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Chapter 10: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

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Title: Chapter 10: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa


1
OTHER Requested Topics
Combating a Cold . . . Boost Your Immunity
Insomnia
Fasting
High Soy Diet Bad for Women?
http//video.answers.com/the-estrogen-in-soy-compa
red-to-a-womans-natural-estrogen-231378451
Coffee makes you sleepy
Caffeine inhibits Fe absorption
2
Chapter 16 Anti-aging, Cancer, Preventative
Medicine
3
OUTLINE
Nutrition Aging
Alternative Medicine
Alcohol
Nutrition Cancer
Summary and Conclusions
4
Four Stages of Adulthood
  • Ages 19-30 (very young adulthood)
  • Ages 31-50 (young adulthood)
  • Ages 51-70 (middle-age adulthood)
  • Ages 70 and up (older adulthood)
  • Nutritional needs change
  • Lifestyle and nutrition play important roles

5
Diet for Younger Adults
  • Emphasis on plant/ whole grain products
  • Moderate intake of cured and smoked foods
  • Adequate fluoride
  • Plenty of fluids
  • Iron-rich foods for women
  • Folate concerns for women
  • Calcium and vitamin B-12 concerns for vegans

6
How Are We Doing the U.S. since 1950s?
  • Eating less saturated fat
  • Eating more cheese . . .sat fat.
  • Eating less animal fat and more vegetable oils
  • Leaner cattle and hogs available (farmers)
  • High intakes of white bread, beef, chicken, milk,
    donuts, cakes, cookies, soft drinks, mayonnaise,
    sugar/sweets

7
Life Span
  • Maximum number of years a human can live
  • Record
  • 122 years (woman)
  • 114 years (man)
  • Dependent on genes and environment

8
Life Expectancy
  • Number of years an average person, born in a
    specific year, is expected to live
  • In North America
  • 75 yrs for men
  • 80 yrs for women
  • Only 64 healthy years
  • Anticipate a tremendous growth in the 85 years
    old population by 2020

9
Graying of America
  • People over 65
  • Account for 13 of the US population
  • Account for 25 of all prescription medication
  • Account for 40 of all hospitalizations
  • Account for 50 of federal health budget
  • 65 have nutrition-related problems

10
What is Aging?
  • Process of slow cell death
  • Cells age and die
  • Aging body can no longer replenish cells or meet
    physiological demands
  • Organs retain reserve capacity
  • Maintain normal function with decreased cell
    number or activity for a while
  • After reserve capacity is exhausted, function
    decreases

11
Challenge Question
  • What is the reserve capacity of an organ?

The extent to which an organ can preserve normal
function despite decreasing cell
number or cell activity
What happens when the bodies reserve capacity of
certain organ cells starts depleting?
Organ function and body function deteriorate
(e.g. kidney failure)
12
Decline of Physiological Function
13
What Causes Aging?
Mutagens, Pesticides, too much SUN!
Free radicals, Oxygen
Reduce Quantity of Calories!
14
Resveratrol and Anti Aging
  • SIRt -1 Activator
  • Mimics Calorie Restriction (CR) diet effect
  • Increases mitochondria turnover
  • Replaces worn out mitochondria
  • (less free radical production, cell damage)
  • Forms New Mitochondria - more efficient
  • Higher E returns . . More ATP, less free
    radicals . . ?

resveratrol
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vR3TGKOQeTrcNR1fe
aturefvwp
15
Fountain of Youth?
  • National Institute on Aging www.nia.nih.gov
  • Free fact sheet
  • Diet and lifestyle practices to minimize decline
  • Avoid excessive sun exposure
  • Avoid exposure to environmental hazards and
    chemicals (herbicides, toxins, oil, carcinogens)
  • Healthy diet low calorie diet?
  • Why Vegos live longer. . .

