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Global Economy and Global Warming

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Title: Global Economy and Global Warming


1
Global Economy and Global Warming
  • Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol
  • Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave
    Measurements of ATmospheric Event)
  • UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative
    Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)
  • February 22, 2007

2
  • This presentation can be found at
  • http//ece.uprm.edu/pol/outreach

3
Global Economy
  • Whats the advantage of enhancing global economy?

Global Warming
Global Economy
4
Outline
  • Problem
  • Global Economy
  • Global Warming
  • 2. Solutions
  • individuals,
  • industry-governments

5
Economic Divide
World
1800
Sachs, 2005
YEAR
6
GNP per capita
purchasing power parity
7
Poverty Trap Clinical Economics
  • Physical Geography
  • Arid conditions, high transport cost, isolation,
    mountain ranges, lack of navigable rivers,
    disease, climate
  • Cultural Barriers
  • Role of women, ethic minorities, education
  • Geopolitics war, trade barriers, sanctions, debt
  • Lack of technology
  • Closed market
  • gtCountries too poor to develop
  • gtNeed to hop onto 1st step of economic ladder

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9
Why did England flourished?
  • Open market
  • Island- used to navigation, trading
  • Technology- coal, steam engine
  • Weather not prompt for disease, mosquitoes
  • Education
  • Basic needs Nutrition, Health, Water
  • Infrastructure

10
China India
  • Certain conditions helped these 2 countries
    flourish economically. Usually Green Revolution
    follows technological growth.
  • India invested in education Indian Institutes
    of Technology, now paying off now a world IT
    leader.
  • Was an English colony until 1947.
  • Began economic reforms in 1991 (Open Market)

11
China India
  • China growing economic rate (9!) in the World,
    after it opened to global trading.
  • Ancient civilization. Past technology leader,
    until 1400s.
  • 1434 Ming emperor closes international trade,
    dismantled worlds largest fleet of ocean
    vessels.
  • Japan invasion 1937. Mao Tse-tung 1949- 1976.
  • Market reforms began 1978.

Global Warming coal , oil
12
Why is Africa an exception?
  • Too much Corruption
  • Laziness of people
  • Sexually active AIDS
  • Bad land-use

---------------------------------Myth1 Truth
Less corrupted ----------------------------Myth2
Truth Backbreaking labor ------------------------
----------Myth3 Truth Equal or less
-----------------------Myth4 Truth Global
warming
13
Lake Chad
  • Was the 6th largest lake in the World!
  • A study by U. Wisconsin-Madison and NASA's EOS,
    the lake is now 1/20th of the size it was 35
    years ago.
  • W. Africa (Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon), the
    region has suffered from an increasingly dry
    climate, experiencing decline in rain since early
    1960s.

We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa due to
our emissions which accounts for 25 of all world
emissions compared to Africas 3.
14
Why is Africa an exception?
  • Geography
  • Disease prompt weather malaria
  • Vast regions with no navigable rivers
  • Sparsely populated
  • Lack of infrastructure roads, bridges, etc.
  • Lack of health systems
  • Years of exploitation
  • Political reasons frontiers set by Europeans,
  • Huge external debt
  • Global warming due to developed world emissions

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18
We can banish extreme poverty ,
  • yet 8 million people die each year because they
    are too poor to survive. , J.Sachs, The End of
    Poverty
  • With only 70/person/year for 5 years, we can
    help poor countries be self-sustained! (0.21
    daily)
  • Currently, U.S. gives 15/pp/yr.

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20
World's governments committed to provide 0.7 of
rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to
Official Development Assistance. First pledged
35 years ago in a 1970 General Assembly
Resolution, has been affirmed many times over
the years, including the 2002 Monterrey Consensus.
21
Charities help provide the basics
foodmedicinesvaccineseducation shelterclean
water
22
Extreme poverty
  • UN Millennium Project GOALS
  • (www.unmillenniumproject.org)
  • Half extreme poverty by 2015
  • Aims to end extreme poverty by 2025
  • What is extreme poverty?
  • Versus relative poverty?

23
MP Goals
  • Significant progress1990 2002
  • Average overall incomes increased by 21
    percent.
  • The of people in extreme poverty declined by an
    estimated 130 million.
  • Child mortality rates fell from 103 to 88 deaths
    per 1,000 live births a year.
  • Life expectancy rose from 63 to 65 years.
  • An additional 8 of the developing world's people
    received access to water.
  • And an additional 15 acquired access to improved
    sanitation services.

