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Crime Prevention History and Theory

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Title: Crime Prevention History and Theory


1
  • Crime Prevention History and Theory
  • 2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 500
  • Arlington, VA 22202
  • 202-261-4153 FAX 202-296-1356
  • pharris_at_ncpc.org
  • www.ncpc.org/ncpa

2
What Causes Crime - FBI
  • 1. Population, density and degree of
    urbanization
  • 2. Population variations in composition and
    stability
  • 3. Economic conditions and employment
  • 4. Mores, cultural conditions, education, and
    religion
  • 5. Family cohesiveness
  • 6. Climate, including seasonal weather
    conditions

3
What Causes Crime - FBI
  • 7. Effective strength of the police force
  • 8. Police employment practices
  • 9. Policies of the courts, prosecutors and
    corrections
  • 10. Citizen attitudes toward crime and police
  • 11. Efficiency of police agencies
  • 12. Crime reporting practices of citizens.

4
Crime Prevention
How do we prevent crime?
5
Crime Prevention in Action
  • Name some examples of crime prevention you have
    used or have seen in operation today.
  • What was it ?
  • What crime did it address?
  • How did it work?

6
Early Crime Prevention
  • The oldest known lock is estimated to be about
    4,000 years old. It was found by archaeologists
    in the Khorsabad palace ruins in Iraq. The lock
    featured a large wooden bolt that secured a door,
    with several holes in its upper surface.
  • Heavily fortified castles of many countries stand
    as a permanent testament to the need to provide a
    safe community.

7
Early Crime Prevention
  • During the Middle Ages, a system of "Reprisals"
    was used to discourage criminal behavior.
  • By 1285, a "Watchman" system was initiated in
    London, based on the "hue and cry" of citizens.
  • In 1655, Oliver Cromwell attempted to establish
    the first organized professional police force,
    based upon the watchman system.

8
Early Crime Prevention
  • In the early 1700s Jonathan Wild organized a
    gang of thief takers who were paid by results
    only.
  • If they arrested a person for a crime, they
    received nothing from the authorities until a
    conviction resulted.
  • In many cases a price was put on the head of a
    wanted criminal.

9
The Night Watch - Rembrandt
The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and
Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenhurch
10
Early Law in America
  • Laws Devine, Moral and Martial
  • Sir Thomas Dale, Marshall and DeputiyGovernor
  • Jamestown, Virginia June 22, 1611
  • the Captain of the watch, must have a special
    care of the safeguard and preservation of the
    Town or Fort committed to his charge, that
    through his defect, negligence, or ignorance in
    his charge, he gives not opportunity to the enemy
    to execute any of his designs, for the damaging
    of the place or the Inhabitants.

11
Early Crime Prevention
Why do we eat with a fork and a blunt
knife?
1669 - King Louis XIV of France banned pointed
knives at the dinner table as a measure to reduce
violence. Forks replaced pointed knives to spear
food.
12
Early Crime Prevention
  • In 1819, punishment was the main weapon against
  • crime, with no fewer that 223 offenses were
    still
  • punishable by death.
  • Because of the absence of police, the chances
    of a
  • criminal being detected were very slim and
    those of
  • his conviction even slimmer.
  • It became clear that severity of punishment
    was not
  • an effective crime prevention method.

13
Early Crime Prevention
  • Historians give credit to Henry Fielding for
    taking the first positive steps for the formation
    of a responsible police organization.
  • Later his half-brother, John Fielding, continued
    the work and is credited with having brought to
    the police service the concept of prevention.
  • He said, It is much better to prevent even one
    man from being a rogue than apprehending and
    bringing 40 to justice.

14
Robert Peel - Principles of Policing
  • Much has been written about Sir Robert Peel and
    the development of the Metropolitan Police Act of
    1829.
  • It is clear that until this time very little had
    been done to place the police in a crime
    prevention role.

