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Integrating Common Core Literacy Standards with NGSSS for the Arts Making Learning Meaningful and accessible for all students

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Title: Integrating Common Core Literacy Standards with NGSSS for the Arts Making Learning Meaningful and accessible for all students


1
Integrating Common Core Literacy Standards with
NGSSS for the Arts Making Learning Meaningful
and accessible for all students
John J. LeTellier, Jr. Fine Arts Content
Specialist
BCI
Florida Department of Education Bureau of
Curriculum and Instruction
2
Overview of Presentation
  • Common Core and the Arts
  • Curriculum Mapping in Layers
  • A model that can reduce the number of critical
    areas that become the focus of the course, while
    providing students with a set of very specific
    goals to master throughout the course.
  • Learning goals promote student ownership of their
    own achievement, teacher use of individual
    student data to guide instruction and ensures all
    students have learning gains.
  • Mini-Art Lesson (Learning Objective) within the
    context of Learning Goals and their Learning
    Progression Scales

3
Common Core
4
Common Core Outline
1. What are the Common Core Standards and how
are they integrated into NGSSS Arts courses?
2. Common Core English Language Arts (ELA) and
Literacy Standards
3. Roadmap and Labeling
4. Emphasis on Literacy
  • Mathematics

5
1. What are the Common Core Standards and how are
they integrated into NGSSS Arts courses?
  • The Common Core standards were created through a
    state-led effort coordinated by the National
    Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of
    Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Common Core
    Standards are not national standards, however
    they have been adopted by 45 states and 3
    territories according to the Common Core website
    http//www.corestandards.org/in-the-statestexas
  • The Common Core addresses what a student should
    know by the end of each grade level or banded
    level (i.e. 9/10) in both mathematics and English
    Language Arts.
  • Common Core Anchor standards address what a
    student should know in English Language Arts by
    the end of 12th grade.
  • Common Core standards do not replace the Next
    Generation Sunshine State Standards for the Arts.
    Rather, they are embedded within NGSSS arts
    courses and supplement arts standards. They do
    however replace NGSSS Mathematics and NGSSS
    English Language Arts Standards.
  • CCSS and other NGSSS are embedded within each
    course description. These standards/benchmarks
    must be addressed in the course along with the
    included NGSSS arts benchmarks. Common Core
    standards that have been placed in NGSSS Arts
    courses are ones that are a natural fit for the
    arts.

6
Common Core Key Points
  • There are no Common Core Arts Standards. Rather
    Common Core standards are embedded within each
    Arts course.
  • Collaboration and integration is essential in the
    implementation of Common Core
  • All faculty in different content areas should
    collaborate with each other to reinforce each
    others content areas where applicable (Arts
    Integration).
  • Scope and Sequence or Curriculum Maps for
    different content areas Faculty should work
    together to align content.
  • Students should be working towards increased
    critical thinking skills as well as the ability
    to regularly perform self evaluation.
  • Collaboration should travel both ways between
    Arts teachers and other content area teachers.
  • College and Career Ready Common Core Standards
    were developed in collaboration with teachers,
    school administrators, and experts to provide a
    clear and consistent framework to prepare our
    children for college and the workforce.

7
2. Common Core ELA and Literacy Standards
  • 10 Anchor Standards in Reading and Writing both
    for ELA and Literacy standards
  • 6 Anchor Standards in Speaking and Listening, and
    Language
  • Literacy standards
  • K-5 Because all subjects in Grades K-5 are
    often taught by the same teacher, the ELA and
    Literacy standards are the same. On the
    following chart this is indicated by the vertical
    arrows ?? in grades K-5 for reading (blue
    background) and K-5 for writing (green
    background)
  • 6-12 Has a separate section for Literacy
    Standards

