  • A domain local group is the main security
    principal recommended for assigning rights and
    permissions to domain resources
  • Global and Universal groups can be used for same
    purpose, but Microsoft best practices recommend
    using these groups to aggregate users with
    similar access or rights requirements

32
Domain Local Groups (cont.)
  • In a single domain environment, or when users
    from only one domain are assigned access to a
    resource, use AGDLP
  • Accounts are made members of
  • Global groups, which are made members of
  • Domain Local groups, which are assigned
  • Permissions to resources

33
Domain Local Groups (cont.)
  • In multidomain environments where users from
    different domains are assigned access to a
    resource, use AGGUDLP
  • Accounts are made members of
  • Global groups, which when necessary are nested in
    other
  • Global groups, which are made members of
  • Universal groups, which are then made members of
  • Domain Local groups, which are assigned
  • Permissions to resources

34
Global Groups
  • A global group is used mainly to group users from
    the same domain with similar access or rights
    requirements
  • Considered global because it can be made a member
    of a domain local group in any domain in the
    forest or trusted domains in other forests
  • Global groups are easier to manage than creating
    domain local groups, especially if dealing with
    an organization that has multiple departments
    needing access to a single resource
  • Global groups scale better than domain local
    groups

35
Global Groups
Use global groups to aggregate users and add
those groups to domain local groups easier to
manage.
36
Universal Groups
  • A universal group can contain users from any
    domain in the forest and be assigned permission
    to resources in any domain in the forest
  • Universal groups membership information is
    stored only on global catalog servers
  • Universal group membership changes require
    replication to all global catalog servers

37
Local Groups
  • A local group is created in the local SAM
    database on a member server or workstation or a
    stand-alone computer
  • When a computer joins a domain, Windows changes
    the membership of two local groups automatically
  • Administrators Domain Admin global group added
  • Users Domain users global group added
  • Local groups can have the following account types
    as members
  • Local user accounts
  • Domain user accounts
  • Domain local groups
  • Global or universal groups

38
Nesting Groups
  • Involves making a group a member of another group
  • Group scopes membership rules must be followed
  • Usually used to group users who have similar
    roles but work in different departments

39
Converting Group Scope
  • Group scope can be converted, with some
    restrictions
  • Universal to domain local, provided its not a
    member of another universal group
  • Universal to global, provided no universal group
    is a member
  • Global to universal, provided its not a member
    of another global group
  • Domain local to universal, provided no domain
    local group is a member

40
Default Groups in a Windows Domain
  • Builtin folder
  • Domain local groups used for assigning rights and
    permissions in the local domain
  • Users folder
  • Combination of domain local, global, and, in the
    forest root domain, universal scope
  • User accounts are generally added to global and
    universal groups in this folder for assigning
    permissions and rights in the domain and forest
  • Special Identity Groups
  • Can be assigned permissions by adding them to
    resources DACLs
  • Can not be changed manually

41
Default Groups in a Windows Domain (cont.)
42
Default Groups in a Windows Domain (cont.)
43
Default Groups in a Windows Domain (cont.)
44
Working with Computer Accounts
  • Advantages of having users log on to computers
    that are domain members
  • Single sign-on
  • Active Directory search
  • Group policies
  • Remote management
  • Computer accounts usually created when a computer
    is joined to a domain
  • Computer accounts have an associated password and
    must log on to the domain. This password changes
    every 30 days by default. Can cause
    synchronization issues if a computer is left off
    for too long

45
Command-Line Tools for Managing Active Directory
Objects
  • Most commonly used command line tools for
    managing accounts
  • DSADD
  • DSGET
  • DSMOD
  • DSMOVE
  • DSQUERY
  • DSRM
  • Typing /? after a command will show help
    information and command syntax

46
Command-Line Tools for Managing Active Directory
Objects (cont.)
  • DSADD syntax
  • DSADD ObjectType ObjectDN options
  • ObjectType is the type of object you want to
    create, such as user or group
  • ObjectDN is the objects distinguished name (DN)
  • Components of DN
  • CN (Common Name)
  • CN (Common Name) (Can be repeated if object is in
    a folder)
  • OU (Organizational Unit)
  • DC (Domain component)
  • Command line programs allow piping of output from
    one command to another, via

47
Bulk Import and Export with CSVDE and LDIFDE
  • CSVDE and LDIFDE can bulk import or export AD
    data
  • CSVDE uses comma-separated values (CSV)
  • LDIFDE uses LDAP Directory Interchange Format
    (LDIF)
  • CSVDE can only create objects in AD, whereas
    LDIFDE can create or modify objects

48
Creating Users with CSVDE
  • CSV file must have a header record listing
    attributes of the object to be imported
  • Example
  • dn,SamAccountName,userPrincipalName,objectClass
  • Data record example
  • cnNew User,ouTestOU,dcw2k8adXX,dccom,NewUser
    ,NewUser_at_w2k8adXX.com,user
  • Does not set passwords, so all user accounts are
    disabled until you create a password for each
    account

49
Creating Users with LDIFDE
  • Same idea as CSVDE but with a different format
  • Example
  • Dn cnLDF User1,ouTestOU,dcw2k8adXX,dccomchan
    getype addObjectClass userSamAccountName
    LDFUser1UserPrincipalName LDFUser1_at_w2k8adXX.com
  • Common use of LDIFDE is exporting users from one
    domain and importing them into another domain

50
Chapter Summary
  • Three categories of users in Windows Local,
    domain, and built-in.
  • User account names must be unique in a domain,
    arent case sensitive, and must be 20 or fewer
    characters. Complex password is required by
    default. Naming standards should be used
  • User templates facilitate creating users who have
    some attributes in common, such as group
    memberships

51
Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • The most important user account properties are in
    the General, Account, Profile, Member Of, and
    Terminal Services tabs
  • A user profile contains personal files and
    settings that define the users environment. A
    profile stored on a network share is called a
    roaming profile. Profiles can be made mandatory
  • Groups are the primary security principal used to
    grant rights and permissions

52
Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • Three group scopes in Active Directory domain
    local, global, and universal. The recommended use
    of groups can be summarized with the acronyms
    AGDLP and AGGUDLP
  • Computers that are domain members have computer
    accounts in Active Directory
  • Computer accounts are created automatically when
    a computer joins a domain or manually by an
    administrator
  • Account management can be automated by command
    line tools such as DSADD
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