15
Metropolitan Police Act of 1829
  • Part of the instructions to the officers were
  • It should be understood, at the outset, that the
    principal object to obtained is the prevention of
    crime. To this great end every effort of the
    police is to be directed.
  • The test of police efficiency is the absence of
    crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of
    police action in dealing with it.

16
Metropolitan Police Act of 1829
  • More of the instructions to the officers
  • Security of persons and property, the
    preservation of the public tranquility, and all
    the other objects of a police establishment, can
    thus be better effected, than by the detection
    and punishment of the offender, after he has
    succeeded in committing the crime.

17
Early Crime Prevention
  • Unfortunaetley, these noble goals faded into the
    background as the police and public began to
    identify the success/failure of the police based
    on reported crimes reported and crimes cleared.
  • It was more than a century later, in 1950, that
    British Police leaders realized something more
    positive had to be done in the area of crime
    prevention.

18
Early Crime Prevention
  • A campaign was officially opened by the Home
  • Secretary on May 1, 1950, and it ran in
    various parts
  • of the country until the autumn of 1951.
  • Certain insurance companies, in cooperation
    with the
  • Home Office, produced and distributed crime
  • prevention material.

19
Early Crime Prevention
  • Because funding was not available this program
    was
  • given low priority and it was not until 1963
    that a
  • formal training course in crime prevention
    was begun
  • by the Home Office at Stafford.
  • By this time, however, crime prevention
    training held
  • high priority at the Home Office and by the
    end of
  • 1970, 1,045 officers had attended the
    standard.

20
Crime Prevention in America
  • In 1968, drawing on the British experience,
    John
  • Klotter, Dean of the University of
    Louisville
  • School of Police Administration began
  • developing an American model for crime
    prevention.
  • National Crime Prevention Institute - NCPI,
  • established in Louisville, Kentucky in 1971.
  • The National Sheriffs Association began the
  • Neighborhood Watch program in 1972.

21
Crime Prevention in America
  • In 1977, FBI Director Clarence Kelley went to The
    Advertising Council with a proposal for a crime
    prevention public service advertising campaign.
  • The, LEAA, FBI, and the AFL-CIO formed a small
    planning group that included the National
    Sheriffs' Association and the International
    Association of Chiefs of Police.

22
Crime Prevention in America
  • In 1980, an animated dog in a trench coat became
    officially known as McGruff the Crime Dog.
  • In 1982, the National Crime Prevention Council
    was established to manage the McGruff campaign
    and promote crime prevention throughout the
    United States.

23
Crime Prevention Coalition and McGruff
Preliminary Images of the Crime Dog
24
Crime Prevention Coalition and McGruff
  • Jack Keil, with the advertising agency Saatchi
    Saatchi, was the leader of the creative team that
    developed McGruff the Crime Dog.
  • He was the first person to utter the words,
    "Take A Bite Out Of Crime."

The Original McGruff
25
Some Early Security Technology
  • In 1857, James Sargent invented the worlds
    first
  • successful key-changeable combination lock.
  • In 1861, Linus Yale, Jr., manufactured and
    patented a
  • cylinder pin-tumbler lock. One year later he
    invented
  • the modern combination lock.
  • In 1873, James Sargent developed and patented a
  • time lock mechanism. This lock became the
  • prototype of those being used in contemporary
    bank
  • vaults.

26
Early Security Technology
  • In 1942, the first closed circuit television
    (CCTV) system was installed by Siemens AG at Test
    Stand VII in Peenemunde, France, to observe the
    launch of German V2 rockets.
  • Today, CCTV is used for security purposes and can
    be found anywhere from parking lots, office
    buildings, and grocery stores to school buses!

