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Rural Development


... villages However, it is clear that this is only one of many possible variants of sustainable human settlements Other forms being considered: SMART Villages ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rural Development

Rural Development Overview Presentation to
CAADP Stakeholders 20 October 2011
  • The State of Underdevelopment
  • Work done since 1994
  • 3. A New Trajectory
  • 4. Conclusion

1 Problem Statement
  • It is impossible to know with certainty the many
    traditions of tenure and land use systems that
    existed in the southern parts of Africa before
    the first European colonials settled in areas of
    the Western Cape in the seventeenth century. From
    the earliest encounters between Dutch colonisers
    and the indigenous Khoi San, threats to
    traditions of land access and use systems
    resulted in resistance and struggle.
  • The late ANC President O R Tambo, had the
    following to say on pre-colonial land holding
    systems in SA In African epochs, long before
    the coming of the colonial masters from their
    northern climes three or four centuries ago, men
    and woman moved skillfully and purposefully
    across the terrain, plucking from the earth its
    bounty. Trained to utilise a variety of means for
    their survival, they employed the art of the
    hunt, the judicious selection of fruits of the
    wild, the identification of the lushest pastures
    for their livestock, the cultivation of the most
    reliable staple foods the growth of trade, the
    establishment of collective social structures and
    a world view, despite the occasional clash of
    interests between one clan and another, of the
    practical value of warm relationships and a deep
    respect for a shared humanity.

1 Problem Statement/cont.
  • Grand Apartheid segregated South Africa into
    three kinds of social, economic and
    politico-administrative spaces the major urban
    areas, which were a preserve of white people
    fertile commercial farming regions and associated
    small rural towns, also a preserve of white South
    Africans and, barren, economically unviable
    so-called homelands, reserved for South Africas
    black majority  population.
  • The result is enduring underdevelopment with its
    social, economic, and cultural manifestations
    poverty, gross income inequality compared to
    urban areas, chronic unemployment, and cultural

The State of Underdevelopment
  • Unequal distribution of assets, skewed
    distribution of income and employment
    opportunities amongst citizens, inequality in
    access to social services, high level of
    illiteracy and social backwardness.
  • Segregated planning approaches and scattered
    residential and farming settlements without
    viable economic and social linkages to the more
    economically active areas of the country.

The State of Underdevelopment
  • Under utilisation and/or unsustainable use of
    natural resources
  • Poor or lack of access to socio-economic
    infrastructure and services, public amenities and
    government services (e.g. industrial parks lying
    idle especially in the former homeland areas)
  • Lack of access to water or lack of water sources
    for both household and agricultural development
  • Low literacy, skills levels and migratory labour

The State of Underdevelopment
  • Decay of the social fabric (child-headed
    households, crime, family disputes and lack of
  • Death of cultural progress
  • Unresolved restitution and land tenure issues
  • Townships not formally established thus hindering
    service provision and development
  • Dependence on social grants and other forms of
    social security
  • Unexploited opportunities in agriculture,
    tourism, mining and manufacturing

The State of Underdevelopment
  • In the former homelands, 61 of households
    survived on less than the international poverty
    line of USD2/day, or about R1500 a month for the
    average household of four.
  • Less than 1 in 3 working-age adults in the former
    Homeland regions said they had income-earning
    employment in 2007, compared to just under half
    of those in the rest of the country.
  • In 2008, 58 of farm workers in the formal sector
    earned under R1000 a month, compared to just 10
    of workers in the rest of the formal sector.

The State of Underdevelopment
  • Despite many attempts to deal with these issues,
    in 2007 statistics indicated that over half the
    households in former Bantustans relied on social
    grants or remittances as compared to a quarter of
    households in the rest of country

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Work Done Since 1994
Reconstruction and Development Programme
  • Aimed to address the socio-economic problems
    brought about by the consequences of the struggle
    against Apartheid.
  • Set on alleviating poverty and addressing the
    massive shortfalls in social services across the
  • Measures to boost the economy such as contained
    fiscal spending, sustained or lowered taxes,
    reducing government debt and trade liberalisation
    with socially-minded social services provisions
    and infrastructural projects.