8
3. RoadMap and Labeling English Language Arts
and Literacy Standards
1. What are the Common Core Standards and how are
they integrated into NGSSS Arts courses?
READING Strand
WRITING Strand
SPEAKING LISTENING Strand
LANGUAGE Strand
10 Anchor Standards for College and Career
Readiness
10 Anchor Standards for College and Career
Readiness
6 Anchor Standards for CCR
6 Anchor Standards for CCR
RF
W
WHST
SL
L
ELA Standards K-12
Literacy Standards 6-12
ELA Standards K-12
Literacy Standards 6-12
ELA Standards K-12
ELA Standards K-12
Found-ational Skills
RL
RI
RH
RST
Literary Text
Hist. / S.S.
Inform. Text
Sci. / Tech Subj.
K
K
? ? ? ? ? ?
K
K
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
1
1
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
2
2
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
3
3
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
4
4
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
5
5
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
6
6
7
6-8
7
8
8
8
9-10
9-10
9-10
11-12
11-12
11-12
11-12
9
Embedded English Language Arts vs. Literacy
Standards
  • English Language Arts Standards
  • ELA Standards are embedded in some courses - most
    notably theatre and K-5 arts courses.
  • Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and
    Technical Subjects (6th-12th grade only)
  • In 6th 12th grade most embedded Common Core
    Standards will come from this section.

10
ELA Domain Labels
  • RF Reading Foundational
  • RL Reading Literature
  • RI Reading Informational Text
  • RH Reading History and Social Studies
  • RST Reading Science and Technical Subjects
  • W Writing
  • WHST Writing Historical, Science and Technical
    Subjects
  • SL Speaking and Listening
  • L - Language

11
Tomato or Tomato
NGSSS Benchmarks
Common Core Standards
The lowest level of granularity in the NGSSS is
the Benchmark. In the Common Core the lowest
level of granularity is the Standard.
12
3. Roadmap and Labeling
  • Common Core Example Standard

LACC.1112.RL.3.7
Language Arts Common Core
11th and 12th grade
Reading Literature
Standard 7
Cluster 3
13
Where to find the Standards in the Common Core
Document
  • Main Website - http//www.corestandards.org/
  • ELA Standards - http//www.corestandards.org/asset
    s/CCSSI_ELA20Standards.pdf
  • Pg. 38 of the ELA standards has the above example
    standard (LACC.1112.R.3.7). Under Grades 11-12
    students (number 7), the standard says, Analyze
    multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or
    poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play
    or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each
    version interprets the source text. (Include at
    least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an
    American dramatist.)
  • LACC.1112.RL.3.7 is Floridas way of labeling
    this standard.

14
Pg. 38 Common Core ELA (LACC.1112.RL.3.7)
Analyze multiple interpretations of a story,
drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production
of a play or recorded novel or poetry),
evaluating how each version interprets the source
text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare
and one play by an American dramatist.)
15
Direct Page Numbers in Common Core Document
  • Page 9 K-5 Standards for English Language Arts
    and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science,
    and Technical Subjects.
  • Page 34 6-12 Standards for English Language Arts
  • Page 59 Title page for Standards for Literacy in
    History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical
    Subjects
  • Page 61 6-12 Reading Standards for Literacy in
    History/Social Studies
  • Page 62 6-12 Reading Standards for Literacy
    in Science and Technical Subjects
  • Page 64 6-12 Writing Standards for Literacy in
     History/social Studies, Science, and Technical
    Subjects

16
4. Emphasis on Literacy Skills
  • Literacy is defined as both the ability to read
    and write to a competent level and knowledge of
    or competence in a subject or area of activity.
    Therefore emphasis upon literacy impacts upon the
    arts two-fold
  • 1. Students should be able to read and write
    competently in their grade level for any course
    including the arts.
  • 2. Students should be competent in the skills
    required for each arts course.

17
Mathematics
  • Applicable Math standards and practices are
    currently being evaluated for inclusion.

18
Mathematical Practices
  •  MACC.K12.MP Mathematical Practices
  • MACC.K12.MP.1 Make sense of problems and
    persevere in solving them.
  • MACC.K12.MP.2 Reason abstractly and
    quantitatively.
  • MACC.K12.MP.3 Construct viable arguments and
    critique the reasoning of others.
  • MACC.K12.MP.4 Model with Mathematics.
  • MACC.K12.MP.5 Use appropriate tools
    strategically.
  • MACC.K12.MP.6 Attend to precision.
  • MACC.K12.MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.
  • MACC.K12.MP.8 Look for and express regularity in
    repeated reasoning.

