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Title: Globalization of Information Systems: Communication, Security and Privacy Issues


1
Globalization of Information Systems
Communication, Security and Privacy Issues
  • Adelphi University
  • Alireza Ebrahimi, Ph.D.
  • School of Business
  • State University of New York
  • Old Westbury

2
Abstract
  • Today, whatever happens in one part of the world
    will inevitably impact
  • other parts of the globe. Information Systems
    have played an important
  • role in making this new World of globalization
    happen and continue to
  • reshape it. On the one hand, it seems that the
    rules of dominant powers
  • and large companies are lessened as they explore
    ways to deal with the
  • culture, norm, social values and local needs. On
    the other hand, there is
  • a threat that hinders the existing infrastructure
    of global Information
  • systems. The private will become public and the
    public will become
  • private. What is the role of globalization and
    its influence on
  • Information systems and what is the role of
    Information Systems
  • indicating globalization? How do we deal with
    security and privacy of
  • global Information systems and what are the
    costs?

3
What is Globalization?
  • The process of developing, manufacturing, and
    marketing software products that are intended for
    worldwide distribution. This term combines two
    aspects of the work internationalization
    (enabling the product to be used without language
    or culture barriers) and localization
    (translating and enabling the product for a
    specific locale).

4
Define Globalization
5
Globalization Definition Googlization
  • Related phrases   economic globalization  
    globalization management system   globalization
    index   globalization of markets  
    anti-globalization   globalization of wine  
    globalization of production   content
    globalization   linguistic globalization
  • Definitions of globalization on the Web
  • The process of developing, manufacturing, and
    marketing software products that are intended for
    worldwide distribution. ...www-128.ibm.com/develo
    perworks/library/glossaries/unicode.html
  • Worldwide economic integration of many formerly
    separate national economies into one global
    economy, mainly through free trade and free
    movement of capital as by multinational
    companies, but also by easy or uncontrolled
    migration.www.ecoagriculture.org/page.php
  • "Globalization refers in general to the worldwide
    integration of humanity and the compression of
    both the temporal and spatial dimensions of
    planetwide human interaction. ...www2.truman.edu/
    marc/resources/terms.html
  • Globalization and Environment, Globalization and
    Labor Issues and Impact Migration, Politics of
    Globalizationwww.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Pe
    terson-Institute
  • The process of tailoring products or services to
    different local markets around the
    world.viewpointbank.mediaroom.com/index.php
  • The Marxist critic of postmodernism Fredric
    Jameson argues that American capitalism, in the
    form of huge multi-national corporations backed
    by the Western media, is (re)colonizing the
    world. ...royalholloway.org.uk/ltsn/english/event
    s/past/staffs/Holland_Arrowsmith/Critical20Concep
    ts20edit.htm

6
Globalization
  • 1. The increasing world-wide integration of
    markets for goods, services and capital that
    began to attract special attention in the late
    1990s. 2. ...www-personal.umich.edu/alandear/glo
    ssary/g.html
  • A process whereby an increased portion of
    economic or other activity is carried out across
    national borderswww.developmenteducation.ie/gloss
    ary/
  • Trend away from distinct national economic units
    and toward one huge global market.enbv.narod.ru/t
    ext/Econom/ib/str/261.html
  • the movement toward markets or policies that
    transcend national borderswww.wcit.org/tradeis/gl
    ossary.htm
  • The effort to standardize consumer habits,
    values, and ways of thinking that contributes to
    the development of global markets, greater
    efficiencies and profits politically, it is
    based on neo-liberal values and assumptions that
    justify this latest expression of Western
    colonization undermines ...www.ecojusticeeducati
    on.org/index.php
  • A set of processes leading to the integration of
    economic, cultural, political, and social systems
    across geographical boundaries.www.gemi.org/hsewe
    bdepot/Glossary.aspx
  • A complex series of economic, social,
    technological, cultural, and political changes
    seen as increasing, integration, and interaction
    between people and companies in disparate
    locations.www.scrippscollege.edu/about/strategic-
    plan/glossary.php
  • A global movement to increase the flow of goods,
    services, people, real capital, and money across
    national borders in order to create a more
    integrated and interdependent world
    economy.globaledge.msu.edu/resourcedesk/glossary.
    asp
  • doing things on a global scalelibrary.thinkquest.
    org/06aug/00863/glossary.htm