16
OUTLINE
Nutrition Aging
Alternative Medicine
Alcohol
Nutrition Cancer
Summary and Conclusions
17
Alternative Medicine
  • Not evaluated by FDA
  • Questionable purity and quantity
  • Possible health risks
  • Use only one product at a time
  • Keep a diary of symptoms
  • Check with physician before discontinuing
    prescribed medication

18
Alternative Medicine
tannins
19
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20
Alternative Medicine See class website
  • Alternative Medicine Foundation
    www.amfoundation.org
  • NCCAM Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    Citation Index nccam.nih.gov/
  • American Botanical Council abc.herbalgram.org
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine Program at
    Stanford camps.stanford.edu/
  • National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary
    Supplements ods.od.nih.gov/
  • Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database
    www.naturaldatabase.com

21
OUTLINE
Nutrition Aging
Alternative Medicine
Alcohol
Nutrition Cancer
Summary and Conclusions
22
Alcohol Absorption
  • Absorbed rapidly via simple diffusion
  • Not digested really
  • Depends on rate of stomach emptying
  • Rate of absorption
  • Wine ? liqueur ? beer (slowest)
  • Alcohol is found wherever water is found in the
    body
  • Easily moves through the cell membrane (damaging
    it)

23
(No Transcript)
24
Alcohol (Ethanol) Metabolism
  • Depends on
  • Gender, race, size, food, physical condition,
    alcohol content
  • Women metabolize Alcohol differently!
  • Less metabolism using stomach cells
  • Less water in body to dilute effects
  • Majority is metabolized by the liver
  • Alcohol cannot be stored
  • Alcohol has priority in metabolism
  • Vs protein, carbohydrate, fat (i.e. stored)

25
Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Consumption
  • One drink
  • 12 oz beer or wine cooler
  • 5 oz wine
  • 3 oz sherry or liqueur
  • 1.5 oz 80-proof distilled spirits
  • Decrease risk for cardiovascular disease
  • Socialization

26
Alcohol Abuse
  • Contributes to 5 of 10 leading causes of death
  • When combined with tobacco
  • Increases the risk for esophageal and oral cancer
  • Increased risk for
  • Heart damage, arrhythmia, hypertension, stroke,
    osteoporosis, brain damage, colorectal cancer,
    breast cancer, nutritional deficiencies, fetal
    damage, obesity, impotence, sleep disturbances,
    infections, hypoglycemia

27
Cirrhosis
  • Fatty infiltration of the liver
  • Increased synthesis of fat
  • Enlarged fat cells
  • Choke off nutrient and O2 supply to liver cells
  • Engorged fat cells burst and die
  • Scar tissues
  • 50 chance of death within 4 years
  • Advanced stages are not reversible
  • Destruction of vital tissues regardless of diet
  • Transplant is common

28
Alcohol Dependence
  • Most common psychiatric disorder
  • Affects 13 of North Americans
  • Addictive and dangerous (loss of 10 years of
    life???)
  • Genetic influence
  • Tolerance to alcohol
  • Be aware of alcohol consumption
  • Children of alcoholics are 4x more likely to
    become alcoholics themselves
  • Warn children of alcoholic families of the
    dangers by age 10
  • Long-term drinking poses risk for all
  • Drinking increasing quantities

29
Diagnosis
  • Physiological dependence on alcohol
  • Tolerance to the effects of alcohol
  • Alcohol-associated illnesses (memory loss, liver
    disease, etc.)
  • Continued drinking in defiance of medical and
    social contraindications
  • Depression and blackouts
  • Flushed face/reddened skin

30
CAGE Screening
  • C Have you every felt you ought to cut down on
    drinking?
  • A Have people annoyed you by criticizing your
    drinking?
  • G Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your
    drinking?
  • E Have you ever had a drink first thing in the
    morning to steady your nerves or to get rid of a
    hangover? (As an eye-opener)

31
Treatment
  • Guidance from a physician (blood work?)
  • Liver enzymes (AST and ALT) elevated?
  • Counseling
  • Total abstinence
  • AA 12-step program
  • Treatment programs
  • Medication (blocks craving or causes physical
    reaction when drinking)

32
Guidance Regarding Alcohol
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Moderation (1/day Women, 2/day Men)
  • Lower risk for CVD
  • Little benefits for younger people
  • Drink with meals
  • Dont drink and drive
  • Avoid drinking while pregnant

33
OUTLINE
Nutrition Aging
Alternative Medicine
Alcohol
Nutrition Cancer
Summary and Conclusions
34
Nutrition and Cancer
  • Genetic predispositions (colon, breast, prostate)
  • 30 cancer susceptibility genes identified
  • Diet likely to account 30-40 all cancers
  • ONLY 1-5 cancers explained via inherited genes?
  • Little control over genetic risks,
  • Much control over environmental/physical/diet
  • e.g. smoking, physical activity, nutrient intake
  • Some foods/ additives contribute to CANCER
  • Nuts, peanut butter (aflatoxin)
  • Nitrosamines (smoked meats) (aflatoxin

SEE Website Frontiers in Nutrigenomics Cancer
Prevention John Milner, Director NCI Nutritional
Sciences
35
Confirming your Knowledge
  • What of cancers in the US are due to tobacco
    use?
  • What of Cancers of the Mouth, pharynx and
    larynx are associated with excess alcohol use?
  • What is the main diet cancer risk factor?