19
Curriculum Mapping
20
What is a Curriculum Map?
  • A Curriculum Map is an academic plan which
    provides direction for the integration of Common
    Core with the Arts. It creates an overall plan
    of instruction for the year.
  • It should be created before any Lesson Objectives
    (Lesson Plans).

21
To facilitate the understanding of a
Curriculum Map using learning goals and
progression scales, lets take a look at an Arts
Integration mini-lesson for Music Technology and
Sound Engineering I Course 1304300 within the
context of a Curriculum Map.
22
Remember Tomato or Tomato orTomato!
Focused Units
Grouping
Chunking
Remember the tomato vs. tomato slide? In looking
at curriculum mapping, there are some words that
you might normally call something else. For
example, what we are calling, chunking you
might call, grouping. Also, the following is
just one way in which you might approach
curriculum mapping.
23
Curriculum Mapping in Layers
Course Requirements and Standards
  • Chunks or Big Ideas (Create Learning Goals)

Mapping Learning Goals
Progression Scales for Major Learning Goals
Progress Monitoring/Assessments
24
Course Requirements and Standards
In mapping, always begin with the course
requirements defined by the standards in the
course description. You can access these using
CPALMS www.cpalms.org
Music Technology and Sound Engineering I 1304300
25
Common Core Standards
26
Additional Proposed Standards
  • Below are additional Common Core standards
    including Mathematical Practices for this course
    that will likely be included during the next
    State Board Course Description Adoption Cycle.

In addition, LACC.1112.WHST.3.9 is proposed to
be changed to LACC.910.WHST.3.9 for this course.
27
What are Learning Goals?
Chunks or Big Ideas (Creation of Learning Goals)
  • Next create learning goals. These can last for
    weeks, months or in the case of a few the entire
    year.
  • Then chunk together the benchmarks and
    standards that are needed to accomplish each
    learning goal individually. This includes Arts
    benchmarks, Common Core standards and other NGSSS
    associated with the course.

28
What are Learning Goals?
  • Learning goals, Define what students should know
    and be able to do.
  • Learning goals are those overarching concepts
    that need to be taught within a school year.
  • Learning goals target key learning at the unit or
    big picture level. Learning goals are not the
    same thing as daily or even weekly objectives.
    Goals most often represent a larger focus while
    objectives represent smaller, more specific
    learning that leads to the goal or goals.

29
Example Learning Goal 1 with Chunked Benchmarks
and Standards
Music Technology and Sound Engineering 1 - 1304300
  • Learning Goal 1- Students will understand through
    study and application, the basic acoustical
    principles that affect sound production.

MU.912.C.1.1 MU.912.C.3.1 MU.912.S.3.4 MU.912.H.3.
1 LACC.910.SL.1.1 LACC.910.SL.1.2 LACC.910.SL.2.4
LACC.910.RST.2.4 LACC.910.RST.3.7 LACC.910.WHST.3.
9 MACC.912.A-CED.1 MACC.K12.MP.5 MACC.K12.MP.6 MAC
C.K12.MP.7 DA.912.S.2.1
LG 1 - Chunk
30
Example Learning Goal 2 with Chunked Benchmarks
and Standards
Music Technology and Sound Engineering 1 - 1304300
  • MU.912.C.1.1 LACC.910.SL.1.1
  • MU.912.C.2.2 LACC.910.SL.1.2
  • MU.912.C.3.1 LACC.910.RST.2.4
  • MU.912.S.1.8 LACC.910.RST.3.7
  • MU.912.S.3.4 LACC.910.RST.3.9
  • MU.912.H.2.4 MACC.912.A-CED.1
  • MU.912.F.1.2 MACC.K12.MP.5
  • DA.912.S.2.1 MACC.K12.MP.6
  • MACC.K12.MP.7