7
  • return to the discussion what is
    globalization?www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/
    globalization/globalization_glossary.jsp
  • This term is used to describe a contracting
    method by which an entire claim/encounter is paid
    under a single flat fee regardless of how many or
    how few services were performed and regardless of
    any complications may arise. ...www.mhdpc.org/pre
    sentations/Glossary_of_Medical_Claims_Common_Terms
    .doc
  • The process of worldwide integration of economic
    or political systems. Economically, globalization
    is driven by free trade and foreign investment.
    The concept of globalization can also be applied
    to cultural products (such as movies or music) or
    values (such as beliefs about human
    rights).www.icons.umd.edu/reslib/display_glossary
  • is a term used to refer to the expansion of
    economies beyond national borders, in particular,
    the expansion of production by a firm to many
    countries around the world, ie, globalization of
    production, or the "global assembly line.
    ...colours.mahost.org/faq/definitions.html
  • the expansion of international business and trade
    between countries by transnational firms
    customers, suppliers, distributors, retailers and
    competitors exist all over the world for any type
    of businesswww.321site.com/greg/courses/mis1/glos
    sary.htm
  • growth to a global or worldwide scale "the
    globalization of the communication industry"
    wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
  • Globalization in a literal sense is international
    integration.It can be described as a process by
    which the people of the world are unified into a
    single society and functioning together. This
    process is a combination of economic,
    technological, sociocultural and political
    forces. ...en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization
  • Alternative spelling of globalisation
    en.wiktionary.org/wiki/globalization
  • Find definitions of globalization in
     Chinese (Simplified)  Chinese (Traditional)  
    English  Spanish  all languages

8
Crossing Borders in a World Where Differences
Still Matter2
  • Competing for global leadership requires that
    companies learn to navigate in unfamiliar waters.
    For incumbents, the emerging MNCs represent the
    threat of displacement. For the emerging
    challengers, globalizing is new and risky. But
    the greater openness today of both developed and
    developing economics to foreign trade and
    investment means that the best opportunities for
    growth in sales and profits are increasingly
    available to companies of all origins. Further,
    ongoing changes in the location of market growth,
    the shape of global supply chains, and the
    emergence of new global business models suggest
    that the conditions are right for aggressive
    global players to move outside their comfort
    zones. Industry may have been destiny thus far,
    but it is unlikely to remain so3 HBR November
    2008

9
What is information Systems
  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The term
    information system (IS) sometimes refers to a
    system of persons, data records and activities
    that process the data and information in an
    organization, and it includes the organization's
    manual and automated processes. Computer-based
    information systems are the field of study for
    information technology, elements of which are
    sometimes called an "information system" as well,
    a usage some consider to be incorrect.

10
Different Languages that Google Provides for its
users
11
(No Transcript)
12
Google offers local language support in India
  • Google technology lets users type search queries
    in 14 Indian languages and also generate content
    in local languages

13
Communication
  • The Internet Helps Bridge the Digital Divide in
    Villages, long isolated by distance and
    deprivation, are gaining cell-phone access to the
    internet. In the process, millions of people who
    have no land-line telephones and who often lack
    electricity and running water are able to utilize
    services that people in developed countries
    consider to be basic, such as weather reports,
    e-mail, and a second opinion from a physician

14
Internet growth in Bangladesh
  • Now has about 16 million cell phone
    subscribers- and 2 million new users each
    month-compared with just 1 million land-line
    phones to serve a population of 150 million
    people. About 500 Internet centers have been
    opened in places where there are no land lines,
    so the connections can be made exclusively over
    cell phone networks.

15
Bangladesh GrameenPhone Internet cell provider
and Grameen Bank
  • The Internet centers are being setup by
    GrameenPhone, a cell phone provider partly owned
    by Grameen Bank.
  • Grameen Bank has sometimes been accused of
    charging relatively high interest rate and
    putting people in debt-trap.

16
Villages and Information Systems
  • People now download job applications, check
    news stories and crop prices, make inexpensive
    internet calls, or use web cameras to see
    relatives. Student from villages with few books
    now have access to online dictionaries and
    encyclopedias. One of the most popular services
    is videoconferencing, which involves using a Web
    camera on top of a computer monitor, and video
    conferencing with relatives living overseas.