27
  • Defining Crime Prevention

28
Crime Prevention - Justice Model
  • Punitive (tertiary)
  • Corrective (secondary)
  • Mechanical or Protective (primary)
  • Dr. Peter Lejins

29
Crime Prevention - Punitive
  • criminal laws
  • police
  • Crime Stoppers
  • courts
  • jails and prisons

30
Crime Prevention - Corrective
  • employment
  • education
  • counseling
  • mentoring
  • Head Start
  • Dare

31
Crime Prevention - Protective
  • Neighborhood Watch
  • Community Policing
  • Public Education
  • CPTED
  • Homeland Security

32
Crime Prevention Triangle
Desire
Ability
Opportunity
33
Crime Prevention Triangle
Exercise Works as teams and list three steps that
can be taken to address each of the three
elements of the crime prevention triangle
Desire - Ability - Opportunity Each team
will report back to the class.
34
Crime Prevention Defined
  • Crime Prevention is the anticipation,
  • recognition and appraisal of a crime
  • risk and the initiation of some action
  • to remove or reduce the risk.
  • Source National Crime Prevention Institute -
    NCPI

35
Crime Prevention Defined
Crime Prevention is a pattern of attitudes and
behaviors directed at reducing the threat of
crime and enhancing the sense of safety and
security, to positively influence the quality of
life in our society, and to develop environments
where crime cannot flourish. Source National
Crime Prevention Council - 1990
36
Crime Prevention Defined
Community Policing is an organization-wide philoso
phy and management approach that promotes
partnerships proactive problem solving and
community engagement to address the causes of
crime, fear of crime, and other community
issues. Source Community Policing Initiative -
1990s
37
Crime Prevention
  • Crime prevention is proactive, rather than
    reactive.
  • Proactive policing attempts to prevent the crime
    from occurring in the first place.
  • Reactive policing responds to crime after it has
    occurred.

38
Crime Prevention Motto
The motto for crime prevention specialists in
Virginia. Occasio Facit Furem "Opportunity
makes the thief."  13th Century Proverb
39
Crime Prevention is Proactive
  • It stops crime from happening in the first place.

40
Powers of the Police Force 15.2-1704 (Code of
Virginia)
  • The police force of a locality is hereby invested
    with all
  • the power and authority which formerly belonged
    to the
  • office of constable at common law and is
    responsible for
  • the prevention and detection of crime,
  • the apprehension of criminals,
  • the safeguard of life and property,
  • the preservation of peace and
  • the enforcement of state and local laws,
    regulations, and ordinances.

41
Law Enforcement Officer (Code of Virginia)
  • Law Enforcement Officer means
  • any full-time or part-time employee of a police
  • department or sheriff's office which is a part
  • of or administered by the Commonwealth or any
  • political subdivision thereof, and who is
  • responsible for the prevention and detection of
  • crime.

42
The Law Enforcement Mission
  • Today the law enforcement element of the job is
    becoming secondary.
  • The order-maintenance, peace- preservation, and
    crime prevention elements of the job that are
    making more of a contribution to the overall
    quality of community life.
  • Former Chief Jerry Oliver - Richmond Police
    Department

43
Law Enforcement Mission
  • The mission of the Philadelphia Police Department
    is to fight crime and the fear of crime,
    including terrorism, by working with our partners
    to enforce the laws, apprehend offenders, prevent
    crime from occurring, and improve the quality of
    life for all Philadelphians.

44
Law Enforcement Mission
  • Simple Mission Statement
  • To Serve and Protect.

45
Law Enforcement Mission
46
Police Mission
Exercise Works as teams and make a list of at
least three reasons why crime prevention is
important to the police mission.   Each team
will report back to the class.
47
Opportunities to Commit Crime
  • unlocked or poorly locked doors
  • car keys left in the ignition
  • retail store layouts shoplifting
  • computers Internet
  • ATM and credit cards

48
Opportunities to Commit Crime
  • I can reduce the Major Crime rate in Virginia by
    5 by implementing a crime prevention policy that
    does not involve any law enforcement
    participation?
  • What crime is it?