National Rural Development Strategy (NRDS,1995)
  • Became the first plan for rural areas under the
    Government of National Unity (GNU).
  • Its vision centred on freedom from poverty,
    employment, diverse agriculture and commercial
    and service sectors in country towns and greater
    access by rural people to government support and

Rural Development Framework (RDF) 1997
  • RDF focused on rural infrastructure, public
    administration, local government and rural
    non-farm employment.
  • Drew attention to the need for the co-ordination
    of rural development.
  • This discussion document was not confirmed as the
    government strategy for rural development.

Integrated Sustainable Rural Development
Strategy (ISRDS)
  • The Integrated and Sustainable Rural Development
    Strategy was designed to realise a vision that
    would attain socially cohesive and stable rural
    communities with viable institutions, sustainable
    economies and universal access to social
    amenities, able to attract and retain skilled and
    knowledgeable people, who were equipped to
    contribute to growth and development.

Integrated Sustainable Rural Development
Programme (ISRDP)
  • The ISRDS eventually resulted in the Integrated
    Sustainable Rural Development Programme (ISRDP).
  • The ISRDP was designed to build socially cohesive
    and stable rural communities with viable
    institutions and sustainable economies,
  • Offering universal access to social amenities and
    able to attract and retain skilled and
    knowledgeable people who could contribute to
    growth and development.

 War on Poverty
  • The War on Poverty Programme instituted by the
    Presidency in 2008 could be identified as the
    direct forerunner for the CRDP.
  • An Anti-Poverty Inter-Ministerial Committee was
    constituted to co-ordinate and to integrate
    service delivery across spheres of government
    social partners.
  • As per the WOP, all levels of government become
    responsible for aligning business towards
    implementing a rural development programme.

Other Interventions
  • Strauss Commission (1995)
  • Broadening of Access to Agriculture Thrust
  • Rural Services Programmes, e.g. Rural Transport,
    Rural Housing, Rural Sanitation, Rural Education,
    Rural Health and community policing

Lessons Learnt
  • It would appear that Rural policy in South Africa
    to date has been largely unfocused, and
  • It is not the product of contemporary,
    thoughtful, and informed public debate.
  • It consists of isolated elements of sectoral
    policy created without regard to inter-sectoral
    effects, primarily focusing on short term
  • It is often urban policy that is poorly modified
    to fit nonurban settings
  • It has been created with little or no thought for
    its implications for rural communities.
  • It is also based on the erroneous assumption that
    there are public institutions that serve the
    unique needs of rural areas.
  • It has so far not presented a long term vision of
    what rural areas should look like.

A New Trajectory
  • The new policy direction is linked to the
    outcomes-based approach and supported by strong
    evidence emanating from various rural wards.
  • The approach emphasises the mobilisation and
    organising of rural people into functional groups
    to effectively take charge of their own
  • The model being utilised to test new approach is
    the Comprehensive Rural development Programme.

A New Trajectory
  • Vision of the CRDP
  • Vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural
  • The strategy to achieve this vision is agrarian
    transformation which refers to the rapid and
    fundamental change in the relations of land,
    livestock, cropping and community.
  • The CRDP proposes an approach that addresses the
    needs of the person household community and
  • It is built on the premise that rural areas in
    the country have the potential to be developed
    so as to generate jobs and economic opportunities
    that can provide an alternative to the urban
  • Thus contributing to the reduction in rural-urban
  • The rural economy can also be organised to
    support both agricultural and non-agricultural

Innovative forms of Rural Settlements
  • The Draft Land Reform Green Paper and the Draft
    Land Tenure Security Bill (LTSB) referred to
    these human settlements as Agri-villages
  • However, it is clear that this is only one of
    many possible variants of sustainable human
  • Other forms being considered
  • SMART Villages (Sustainable, managed assets,
    resources and technology)
  • Agri-parks

Innovative forms of Rural Settlements continued
  • The proposal is to establish new forms of rural
    settlements, and transform, or improve some of
    the existing ones, under the rubric Sustainable
    Rural Communities (SRM)
  • The United Nations (UN) ascribes effectiveness of
    sustainability to the following conditions
  • Socio-cultural development health, education,
  • Economic development
  • Environmental development
  • Institutional/ political
  • Morality and aesthetic relational values