17
Russia Vs. Georgia Web Turned Battle Ground
  • Weeks before physical bombs started falling on
    Georgia, a security researcher in suburban
    Massachusetts was watching an attack against the
    country in cyberspace.
  • Cyber attacks are so inexpensive and easy to
    mount, with few fingerprints, that they will
    almost certainly remain a feature of
    modern warfare. Bill Woodcock

  • http//www.iht.com/articles/2008/08/12
    /europe/cyber.php

18
Russia Georgia Web Infrastructure
  • In the wake of the Russian-Georgia conflict, a
    week worth of speculations around Russian
    Internet forums have finally materialized into a
    coordinated cyber attack against Georgias
    Internet infrastructure. The attacks have already
    managed to compromise several government web
    sites, with continuing DDoS attacks against
    numerous other Georgian government sites,
    prompting the government to switch to hosting
    locations to the U.S, with Georgias Ministry of
    Foreign Affairs. undertaking a desperate step in
    order to disseminate real-time information by
    moving to a BlogSpot account.
  • Whos behind it? The infamous Russian Business
    Network, or literally every Russian supporting
    Russias actions? How coordinated and planned is
    the cyber attack? And do we actually have a
    relatively decent example of cyber warfare
    combining PSYOPs (psychological operations) and
    self-mobilization of the local Internet users by
    spreading For our motherland, brothers! or
    Your country is calling you! hacktivist
    messages across web forums. Lets find out,
    in-depth.
  • The attacks originally starting to take place
    several weeks before the actual intervention
    with Georgia presidents web site coming under
    DDOS Attack from Russian hackers in July,
    followed by active discussions across the Russian
    web on whether or not DDoS attacks and web site
    defacements should in fact be taking place, which
    would inevitably come as a handy tool to be used
    against Russian from Western or Pro-Western
    journalists.
  • http//blogs.zdnet.com/security/?p1670

19
Privacy
  • Todays war on privacy is intimately related to
    the dramatic advances in technology weve seen in
    recent years (Gurfinkel, 2001, p. 5). Advocates
    of privacy warn that the conflation of the
    disregard of the general populace and
    unrestricted technology seriously threatens
    individual privacy (Marshall, 2001).  Whether you
    use the or not, whether you are aware of the or
    not, they are out there. We have become a
    surveillance society
  • What technology are you referring to? 
  • Consider the Internet and computers for one.
    Each time you log in to the Internet you are
    involved in a much broader information exchange
    than most people realize (Lyon, 2002, p. 345). 
    According to a 1998 report by the Federal Trade
    Commission, approximately 98 of websites collect
    personal information (Masci, 1998).
  • What do websites do with this information?
    Whats a good question as only 14 of the
    websites that do harvest information reveal the
    whom and why regarding the collection (Masci,
    1998). Geocities was accused of just this by the
    FTC in 1998. In exchange for personal
    information, this company offered free emails.
    Geocities then sold this web data, the
    information amassed, without consent to
    advertisement companies (Masci, 1998).
  •  
  •  In fact, data sharing is still a rampant
    practice among corporations (Marshall, 2001). But
    what happens when your medical information is
    shared with you potential insurer? Or when your
    finances are shared with your potential employer?
  •  
  • What happens on the net doesnt stay on the net.
    Run a quick search on your computer for cookies.
    Unless you cleaned them out recently, you
    probably found a lot. Cookies are self-contained
    bits of computer code that are employed by
    websites as markers or tokens of identifying
    information (Campbell Carlson, p. 598, 2002).
    While these codes may be used to keep track of
    things such as personal preferences or items in
    an on-line shopping cart, they can also be used
    to stalk someone online. How would you like your
    on-line visits to websites tracked?

20
Youth Privacy Issues
  • Description of issue.
  • Children and youth are vulnerable to a number of
    privacy threats.
  • Their marketing profiles are highly prized. And
    since children are avid Internet users, marketers
    have attempted to capture data from their web
    surfing.
  • Children watch a lot of television. With TV going
    "digital," (see below) marketing information is
    likely to be compiled from such new technologies
    as TiVo and Replay TV.
  • State education departments are developing
    databases that track students throughout their
    K-12 school years.
  • States are developing databases to track
    children's vaccine inoculations.
  • Students are often asked to complete surveys that
    ask sensitive questions about themselves and
    their families.
  • Given the incidents of violence in schools,
    administrators and school psychologists have the
    incentive to use profiling tools (Mosaic is one
    example) to attempt to identify individuals who
    are supposedly predisposed to violence, and then
    share that information with local law
    enforcement.
  • Looking ahead.
  • While these threats do not necessarily
    interrelate with one another, it is evident that
    children and youth are the targets of a great
    deal of data collection. Congress has acted to
    limit online data collection from children under
    age 13 by passing the Children's Online Privacy
    Protection Act, implemented in April 2000. And
    the Bush Administration signed into a law a
    provision to require that schools give parents
    the opportunity to opt the student out of
    participation in marketing related surveys that
    collect personal information. This is part of the
    No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. But as we've
    seen with the other issues discussed in this
    report, laws are not able to keep up with the
    fast pace of technology. Children are early
    adopters of computer and wireless technologies,
    and are far more skilled than many of their
    elders in using them. Children are also voracious
    consumers of the latest trends in clothing,
    music, sports, and entertainment. Marketers are
    not likely to bypass the opportunity to collect
    data from children and to solicit both them and
    their parents. The tension between laws and
    technology regarding children will persist for
    time to come.