Learning Goal 2 Through the analysis of
informational texts, various audio recordings and
empirical study, students will examine and
understand the role of signal processors and
appropriately use them in both the audio tracking
and mixing chain.
Common Core
LG-2 Chunk
Algebra Cluster (Creating Equations)
ELA Standards
Mathematical Practices
31
Learning Goal 2 Vs. 2a
  • In the next slide, notice how the benchmarks and
    standards for 2a are the same as they are for
    learning goal 2. This is because those standards
    and benchmarks fit both goals. That will not
    always be the case. Remember, Benchmarks and
    Standards should always be chunked together
    according to the overarching concept of what you
    are teaching.

32
Example Learning Goal 2a with Chunked Benchmarks
and Standards
Music Technology and Sound Engineering 1 - 1304300
  • MU.912.C.1.1 LACC.910.SL.1.1
  • MU.912.C.2.2 LACC.910.SL.1.2
  • MU.912.C.3.1 LACC.910.RST.2.4
  • MU.912.S.1.8 LACC.910.RST.3.7
  • MU.912.S.3.4 LACC.910.RST.3.9
  • MU.912.H.2.4 MACC.912.A-CED.1
  • MU.912.F.1.2 MACC.K12.MP.5
  • DA.912.S.2.1 MACC.K12.MP.6
  • MACC.K12.MP.7
  • MU.912.C.1.1 LACC.910.SL.1.1
  • MU.912.C.2.2 LACC.910.SL.1.2
  • MU.912.C.3.1 LACC.910.RST.2.4
  • MU.912.S.1.8 LACC.910.RST.3.7
  • MU.912.S.3.4 LACC.910.RST.3.9
  • MU.912.H.2.4 MACC.912.A-CED.1
  • MU.912.F.1.2 MACC.K12.MP.5
  • DA.912.S.2.1 MACC.K12.MP.6
  • MACC.K12.MP.7

Learning Goal 2a Through the analysis of
informational texts, various audio recordings and
empirical study, students will examine and
understand the role of equalization and
appropriately apply it in both the audio tracking
and mixing chain.
Common Core
LG-2a Chunk
Algebra Cluster (Creating Equations)
ELA Standards
Mathematical Practices
33
How To Map Learning Goals
Mapping Learning Goals
  • After creating all of the learning goals for an
    individual course, you will need to create a plan
    (map) to cover the content.
  • When mapping the major learning goals be
    attentive to the order in which new concepts or
    skills should be introduced.
  • Estimate the amount of time that will be required
    for students to explore the big ideas in depth
    and master the concepts and skills.
  • The next slide shows a sample year-long map
    containing six learning goals for Music
    Technology and Sound Engineering I. An actual
    map for this course would contain more learning
    goals in order to cover all of the required
    content.

34
Example Learning Goals Map Across Quarters
Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4

Learning Goal 2 Signal Processors
Goals can start at the same or different times
and even overlap. Goals also will have varying
lengths.
Learning Goal 2a Equalization
Learning Goal 2b Dynamic Range (Compression,
Expansion, Limiting and Gating)
Learning Goal 2 Notice that there are learning
goals within learning goals in this particular
case.
Learning Goal 2c Reverb and Delay
Learning Goal 2d Special Effects
35
Progression Scales for Major Learning Goals
  • After creating our learning goals and map, we
    then need to create progression scales.
  • Scales provide a clear learning progression of
    what a student should understand or be able to
    do. The terms scale or rubric relate to the same
    concept an explicit set of criteria used for
    assessing progress toward a learning goal. The
    progress points built into the scale are
    appropriately sequenced, usually based on a
    logical order or progression or ascending levels
    of difficulty. The points in the scale must
    directly support the learning goal.
  • The value of the scale is that students will
    evaluate their own progress.