49
Opportunities to Commit Crime
What type of crime prevention is this? How do we
reduce the opportunity?
50
Gasoline Drive Off Theft
51
Gasoline Drive Off Theft
Pay Before You Pump! NACS' State of the
Industry report drive-offs cost the industry
300 million in 2005 - or 2,678 per each store
selling gas.
52
New Jersey State Law
Dispensing Fuel or Pumping Gas No person shall
dispense fuel at a gasoline station, unless the
person is an attendant who has received
instructions regarding the dispensing of fuel.
53
Opportunity Crime - 10 Principals
1. Opportunities play a role in causing all
crime. 2. Crime opportunities are highly
specific. 3. Crime opportunities are
concentrated in time and space. 4. Crime
opportunities depend on everyday movements. 5.
One crime produces opportunities for
another. Opportunity Makes the Thief, Felson
Clarke, 1998 http//www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prg
pdfs/fprs98.pdf
54
Opportunity Crime - 10 Principals
6. Some products offer more tempting crime
opportunities. 7. Social and technological
changes produce new crime opportunities. 8.
Opportunities for crime can be reduced. 9.
Reducing opportunities does not usually displace
crime. 10. Focused opportunity reduction can
produce wider declines in
crime. Opportunity Makes the Thief, Felson
Clarke, 1998 http//www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prg
pdfs/fprs98.pdf
55
Situational Crime Prevention
56
Crime Prevention Programs
  • Neighborhood Watch
  • Personal Safety
  • Robbery Prevention
  • School Safety
  • Workplace Safety
  • Auto Theft Prevention
  • CPTED
  • McGruff House
  • Operation Identification
  • and many others

57
Options for Reducing Opportunity
  • Natural
  • Organized
  • Mechanical

58
Natural Prevention
  • We can create
  • environments that
  • can naturally
  • encourage people
  • to watch out.
  • Schools

59
Organized Prevention
  • We can organize
  • people to provide
  • for safety and
  • security
  • Police

60
Mechanical Prevention
  • We can use Mechanical
  • or electronic devices
  • can be are used to
  • secure property.
  • Video monitoring and locked gates.

61
Mechanical Prevention
  • Mechanical or
  • electronic devices
  • can be are used to
  • create territoriality,
  • surveillance or
  • access control.
  • Whatever works

62
4 Ds of Crime Prevention
  • Deny the criminal access to the target.
  • Deter the criminal from attacking.
  • Detect the criminal if he does attack.
  • Delay the criminal before he succeeds. his
    objective.

63
Risk Management
  • Avoid the risk.
  • Reduce the risk.
  • Spread the risk.
  • Transfer the risk.
  • Accept the risk.

64
Crime Prevention Is
  • 1. everyones business
  • 2. more than security
  • 3. a responsibility of all levels of government
  • 4. linked with solving social problems
  • 5. cost-effective
  • National Crime Prevention Council

65
Crime Prevention Requires
  • 6. a central position in law enforcement
  • 7. cooperation among all elements of the
  • community
  • 8. education
  • 9. tailoring to local needs and conditions
  • 10. continual testing and improvement
  • National Crime Prevention Council

66
Crime Prevention - A New Idea?
67
Enforcement First
  • Crime Prevention can only be
  • effective if aggressive and effective
  • law enforcement is in place first.

68
Is Crime Prevention Valuable?
  • It makes crime more difficult, discouraging
    people (especially) youth from getting involved
    in crime.
  • It frees up police resources.
  • It makes the police look more effective many
    opportunistic crimes cant be solved and make the
    police look bad.

69
Crime Prevention Works
  • Direct Deposit
  • Reduced theft of
  • retirement checks
  • from the mail.

70
Crime Prevention Works
  • Bus Driver Robbery
  • 1963 to 1968 bus driver robberies increased 50
    and driver deaths increased 100.
  • Exact Fare
  • Eliminated robbery and
  • assaults of bus drivers.

71
Crime Prevention Works
  • Soft Body Armor
  • more than 3,000 lives saved
  • An officer who is NOT wearing armor is 14 times
    more likely to suffer a fatal injury than an
    officer who is wearing armor.
  • (National Institute of Justice)

72
Selling Crime Prevention
Exercise Works as teams and identify two
strategies that would best help sell crime
prevention in your jurisdiction. Teams will
report back to the class.
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