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Rice Cookers Understanding Some of the Global and Societal Differences of Rice Cooking

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It also has a distinctive sort of spicy aroma, ... heat and stir during the process Different rice types and amounts ... the temperature of the food will begin ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rice Cookers Understanding Some of the Global and Societal Differences of Rice Cooking


1
Rice CookersUnderstanding Some of the Global
andSocietal Differences of Rice Cooking
  • Initially prepared by Kang KangM.S. Student,
    Industrial EngineeringPenn State University
  • Spring 2011

2
Introduction
  • Rice is the seed of the monocot plant Oryza
    sativa
  • One of the oldest foods traced to 5000 BC by
    archaeologists
  • It is the most important staple food for a large
    part of the worlds human population, especially
    in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin
    America, and the West Indies 1
  • When rice is harvested, it has a inedible husk
    (hull) that surrounds the kernel, which is
    removed along with the stalk and other foreign
    material using a variety of specialized equipment
    in a rice mill

1
2
3
3
Grain Sizes
  • Rice is divided into three types based on seed
    size
  • As a rule, the shorter the grain, the more tender
    the rice is, and the more it clings together

Long Grain Medium Grain Short Grain
Cooked grains are separate, firm and fluffy Cooked grains are moist, tender and tend to cling together Cooked grains are moister, more tender, and tend to cling together
4
Types of Rice
  • Forms of Rice
  • Brown rice All rice is originally brown. Brown
    rice (as you buy it) is rice from which only the
    hull has been removed. When cooked, it has a
    slightly chewy texture and a nutlike flavor. In
    different countries brown rice has different
    names - Chinese ?? pinyin caomi literally
    "rough rice" Korean ?? hyeonmi Japanese ??
    genmai Thai ????????? Vietnamese g?o l?t. 2
  • Regular milled rice (White rice) Has been
    completely milled and polished, removing the bran
    layer.

Brown rice 4
White rice 5
5
Types of Rice
  • Forms of Rice
  • Parboiled rice Most commonly used in European
    and American cooking. The grains do not stick
    together giving it a 'fluffy' texture that
    American/UK cookbooks find desirable. The
    parboiled rice is soaked, steamed, and dried
    before milling. This way nutrients stay within
    the grain, and the surface starch is reduced,
    producing cooked rice that is somewhat more firm
    in texture and separate when cooked.
  • Unmilled rice Before polished rice was
    introduced, people ate unmilled rice, which was a
    little bit harder than polished rice. Many people
    still cook and eat unmilled rice.

Parboiled Rice 6
Unmilled rice to milled rice 7 (From right to
left)
6
Types of Rice
  • Rice Varieties
  • There are more than 40,000 different varieties of
    rice worldwide. Two common and popular varieties
  • Basmati rice It has the longest grain of all and
    a translucent appearance. It also has a
    distinctive sort of spicy aroma, which matches
    spicy dishes perfectly.
  • Jasmine Rice Sometimes known as Thai fragrant
    rice, it is a long-grain variety of rice that has
    a nutty aroma, The grains will cling when cooked,
    though it is less sticky than other rice.

8
Jasmine rice 9
7
Cultural Differences
  • Due to cultural differences, the way people eat,
    prepare and serve rice are
  • very different
  • Differences in types of rice
  • Differences in how rice is cooked
  • 11
    12
    13
    14
  • Differences in taste and consistency of rice
  • Sticky and glutinous 15
    Medium stickiness and non-glutinous 16
    Non-sticky and separate grains
    17

8
World Map Of Rice Cultivation
Korea
Japan
India
China
Thailand
Source http//www.ricemap.org/tutorial/
9
China
  • Traditional Chinese ways of cooking rice
  • 18
    19
    20
  • Rice varieties in China
  • Indica rice is dominant in the south
    (long-grain, medium stickiness), while japonica
    rice is widely planted in the north (short-grain,
    more sticky)

10
China
  • Different Needs
  • Side dish
  • Stir fried rice
  • Rice porridge/congee

21
22
Map
11
Japan
  • Japonica Rice or Sushi Rice
  • Also called uruchi-mai, it is a medium-grain
    rice, which is used for almost any kind of
    Japanese dish, including sushi and onigiri

23
24
12
Japan
  • Sushi
  • Traditional sushi rice is made from
    short-grained, white rice (preferably Japanese
    rice), and it is mixed with salt, sugar, sake and
    vinegar to make the rice fluffy and sticky
    (though there are many ways to make sushi rice)

26
27
25
Map
13
Korea
  • Korean Rice
  • Korean rice is short grain rice like sushi rice
    and has a lot more starch than long grain rice
    because it is highly glutinous
  • Unlike rice from Southeast Asia or North America,
    Korean rice is moist and sticks together rather
    than falling apart
  • This makes it easy to eat with chopsticks