21
Conclusions
  • Plan to Design the information systems in mind
  • Outreach to all human potential
  • World partnership, Good Deed Business and
    Marketing
  • (consumer and producer relationship)
  • Cost, quality and/or speed
  • Build continuous trust which leads to security,
    privacy
  • IS advantage versus IS disadvantage
  • Build multipath ways with a cross over when is
    safe
  • Global election

22
Cultures and Norms
  • Culture sets our values and norms. It is a way of
    thinking that determines our behaviors,
    decisions, actions and knowledge. Technology
    transfer and integration are basically the
    exchange of the knowledge, know-how and skills
    through which technology was created and on which
    its use depends. Culture is deeply rooted in
    ourselves. We are usually unaware of its
    influence on our professional activity. Cultures
    are diverse, and their encounter through
    technology exchange triggers conflicts that are
    expressed in objective terms. We need to detect
    and resolve those conflicts at the right level,
    i.e. at the cultural level instead of only
    focusing on the visible 'obstacles' to the
    deployment of telematics applications. This paper
    summarizes the basic concepts on which we ground
    a practical approach to detecting and resolving
    culture-based conflicts in technology transfer
    and integration. It investigates the relation
    between cultural preferences and actions. Culture
    is translated and reduced to a seven dimensions
    framework. Cultural preferences influence the
    decision-making process that leads to tangible
    actions. The structure and dynamics of that
    process are described as a Change Governance
    Framework. It considers the control aspects of
    decision making that are sensitive to cultural
    preferences, i.e. the way decisions are taken,
    why, by whom.
  • References
  • http//cat.inist.fr/?aModeleafficheNcpsidt13720
    84

23
So What's Y2K?
  • The year 2000 bug arose from the fact that most
    old mainframe computers still running keep track
    only of the last two digits of the year. The
    computer assumes the first two digits are 1 and
    9. To the computer, 1999 is just 99. That means
    the computer will interpret 00 not as 2000 but as
    1900, throwing the date calculation off by 100
    years.
  • The problem dates to the 1960s and 1970s, when
    computer memory was scarce and expensive.
    Computers filled entire rooms and cost millions
    back then, so smart programmers squeezed every
    last bit of memory from the systems. They didn't
    foresee all the problems that only using two
    digits for the date would cause in the future.
  • Programmers who built the old mainframe
    computers didn't anticipate the problem because
    they never thought these machines would last 20
    years. But today, these mammoth computers are
    still running great portions of society.
  • Because the two-digit method for dates became
    standard for computers, the bug also exists in
    the software of many personal computers made
    before 1997, and in the computer chips embedded
    in many products, ranging from automatic coffee
    makers to nuclear power plants.
  • To fix the problem, every computer system's
    software must be checked and tested. Multiply
    this by the millions of computers around the
    world and the hundreds of billions of lines of
    computer code, and you can see how immense the
    project is.
  • In the United States, there are about 157
    billion software functions that need to be
    checked,
  • according to Capers Jones of Software
    Productivity Research. The 30 most industrialized
  • countries have a total of 700 billion vulnerable
    software functions. Every one of them must
  • be checked, Jones said, and estimated the global
    bill at around 3.6 trillion.
  • http//www.countdown.org/y2k/what_is_y2k.htm

24
Y2K Cost in Perspective
  • World War II  4200 billionMillennium bug
    (Y2K) 600 billionVietnam conflict 500
    billionKobe earthquake 100 billionLos Angeles
    earthquake 60 billion
  • Sources Gartner Group andCongressional Research
    Service

25

Globalization of technology
Privacy Issues
Internet privacy consists of privacy over the
media of the Internet and the ability to control
what information one reveals about oneself over
the Internet, and to control who can access that
information. Privacy measures are provided on
several social networking sites to try to provide
their users with protection for their personal
information. On Facebook for example privacy
settings are available for all registered users.
The settings available on Facebook include the
ability to block certain individuals from seeing
your profile, the ability to choose your
"friends," and the ability to limit who has
access to your pictures and videos. Privacy
settings are also available on other social
networking sites such as E-harmony and MySpace.
It is the user's prerogative to apply such
settings when providing personal information on
the internet.