36
Example Progression Scale for Learning Goal 2a
  • 4.0 Students understand the role of
    equalization and are able to apply it
    appropriately to individual tracks and full
    mixes as well as use it in creative and
    non-traditional fashions.
  • 2.0 Students understand the basic principles of
    equalization and are able to appropriately
    accentuate or de-emphasize frequencies for
    individual instruments and understand the use of
    a graphic equalizer.
  • 1.0 Students have limited understanding of
    equalization principles.
  • 0.0 Even with assistance, students are unable
    to understand basic equalization principles.

3.0 Students understand and are able to
appropriately apply different types of
equalization as needed in the audio tracking and
mixing chain to create a cohesive and tonally
balanced mix.
Notice how 3.0 is identical to what is being
asked with Learning Goal 2a. The learning goal
is your target!
37
So
  • Begin with the course descriptions.
  • Create learning goals and Chunk standards and
    benchmarks into critical areas or big ideas.
  • Make sure to integrate appropriate standards that
    logically fit across content areas.
  • Map out your learning goals for the duration of
    the course.

38
Lesson Objectives
  • Weve covered how to create learning goals,
    chunking standards/benchmarks together, creating
    scales and mapping out learning goals.
  • Next we will see what it looks like to create a
    lesson objective.
  • We will start by explaining lesson objectives and
    then create an actual lesson that fits into one
    of our example learning goals.

39
Lesson Objectives (continued)
  • Each learning goal contains lesson objectives
    (lesson plans) that will meet that specific goal.
  • Lesson objectives are more specific than learning
    goals.
  • Lesson objectives can be individual lessons or a
    set of lessons.
  • They are measurable and again should include what
    a student should know and be able to do.
  • As an important note Lesson objectives should
    be created before working on a learning goal.
    However, not all of the lesson objectives need to
    be designed alongside the Curriculum Map at one
    time.

40
The following slide shows 4 possible lesson
objectives that can help students reach learning
goal 2as target level. One of the objectives
will be used for the mini-lesson. These are just
examples. More objectives obviously would need
to be created in order to be more comprehensive
and include such topics as phasing and shelving.

41
Sample Lesson Objectives to meet Learning Goal 2a
Here is learning goal 2A as a reminder so you can
see how the lesson objective we are using matches
the goal Through the analysis of informational
texts, various audio recordings and empirical
study, students will examine and understand the
role of equalization and appropriately apply it
in both the audio tracking and mixing chain.
Lesson Objective 2 is the actual objective that
we will use for our mini-lesson

Lesson Objective 1 Through study and empirical
evidence, students will learn what equalization
is and how it affects the tone of individual
instruments for tracking and mixing purposes.
Through this study along with the Carnegie Hall
frequency chart, students will create their own
chart that shows ideal frequencies to boost or
cut for individual instruments within a
mix. Lesson Objective 2 Students will learn
the difference between graphic and parametric
equalizers including the process of adjusting the
Q for each parametric band in relationship to
the gain through the study of informational text
and the collection of empirical evidence.
Lesson Objective 3 - Students will apply their
knowledge of how each instrument fits within the
broad frequency spectrum and learn how best to
approach equalization to create space for each
instrument within a mix. They then will
manipulate the equalization frequencies in a
pre-recorded eight track session to achieve tonal
balance in the song (i.e. accentuating and
de-emphasizing the appropriate frequencies for
the bass guitar, electric piano and kick drum to
achieve clarity and tonal balance in the bass
spectrum) and create a finished two-track mix.
Students will then compare and critique their
final mixes with their classmates. Lesson
Objective 4 Students will compare their final
two-track mixes to a professionally recorded
two-track mix and make necessary adjustments to
match the tonal balance of the professional mix.
They then will discuss the methods they used and
the outcomes with their classmates.
  