24
Why bother?
--------------------------------------------------
---------Another Myth!
  • Less poor abroad means more poor here.
  • Hard evidence has established strong linkages
    between extreme poverty abroad and the threats to
    national security.
  • Better global economy provides new technologies
    developed in a diverse world. More products for
    everyone.
  • Eliminating extreme poverty is a global
    responsibility that will have global benefits
  • Money spent on war instead could go to help the
    poor be self-sustained, to new technologies to
    stop global warming.
  • This is the only way to achieve Global Peace

25
Poverty - a conflict generating factor
  • There is a close relation between poverty and
    internal conflict. Norwegian University of
    Science and Technology (NTNU), 2001

26
Global Warming
  • Global Warming is NOT a theory its a FACT.
  • Scientific consensus Its caused by human
    activity, mainly carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Its happening now
  • Some of its consequences are irreversible!

According to the most recent UN-IPCC 4th report
published on Feb 2, 2007.
27
Global Warming
28
Global Warming
  • World before Industrial revolution, 1800
  • CO2 level low lt280ppm.
  • No fossil fuel emissions (oil, coal, gas).
  • Radiative transfer yielded thermodynamic global
    climate equilibrium for the last 100,000 years
  • Atmosphere like a blanket
  • Heat-trapping IR greenhouse gases.

29
A report in 2006 by economist Sir Nicholas Stern
concludes that global warming could shrink the
global economy by 20!
30
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31
CO2 in the atmosphereYears 1960-2000
32
CO2 in Atmosphere Years 1000 -2100
33
Global average temperatureYears 1860-2000
34
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35
  • http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/c
    limate_change/html/climate.stm

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38
Consequences
  • Polar caps melt
  • Sea level rise
  • Extreme temperatures BOTH cold and hot
  • Cyclones/tornadoes
  • Drought / floods
  • Disease
  • Agriculture losses
  • Water (potable) scarcity
  • Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation
  • Worst case scenario stop ocean conveyor belt

39
Puerto Rico Dry Season
Puerto Rico Wet Season
40
Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa)
30 years later
41
Patagonia (Argentina)Longest Glacier in S.A.
1928 2004
42
Costa Rica
  • First official lost species due to Global
    warming
  • golden toad
  • Female Male

43
Hurricanes
  • 10 hottest years ever, occurred in the last 14
    yrs.
  • Hottest of all time, 2006.
  • 2004 1st hurricane ever in the S. Altantic Ocean
  • 2005 highest of hurricanes,
  • most intense, 6 Greek letters
  • 2005 Wilma strongest hurricane ever recorded AO
  • Then
  • 2006 Monica strongest hurricane ever recorded
  • Luckily, this year, El Niño decreases hurricanes

44
Potential Flooding in PR
45
Icebergs with caves broken food chain
60 of krill population killed because of this.
Krill are small shrimp-like crustaceans
zooplankton, food for baleen whales, mantas,
whale sharks, seals, and a few seabird species
46
Worst case scenario abrupt changeIPCC
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps
melting, this current could stop, creating a
small ice age in Europe and North America.
47
On top of this
  • New blooming economies want to live their own
    version of the American Dream.

Example in China, the traditional bicycle lane
was closed to lay way to an extra automobile
lane. India is now also flourishing economically
and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.
48
Crecimiento Población Mundial
2000 1987 1975 1960 1930 1800
6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Tardó TODA la historia de la humanidad para
llegar a 1,000 millones en 1800.
X mil millones
10,000 BC 5,000 BC
Year 0 1000 2000
49
Also Political Issues
  • Oil industry interests,
  • Lobbyists
  • Governments covering up scientific evidence
  • (e.g. NASA climatologist, Jim Hansen)
  • Real cost of Nuclear energy
  • versus cost of clean energy like solar or wind
  • Health hazards, radioactive waste deposit

50
Potential Solutions
  • Reduce CO2 emissions
  • Reduce energy consumption
  • Alternative green power solar, wind, biofuels,
  • Reforestation
  • Increase fuel efficiency e.g. fuel cell, hybrid
    cars
  • Scientific propositions
  • CO2 sequestration
  • Inject sulfur in stratosphere
  • Distribute iron oxide to SA ocean
  • Emission trading- Kyoto Protocol
  • Signed by 135 nations to reduce emissions.
  • Not signed by U.S. or Australia!, the 2 nations
    with the highest emissions.

51
Economic advantage
  • Advantage will go to countries that take the
    leadership to develop renewable energy
    technologies, green building construction codes,
    and energy conservation and efficiency.

52
Example Auto Sales in U.S. 2006
http//advisor.investopedia.com/news/
53
Eco Urbana
  • Solar powered rainwater filtration system.

54
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55
The Good News is
  • We can make a difference

56
Weve done it before! Ozone Layer Montreal
Protocol's ban on CFCs
  • For years, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the
    agents--contributing to the destruction of the
    Earth's ozone layer.
  • After the Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs,
    slightly-more benign HCFCs replaced them..