33
50
Excess caloric intake gt RDA/ BMI ? obesity
What is the recommended Calories from Fat
suggested by the N.C.I.? to reduce cancer
risk? What about if you are at risk genetically
for cancer?
  • 30 Calories from Fat/ day (if no genetic risk)

suggested reduce calories to 20 from Fat/ day
36
Nutrition and Cancer
37
Nutrition and Cancer Challenge Question
  • Antioxidants potent anti-cancer compounds
  • What are good vitamin examples that combat the
    formation of free radicals ? cancer?
  • What are some good sources of each

Vitamins C (citrus fruits, brocolli)
Vitamin E (nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, olive
etcgt.)
38
Di Indole Methane
lycopene
AVOID- Charred
39
Warning Signs of Cancer
  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • Sore that wont heal
  • Unusual bleeding/ discharge
  • Thickening lump in breast or elsewhere
  • Ingestion/difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in Wart or mole. .
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness
  • Unexplained weight loss. .

40
Medical testing for Cancer
  • Colonoscopy exams (middle age/older)
  • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
  • Papanicolaou tests (Pap smears)
  • Regular breast exams (Momograms gt40 years)
  • Biopsy or Blood work if suspect something
    abnormal!
  • - Dont delay!!!
  • Early Detection is Critical for successful
    treatment. . .

41
OUTLINE
Nutrition Aging
Alternative Medicine
Alcohol
Nutrition Cancer
Summary and Conclusions
42
The Bottom Line Reducing Cancer Risk
  • Diet Moderate Calories, Low Fat Content
  • Many Veggies, fruits, Whole Grains,
  • Low fat dairy, cereals, breads, fish
  • Alcohol moderation 1/day Women, 2/day men
  • Limit animal fat, salt, smoked, nitrate cured
    meat
  • Avoid exposure to environmental toxins
  • Pesticides, mutagens etc. (go organic)
  • If left untreated can spread (metastisis)
  • EARLY Detection is Critical!!! for successful
    treatment
  • Get Simple blood tests or Biopsy DONT DELAY

Di Indole Methane
43
Benefits of Good Nutrition longevity
  • Delays onset of diseases
  • Improves current condition
  • Decreases length of hospital stay
  • Improves quality of life
  • Be Salubrious - Live Long and Prosper

44
Search Engines - Biomedical Research
  • Questions about Diet, Nutrition and
    Supplements???
  • Do a Literature Search (Google - Scholar)
  • See website Nutrition questions? e.g.
  • Hydroxycut and liver toxicity?
  • Creatine and Kidney failure?
  • Caffeine and Pregnancy risk?
  • Others?

45
Chem 80A Conclusions
Caloric diet 60, 20, 20 Carbs, Protein,
Fat -Carbs OK, minimize REFINED (cheap
Carbos) -Look for 21 ratio of Protein/fat in
products Fruits vegetables daily
1 of each / day
Fiber Daily (e.g. 1/2 cup Total
cereal) Exercise 3X/ week
-Speeds up metabolism, balances mood, helps u
rest EAT FRESH (Shop weekly) 1hr Experiment
with food Try something different Have Fun
with your Nutrition! HAVE FUN in YOUR Life -
ENJOY the SUMMER ?
46
END
47
Course Instructor/ TA evaluations need student
volunteer
  • TA Qs
  • 1. Was the grading for the class assignments
    fair?
  • 2. Were the assignments turned back in a
    reasonable amount of time?
  • 3. Where your exams graded fairly and turned
    back in a reasonable amount of time?
  • 4. Were the exam questions fair and did they
    allow you to demonstrate your knowledge from
    subject matter covered in this course?
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