Lesson Objective 2 Students will learn the
difference between graphic and parametric
equalizers, including the process of adjusting
the Q for each parametric band in relationship
to the gain through the study of informational
text and the collection of empirical evidence.
42
Music and Math Integration Lesson Parametric
and Graphic EQ
Objective To learn the difference between
parametric and graphic equalizers through the
study of informational text and the collection of
empirical evidence, and to understand the process
of adjusting the Q of each parametric band in
relationship to the gain.
43
Benchmarks, Standards and Math Practices Utilized
for Lesson Objective 2
  • Music Benchmarks
  • MU.912.C.1.1 Apply listening strategies to
    promote appreciation and understanding of
    unfamiliar musical works.
  • MU.912.C.2.2 Evaluate performance quality in
    recorded and/or live performances.
  • MU.912.C.3.1 Make critical evaluations, based on
    exemplary models, of the quality and
    effectiveness of performances and apply the
    criteria to personal development in music.
  • MU.912.S.1.8 Record, mix, and edit a recorded
    performance.
  • MU.912.S.3.4 Analyze and describe the effect of
    rehearsal sessions and/or strategies on
    refinement of skills and techniques.
  • MU.912.H.2.4 Examine the effects of developing
    technology on composition, performance, and
    acquisition of music.
  • MU.912.F.1.2 Incorporate or adapt new, emerging,
    or previously unfamiliar technology to create an
    innovative composition, music project, or related
    product.
  • Common Core
  • LACC.910.SL.1.1 Initiate and participate
    effectively in a range of collaborative
    discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and
    teacher- led) with diverse partners on grades
    910 topics, texts, and issues, building on
    others ideas and expressing their own clearly
    and persuasively.
  • LACC.910.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of
    symbols, key terms, and other domain- specific
    words and phrases as they are used in a
    specific scientific or technical context relevant
    to grades 910 texts and topics.
  • LACC.910.WHST.3.9 Draw evidence from
    informational texts to support analysis,
    reflection, and research.
  • MACC.912.A-CED.1 Create equations that describe
    numbers or relationships.
  • MACC.K12.MP.5 Use appropriate tools
    strategically.
  • MACC.K12.MP.6 Attend to
    precision.
  • MACC.K12.MP.7 Look for and make
    use of structure.
  • Note that not all of the
    benchmarks/standards for learning goal 2a are
    present. For each objective, use only the
    benchmarks/standards that pertain to that
    objective. However, all benchmarks/standards
    should be addressed at some point within the
    teaching of the learning goal.

44
What is Equalization?
  • Quoted from pg. 366 of the 5th edition of Modern
    Recording Techniques by David Miles Huber
  • The audio equalizer is a device or circuit that
    allows a recording, mix or audio engineer to
    control the relative amplitude of various
    frequencies within the audible bandwidth. Put
    another way, it lets you exercise tonal control
    over the harmonic or timbral content of a
    recorded sound.

45
What is Equalization (continued)
  • Equalization is more commonly addressed in the
    industry as EQ.
  • EQ is an important part of both tracking and
    mixing. With the help of EQ an engineer can tweak
    individual tracks as well as complete mixes to
    achieve a desired tonal balance.
  • EQ can also be used in non-traditional ways as an
    effect.
  • The frequencies on an EQ literally correspond to
    frequencies like that on a piano. So for
    instance, if you were to boost 440 Hz with a
    narrow Q on an EQ you would be accentuating the A
    above middle C.

46
Graphic Equalization
47
Graphic Equalizer
  • Graphic Equalizers are categorized by the amount
    of bands and the octave arrangement that they
    use. For instance you might hear a graphic
    equalizer being called a 30 band 1/3 octave
    equalizer. In this case there would be 30
    control sliders that are literally spaced apart
    by 1/3 of an octave each (think piano octave).
  • Each band is a type of filter. That is it
    filters or modifies its own frequency range.
    By boosting or cutting the filter, the sound is
    outputted in a changed way.

48
Picture of a graphic equalizer
  • Ashly GQX03102 stereo graphic EQ

49
Parametric Equalization
50
Parametric EQ and Controls Explained
  • A parametric equalizer is an equalizer which
    contains frequency controls that are both
    sweepable and that allow for the user to adjust
    the steepness or broadness of an EQ curve.
  • Controls
  • Gain The amount of boost or cut that will be
    applied to strengthen or weaken the energy for
    the specified frequency range.
  • Frequency The frequency that is to be selected.
  • Q (Quality Factor or Quality of Resonance) This
    affects the bandwidth (The width of frequencies
    that will be affected along with the chosen
    center frequency).