28
14
Korea
  • Different Needs

Bibimbap 29
Beany rice 31
Purple Rice 30
Map
15
Thailand
Thai Fried Rice In Thailand, fried rice is often
served with cucumber and a wedge of lime. The
unique taste of the Thai rice comes from a mix of
fish sauce, soy sauce, chili peppers and lime.
The rice is decorated with cilantro and a dusting
of freshly ground pepper. When you make fried
rice it is good to use a little dry rice
(normally Jasmine Rice) so that the rice does not
stick this is an important requirement of fried
rice
32
Map
16
India
  • Rice Varieties
  • Rice is the staple food of all Indians.
    Different regions of India eat different
    varieties of rice and cooking methods.

33
34
17
India
  • Different cooking methods and taste preference
  • The preferred consistency is non-sticky and
    separate grains, which is very different from
    Chinese/Korean rice. There are several ways to
    prevent the rice from sticking (e.g., adding
    extra oil or ghee, or draining the rice and
    pouring room temperature water on top of the
    grains after they are cooked through to flush and
    drain any remaining starch). Spices can also be
    added before cooking the rice or after steaming
    it.

35
36
18
Other Countries
  • Middle East
  • Rice is a common side dish
  • Many dishes are served over rice
  • Normally, rice is fried first and should be
    non-sticky
  • Brazil
  • Overwhelming majority of the population eats
    rice and beans every day of their lives - core
    of Brazilian cuisine and of Brazilian nutrition
  • Rice and beans play a large part in the cuisines
    of many other parts of Latin America (Cuba,
    Venezuela, Mexico), but rice cookers are not
    often used in those regions

37
38
19
United States
  • Instant Rice
  • Pre-cooked rice that is dehydrated and
    repackaged
  • Dehydration removes a lot of its flavor

39
20
How to Cook Rice
  • Cook rice in the pot
  • Typically rinse rice first, then put two cups of
    water to one cup of rice in the pot, boil water,
    heat and stir during the process
  • Different rice types and amounts require
    different amounts of water
  • Can easily be over-cooked or unevenly cooked
    need to monitor while cooking

40
21
Poorly Cooked Rice
  • Over-cooked/burned rice
  • Too much water added

42
43
22
How to Cook Rice
  • Cook rice in the pot
  • Typically rinse rice first, then put two cups of
    water to one cup of rice in the pot, boil water,
    heat and stir during the process
  • Different rice types and amounts require
    different amounts of water
  • Can easily be over-cooked or unevenly cooked
    need to monitor while cooking
  • Use a rice cooker
  • Much easier, one-bottom, and different functions
    to choose
  • No need to stir/monitor during cooking
  • No concern of over-cooking

40
41
23
General Operation
  • How does a rice cooker know the rice is ready?
  • A heating device inside the container begins to
    heat up the water to its boiling point, which is
    212 F (100 C).
  • As the water boils, the rice absorbs the steam,
    and some of the steam escapes through the lid.
  • When the water is nearly all gone, the
    temperature of the food will begin to rise above
    212 F (about 105 C).
  • This change in temperature is monitored by a
    sensor hidden in the bottom of the rice cooker,
    which triggers a switch to turn the cooker off or
    lower the temperature to keep rice warm

24
Rice Cooker Design
  • Structure
  • Pot style
  • Separate pots
  • Cool touch
  • Operation System
  • Mechanical
  • Electronic
  • Micro-computer control
  • Cooking principle
  • Pressure cook
  • Heating

Aroma ARC-883TC
Aroma ARC-773-1G
Panasonic SR-G06FG
Aroma ARC-914SBB
Panasonic HD4761
25
Rice Cooker Features
  • Inner Pan
  • Essential for cooking, should be non-sticky and
    evenly conducting heat
  • Good
  • Single coat of non-sticky material
  • Better
  • Several layers of coding non-sticky layer,
    aluminum alloy, hard anodic oxidation coating
  • Best
  • Vacuum insulated pan to ensure even heating
  • Innovative coating materials such as
    copper-coded, morion-coded (crystal-coded), whole
    casserole material (argil material)