This slide was written in my own words/my ideas
26
Advantages of Globalization
  • Goods and people are transported with more
    easiness and speed
  • the flexibility of corporations to operate across
    borders increases
  • the communication between the individuals and
    corporations in the world increases
  • environmental protection in developed countries
    increases
  • the possibility of war between the developed
    countries decreases

27
Disadvantages of Globalization
  • Increased flow of skilled and non-skilled jobs
    from developed to developing nations as
    corporations seek out the cheapest labor
  • Threat that control of world media by a handful
    of corporations will limit cultural expression
  • Decreases in environmental integrity as polluting
    corporations take advantage of weak regulatory
    rules in developing countries

28
Problems associated with globalization and
information technology
Most of Africa is being left in a technological
apartheid, and the same could be said of many
other regions of the world. The situation is
difficult to remedy when one third of the worlds
population still has to survive on the equivalent
of one dollar per day.
29
Security on Globalization and Information
Technology
Globalization has put tremendous pressure on
businesses in the form of new competitive threats
and onerous regulatory requirements. Businesses
have responded by focusing on their core
competencies and markets and have in turn raised
the bar for IT by demanding ever increasing
levels of responsiveness, stability and
efficiency. The ever increasing demands placed on
IT means that IT management has little choice but
to consider adding outsourcing to its delivery
mix. In other words it is important for people
around the world to know about outsourcing and
information technology so purchasing and
communicating something on the web can be more
secure.
30
Protecting your Privacy on the Internet
  • Do not reveal personal information inadvertently.
  • Turn on cookie notices in your Web browser,
    and/or use cookie management software or
    infomediaries.
  • Keep a "clean" e-mail address.
  • Don't reveal personal details to strangers or
    just-met "friends".
  • Be conscious of Web security.
  • Use encryption!
  • Be conscious of home computer security.

31
Privacy
  • North American analyses of privacy construct it
    as a human right that is inevitably violated by
    advanced communication technologies. Growing
    exposure is expected to become the fate of more
    and more people as globalization expands.
    However, studies of surveillance practices
    elsewhere suggest alternative interpretations of
    information disclosure, and developments in
    globalization theories highlight complicated
    relationships between the global, the local, and
    their mediators. This study adopts an agential
    approach to explore the encounter between Israeli
    and North American concerns over web privacy as
    they are mediated through local journalists'
    introduction of the new medium. The analysis
    identifies three arenas in journalists'
    discussion about web privacy The U.S., Israel,
    and the global community of surfers, attending
    both to the predominance of the U.S. in this
    discourse, and to the absence of local structural
    accounts. The analysis proposes that by
    Americanizing the concern over privacy violation
    and by constructing it as paranoia of the
    technologically inept, the text neglects to
    contextualize privacy violation, and privatizes
    the struggle against it.

32
Culture Norms and Values that affect
Globalization and Information Technology
  • As the sophistication of contracting technologies
    increases, the normative content of those de
    facto regulations will increase, and potential
    for conflict between diverse local law and
    business culture on the one hand, and contracting
    norms embedded in networked commercial
    transaction systems on the other will increase.
  • The development of contracting technologies that
    can accommodate diverse contracting regimes may
    reduce potential conflicts between the mandates
    of the global trading architecture and the social
    norms of local economic culture. Flexible
    technologies may be easier to develop for use in
    countries where contract law is highly formal in
    content Islamic law may provide an example of a
    contract law regime that is highly formal and
    thus can be more readily accommodated by
    computerized contracting systems.
  • They may be harder to develop in countries where
    institutionalized informality is an essential
    element of contract law and practice some East
    Asian countries may provide examples of contract
    law regimes that are difficult to accommodate
    with computerized contracting systems because of
    the central role played by informal social norms
    in some economic activities.

33
References
  • 1 Introduction to Information Systems
    Supporting and Transforming business (Reiner
    turban 2008)
  • 2 Tomorrows Global Giants Not the Usual
    Suspects (Ghemawat, P., Hout, T. Harvard Business
    Review, November 2008)
  • 3 Redefining Global Strategy Crossing Borders
    in a World Where Differences Still Matter
    (Ghemawat, P., Harvard Business Press, 2007)
  • Google
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