51
Massenberg Parametric EQ
  • George Massenberg invented the revolutionary
    Parametric EQ in 1972

52
Close up of Parametric EQ
Frequency (Outer ring to be used with the inner
ring of markings)
Q (Concentric knob to be used with outer ring of
markings)
Gain
53
Finding Q A little bit of important EQ Math!
  • It is important to be able to determine what
    frequencies you are affecting with your use of
    the Q setting. The equation is both easy and
    useful.
  • Here is the formula we use to find Q
  • Q f3/(f2-f1) whereas f2 is the upper
    frequency, f1 is the lower frequency, and f3 is
    the center between f1 and f2.
  • Example
  • Find the extreme lower and extreme upper
    frequency that you wish to affect (in this case
    lets use 60 Hz and 120 Hz).
  • Subtract the lower frequency from the upper
    frequency
  • 120 Hz - 60 Hz60
  • Divide the centre frequency (90hz) by the result
    (i.e. 90 Hz/60 Hz 1.5)
  • So in this example you would set the EQ frequency
    to 90 Hz and use a Q of 1.5 to affect 60 Hz - 120
    Hz with the gain.

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Q in Practice
  • In the following example, EQ is used to
    accentuate the attack of the kick drum. Click on
    the links below and listen to how different Q
    settings affect the sound. With a partner try to
    determine what frequency is being boosted, how
    many dB of boost is occurring and the Q that is
    being used.
  • Kick No EQ
  • Kick Lower Gain Wider Q Answer (9db at 3.3
    kHz, Q of 1.3)
  • Kick High Gain Narrow Q Answer (15db at 3.3
    kHz, Q of 9)
  • In both examples, the attack of the kick is
    accentuated. Notice however with a narrower Q
    (9) it is necessary to boast the gain higher in
    order to achieve the desired result. Also, there
    is a substantial difference in the outcome. The
    very narrow Q results in a more pinging sound,
    whereas the wider Q results in a fuller sound.
    This is because with a broaded Q we of course are
    raising more of the frequency spectrum
    surrounding 3.3 kHz.

55
Graphic and Parametric EQ Exercise
  • With a partner open the two-track stereo mix that
    you brought into class in your DAW editor. Load
    up both a parametric and graphic EQ into the
    plug-in slots for the stereo track.
  • Using your graphic EQ, increase the gain by 3dB
    for each of the following frequencies, first
    separately and then together (60 Hz, 200 Hz, 315
    Hz, 800 Hz, 3 kHz, 6.5 kHz and 12 kHz).
  • Now do the same with the parametric EQ. Note any
    differences in your journal.
  • Next, note what settings on the parametric EQ are
    necessary to match the sound of the graphic EQ.
  • Finally, accentuate each frequency by 6dB, once
    with a wide Q and once with a narrow Q.
  • Write a summary of your findings. Make a note of
    positive and negative tonal changes that you
    notice with each frequency. What happens with the
    sound if you sweep the Q back and forth? How
    might you use a narrow Q differently from a wide
    Q when mixing? Make a note of which
    instruments/vocals are accentuated as you
    experiment and what changes you notice in the
    sound. Use words like, snap, sizzle, sibilance,
    thump, etc.

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For the Algebra Teacher
  • If this lesson were coordinated with the algebra
    teacher, multiple concepts could be covered and
    reinforced by both the algebra and music teacher.
  • In an algebra class, more in-depth equations for
    bandwidth, cutoff frequencies, converting
    bandwidth to Q and converting Q to bandwidth
    could be studied as real-life practical
    applications. Creating equations, rearranging
    formulas, powers, roots and logarithms are all
    subjects that could be covered.

57
Progress Monitoring/Assessments
  • Finally, Progress Monitoring involves the
    creation of formative and summative assessments
    to monitor students progress towards attaining
    mastery of each learning goal.

58
John J. LeTellier, Jr. Fine Arts Content
Specialist
  • John.LeTellier_at_fldoe.org
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