Panasonic HD4761
26
Rice Cooker Features
  • Cooking options

Single touch Single option Keeps rice warm auto-matically
Menu with indicator light Various rice options brown rice, white rice Delay timer
LED menu Various rice and cooking options porridge, soup, cake, slow cook Reheating element keeps rice warm for a long time
Panasonic SR-G06FG
Aroma ARC-150SB
Toshiba RC-10MY
27
Cooking Control Technologies
  • Control Technologies
  • Variable Pressure Control
  • Computerized temperature control
  • Fuzzy Logic (Sensor Logic or Smart Logic)
  • Adjusts the amount of heat based on the amount of
    water, and the amount of heat absorbed by the
    food
  • Rectifies any mistakes in water measurements or
    other human errors by adjusting the cooking time
    and temperature to cook rice to perfection
  • Induction Heating 3
  • Rather than heating the inner pot in a
    traditional manner, induction-heating uses
    electromagnetic energy to heat a separate
    copper-coated inner pot
  • The heat and moisture penetrate deeply and evenly
    into individual rice grains to produce sweet and
    fluffy rice
  • Technology widely used in Japanese rice cookers
    and is usually powered by a micro-computerized
    control and combined with pressure control
    technology

28
Low-End vs. High-End Cookers
  • San Jiao Rice Cooker
  • Features
  • Automatically keep warm
  • Price 9
  • Zojirushi NP-LS
  • Features
  • Multi-functional
  • IH technology
  • LCD controller
  • A mini pump that pumps outside air into the
    cooker to add pressure
  • Programmable melody or beep on/off indicator
  • Price 1000

29
References
  • 1 http//toddyhotpants.com/blog/2009/02/23/motor
    bike-trip-ha-n?i-sai-gon/
  • 2 http//news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/05/
    genetic-discovery-promises-to-bo.html
  • 3 http//www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-rice.h
    tml
  • 4 http//www.healthcaretipsandguides.com/some-he
    alth-benefits-of-brown-rice.html
  • 5 http//mycoloredlinks.com/goodBlogs/archives/5
    83
  • 6 http//www.sakayanyc.com/about_classification.
    php
  • 7 http//www.marcotec.com/onepass.htm
  • 8 http//www.google.com/imgres?imgurlhttp//www
    .fotobank.ru/img/
  • 9 http//www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/browse-
    all-recipes/perfect-jasmine-rice
  • 10 http//www.sushiencyclopedia.com/how_to_make_
    sushi/how_to_cook_rice_with_a_pot.html
  • 11 http//www.cafenilson.com/2009/11/daring-cook
    s-sushi/
  • 12 http//www.babyhome.com.tw/mboard.php?opdsI
    D2702555bid13r128page1
  • 13 http//www.smallkitchenappliancestore.com/
  • 14 http//www.diytrade.com/china/4/products/5266
    417/microcomputer_rice_cooker.html
  • 15 http//concasse.blogspot.com/2009/03/laotiann
    orthern-thailand-meal-isaan.html
  • 16 http//inhabitat.com/sticky-rice-is-1500-year
    -old-secret-to-super-strong-chinese-buildings/
  • 17 http//qwickstep.com/search/tamarind-rice.htm
    l
  • 18 http//www.flickr.com/photos/fennifer1390/350
    9651616/
  • 19 http//www.flickr.com/photos/fennifer1390/350
    8840861/in/photostream/

30
References
  • 26 http//www.deliciousmagazine.co.uk/articles/h
    ow-to-make-sushi
  • 27 http//exurbanpedestrian.wordpress.com/2010/0
    1/10/ahhhh-sushi/
  • 28 http//www.wonderfulworldofdave.com/2010/05/k
    orean-tofu-house-cerritos-ca.html
  • 29 http//www.dineouthere.com/restaurants/catego
    ry/robson
  • 30 http//foreignerjoy.blogspot.com/2010/08/fore
    ign-rice-hunting-and-tasting-taco.html
  • 31 http//foreignerjoy.blogspot.com/2010/08/fore
    ign-rice-hunting-and-tasting-taco.html
  • 32 http//islam4parents.com/2009/01/thai-fried-r
    ice/
  • 33 http//www.nelmani.com/indian-rice.htm
  • 34 http//beyondwonderful.com/recipes/sidedishes
    /beansgrains/basmati_rice.htm
  • 35 http//www.texasoysters.org/ricerecipe.html
  • 36 http//www.wizardrecipes.com/blog/rice-cookin
    g-techniques.html
  • 37 http//www.ifood.tv/network/middle_east_rice
  • 38 http//simplyrecipes.com/recipes/red_beans_an
    d_rice/
  • 39 http//www.theteacherscorner.net/forums/showt
    hread.php?t4954
  • 40 http//www.mare.ee/indrek/sushi/
  • 41 http//www.smallkitchenappliancestore.com/
  • 42 http//lifehackery.com/2008/05/17/50-amazingl
    y-helpful-time-tested-tips-for-the-kitchen/
  • 43 http//foodwisenutrition.blogspot.com/2010_09
    _01_archive.html
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