57
Ahorra , Salva el planeta
  • Cada vez que utilizamos electricidad o gasolina,
    incluso agua, estamos enviando emisiones como CO2
    a la atmósfera que la calientan aún más.

58
Los enseres eléctricos aún APAGADOS GASTAN
energía Se llaman Cargas Fantasmas!!
59
Some examples
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61
Mito vs. Realidad el prender y apagar enseres,
los daña. FALSO!
Eso ocurría hace 2 décadas. Desconecta y Ahorra!
62
Luces FLUORESCENTES COMPACTAS
  • AHORRAS 50 por bombilla durante la vida de la
    bombilla
  • Usan 75 menos electricidad.
  • Duran 10 veces más.

63
Baterías recargablesComparación Costo 4 AA y 4
AAA
AHORRAS 850 por cada 8 baterías recargables !!

64
Qué compro?
  • Una estufa o secadora de gas te ahorra unos
    25-50 mensuales!
  • Tender la ropa al sol, ahorra aún más.

65
Qué compro?
Compra enseres que tengan un bajo uso de energía.
Compara! Puedes ahorrar de 10- 60 mensuales
por cada uno!!
66
Reforestación
  • Siembra árboles
  • Bajan la temperatura del
  • hogar hasta 10 grados F!,
  • Aumentar valor de propiedad!
  • Reducen emisiones de CO2
  • El Fideicomiso te regala 200 árboles gratis!

67
Computadoras
  • Apágala si no la vas a usar en 1.5 horas o más.
  • NO dejes el adapter conectado!!!

68
  • Apaga también la impresora y bocinas si no las
    estás usando.
  • Desconéctalas por las noches.

69
Cargadores
  • No dejes el cargador del celular conectado si no
    lo estás usando!
  • Usa de 70-95 de la energía.

70
Qué compro?
  • Un calentador solar
  • Ahorra 40-100 mensual
  • Dura 30 años!

71
Aires?
  • Usa abanicos en vez de aires acondicionados en
    noches frescas.
  • Puedes ahorrar 70-100 mensualmente!

72
Carros Híbridos
Ahorras 6,000 en 5 años y 12,000 en 10 años!
Toma en cuenta gastos inicial y gastos debido a
eficiencia de combustible del auto de gasolina
versus auto híbrido.
73
Qué compro?
  • Una piscina de fibra de vidrio (fiberglass) gasta
    1/3 de la energía que una piscina de concreto
  • Además la de fibra tiene menos filtraciones de
    agua.

Escoge piscina de fibra de vidrio
74
Viajes en Avión
75
Other Things to Do Save with NO initial cost
  • Turn off water faucet,
  • shower not baths, flow
  • change shower head
  • Clean air-conditioning filters
  • Tune-up car, keep balanced,
    Accelerate minimum only
  • MPG

76
  • Turn down Water heater, and air
    conditioner
  • Use sheets instead of blankets
  • Use cold water for washing cloths!
  • Hang clothes if possible
  • Use dishwasher only when full
  • Wash by hand if possible

77
  • Eating habits
  • Eat less meat (less methane)
  • Eat local products
  • Car pooling, walking or biking
  • Avoid sanitary dishes/napkins
  • Both styrofoam or paper

78
  • Buy products with least packaging
  • Large family packs
  • Gift bags instead of wrapping
  • Water bottles! ?

Packaging and clean water production needs a lot
of energy and releases tons of CO2 in the
atmosphere annually.
79
  • Be a wise consumer
  • Buy less
  • Give away things you not longer use.

Everex.com
80
  • Recycle!
  • (plastic, paper, cardboard, cans, glass)
  • Email your senators, government officials
  • Sign petition at www.undoit.org
  • Sign petition at climatecrisis.org

81
To Do
Transportation accounts for 67 of oil used!
  • Use public transportation
  • Eat organic products (better health, less Br)
  • Consider wind or solar power
  • Use silicone or dark baking pans Bake T-25oF
  • Use reusable plastic or cloth coffee filter

Green means its also good for your HEALTH.
82
Small changes, make a big difference
83
Lets use its resources efficiently so that we
can all benefit from it.
We are ONE human race we only have
ONE planet.

84
Book References
  • The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs
  • Weather Makers by Tim Flannery
  • An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
  • The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman
  • Global Warming by Chris Spence
  • Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer
  • Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank
  • Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern

85
Web References
  • www.nasa.gov
  • www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming
  • www.povertymap.net
  • www.unmillenniumproject.org
  • www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk
  • www.noaa.gov
  • www.borgenproject.org
  • www.unicef.org
  • www.energyhog.org FUN!! (PC games)
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