Special Programmes to Support CRDP
  • Revitalisation of Small Rural Towns
  • Vital for rural-urban networking and linkages
  • Active player and contributor to regional
    economies and
  • Integrated planning
  • CRDP Costed Norms and Standards
  • Will help to establish efficiency and
    effectiveness in planning as well as equitable
    resource allocation
  • Quantification of backlogs

Special Programmes cont
  • National Rural Youth Service Corps
  • Rural youth based skills development and job
    creation programme.
  • Emphasis is on character building, community
    service, discipline and artisan skills.
  • Youth provided with skills related to needs of
    rural communities identified through household
  • Current priorities are construction, disaster
    management and records management.
  • A total of 7 956 youth have been enrolled into
    the programme.
  • Construction training of 6 000 youth will began
    in July 2011.

Institutions to Support CRDP
  • Rural Development Agency
  • Rationalisation of existing entities with
    experience in rural development
  • Coordination resource mobilisation monitoring
    and evaluation
  • Funding Institutions to Support CRDP eg
    Construction Bank (support local contractor
  • Councils of Stakeholders
  • stakeholder participation model has been
    developed with the CoS functioning as the
    planning, implementation and monitoring body
    established to support social cohesion and
    development, effectively introducing a
    parliament at village level.
  • Land Rights Management Board
  • Dealt with in the Land Reform Policy document
  • CPAs and Trusts
  • Review process underway
  • Communal Land Tenure System
  • Dealt with separately under land Reform

Implementation Mechanisms
  • Social mobilisation, community and household
  • Council of Stakeholders planning and monitoring
    body (inclusion of community in development
  • CRDP Management System (cooperative governance
    inclusion of private sector and community local
  • Rural Development Agency (Rural Development
    Framework Bill)

  • There are 4227 municipal wards in the country
  • The areas of the country have been overlayed to
    identify the rural space within which government
    needs to operate the following criteria have
    been utilised ISRDP nodes homeland areas
    farming areas distressed and vulnerable rural
    municipalities and COGTA class 4 municipalities
  • 68.2 of the national wards are rural
  • This results in a targeted space of 2920 wards
    with a population of 25,705,625
  • This equates to 57.3 of SA population
  • 16.6 are demarcated within the metropolitan

A New Trajectory
Factors Overlayed to determine Rural Space
Areas where rural communities are
located. (Source Census 2001 / MBD 2009)
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160 CRDP focus areas in relation to the old
homeland areas
Densely and Sparsely populated rural areas
  • Started with the poorest 160 wards in the country
  • 160 wards in most instances overlap the 21
    districts selected by Cabinet Lekgotla
  • Finalising priority projects with 22 District
    municipalities (following Lekgotla decision)
  • Profiled to date approximately 50 000 households
    in the country (57 wards)
  • Status quo reports completed on 65 wards
  • Infrastructure development approx 30 wards
  • Narysec programme implemented 7956 rural youth

Alignment to key Government Initiatives
  • New Economic Growth Path, 2010 providing further
    impetus to the vision for a transformed rural
    sector. Job creation has been set as a country
    priority to address the challenges of
    unemployment, poverty and slow economic growth
    and six priority areas to job creation were
    fixed infrastructure development, agriculture,
    mining, manufacturing, the green economy, and
  • Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP2), 2010
    expand production in value-added sectors with
    high employment and growth multipliers that
    compete in export markets as well as in the
    domestic market against imports

  • Rural development is a transversal function and
    cannot be executed successfully without the
    collaboration amongst a variety of social
    partners and the participation of communities
  • Through social mobilisation and organising of
    rural people into functional groups communities
    can effectively take charge of their own

  • Tears are very close to my eyes, says Bhonco,
    son of Ximiya. Not for painno I do not cry
    because of pain. I cry only because of beautiful
    things. ...
  • The day rural people would cry only because
    of beautiful things is the day and moment when
    we would be satisfied that, indeed, the ANC
    government would have delivered on the promise of
    A Better Life For All!