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2003 Research Update For 2004 Symposium Sports Nutrition With Strength and Conditioning Exercise Physiology and Spine/General Studies with Practical Application

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Title: 2003 Research Update For 2004 Symposium Sports Nutrition With Strength and Conditioning Exercise Physiology and Spine/General Studies with Practical Application


1
2003 Research UpdateFor 2004 Symposium Sports
NutritionWith Strength and ConditioningExercise
Physiology andSpine/General Studies with
Practical Application
  • G. Douglas Andersen, DC, DACBSP, CCN

2
FREAK NOT, MY BROTHERS SISTERS ON THE BOARD
3
THE ANDERSEN PLAN FOR IMPROVING OUR MEETING
  • A chiropractic sports science symposium that is
  • BIGGER
  • BETTER
  • LESS EXPENSIVE
  • GREATER PROFIT

4
BIGGER
  • More people equals more networking
  • More networking equals greater draw
  • Greater draw equals more opportunity
  • More opportunity equals more official team docs
  • More team docs equal better meetings
  • Better meetings mean more non sports docs will
    check it out
  • (at Full Fees!)

5
BETTER SEMINAR
  • Reduce theme hours
  • One hour of the most interesting studies in the
    previous 12 months
  • General/spine studies with practical application
  • Strength and conditioning
  • Exercise physiology/rehabilitation
  • Sports Nutrition
  • The central focus of these 1 hour lectures
  • is to insure that yearly attendance will keep
  • you on the cutting edge.

6
BETTER
  • Peripheral focus CEU workshops.
  • Technique CPR HIV/AIDS
  • X-ray Ethics
  • Jurisprudence
  • Seminar chairmans 1 goal is getting as many CE
    nuances from as many states as possible.
  • Emphasis should be
  • 1. State of that years seminar
  • 2. States with the most DCs NY, NJ, TX, FL, CA
  • Why? - Because we want 500 DCs

7
BETTER
  • In 1 stop we will
  • Stay current
  • Get state CEUs
  • Get sports CEUs
  • Get CPR
  • Get as much misc nit pick credits as possible

8
LESS EXPENSIVE
  • Everyone who has attended a sports science
    symposium in the last 10 years, including this
    year, will be invited
  • Attend in 2005 20 off
  • Repeat in 2006 30 off
  • Repeat in 2007 40 off
  • Everyone who attends the next 3 meetings will
    maintain 40 fee reduction if they return every
    other year.
  • Docs whose first meeting is 2005 and beyond get
    the same plan

9
LESS EXPENSIVE
  • More people equal more money
  • More people equal better hotel deals
  • Better hotel deals equal lower room costs
  • Lower room costs equal more people
  • More people equal lower seminar costs

10
GREATER PROFITS
  • More people equal more exhibitors
  • More exhibitors equal greater seminar income
  • Greater seminar income equals lower seminar cost
  • Lower seminar cost equals greater attendance

11
GREATER PROFITS
  • Do the math
  • 100 additional doctors at full 40 off this year
    equals 18,000
  • 100 additional doctors at 30 off this year
    equals 21,000
  • 100 additional doctors at 20 off this year
    equals 24,000

12
HOW WE SPEND OUR GREATER PROFITS
  • Establish a reserve fund
  • Market the meeting
  • Excess money NOT blown on
  • Hotels
  • Perks
  • Speakers
  • Once reserve fund is full, say - 30 K ALL MONEY
    after expenses (office, accreditations fees, and
    marketing the annual meeting) should be returned
    to the docs by additional deduction off next
    years seminar.

13
INFLUENCE OF DEHYDRATION AND REHYDRATION ON
BASKETBALL FREE THROW ACCURACY
  • Methods
  • 16 males performed four 90-minute sessions
  • 1. Control played cards
  • 2. Basketball with no fluids
  • 3. Basketball with water
  • 4. Basketball with sports drink
  • After 90 minutes subjects then shot 20 free
    throws
  • Results
  • When players were dehydrated, free throw
    accuracy was 58.
  • When players were rehydrated with sports
    drink, accuracy was 71
  • Solera, A., Salazar, W. Influence of Dehydration
    and Rehydration on Basketball Free Throw
    Accuracy. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S29.

14
EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING INTENSITY AND AMOUNT
ON VISCERAL, SUBCUTANEOUS AND TOTAL ABDOMINAL
FAT STRRIDE
  • Methods
  • 111 overweight adults, ages 40-65, 8 month
    study
  • Results
  • Activity Visceral Fat Change Abdominal Fat
    Change Body Weight
  • Control 10 4.7 2.4 pounds
  • Walk 12 mi/wk 3.3 1.9 -2.9 pounds
  • Jog 12 mi/wk -5.9 -3 -2.4 pounds
  • Run 20 mi/wk -10 -8.9 -7.7 pounds

Slentz, C.A., Duscha, B.D., Aiken, L.B., Jonhson,
J.L., Ketchum, K.J., Tanner, C.J., Kelly, L.K.,
Houmard, J.A., Kraus, W.E. Effects of Exercise
Training Intensity and Amount on Visceral,
Subcutaneous and Total Abdominal Fat Strride.
Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S34.
15
SWEAT AND SODIUM LOSSES IN NCAA DIVISION I
FOOTBALL PLAYERS WITH A HISTORY OF WHOLE-BODY
MUSCLE CRAMPING
  • Methods
  • 10 Division I football players, 5 with a
    history of cramping
  • Studied on a pre-season practice day, 2.5
    hour AM and 2.5 hour PM practice in
  • full gear
  • Results
  • Never Cramp Cramp
  • Fluid Intake 2.8 L 2.6 L
  • Sweat Loss 3.5 L 4 L
  • Sweat Na 2.4 gm 5.2 gm
  • Net Loss 23 oz 46 oz
  • Stofan, J.R., Zachwieja, J.J., Horswill, C.A.,
    Lacambra, M., Murray, R., Eichner, E.R.,
    Anderson, S. Sweat and Sodium Losses in NCAA
    Division I Football Players with a History of
    Whole-Body Muscle Cramping. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May
    2003 35(5) S48.

16
HYPONATREMIA AND SODIUM LOSS
  • Methods
  • 111 marathoners from 4 races volunteered for
    pre- and post-race
  • testing
  • Results
  • Hyponatremics drank more fluid and lost more
    sodium in sweat.
  • No differences between genders
  • Chorley, J.N., Cianca, J.C., Divine, J.G., Hew,
    T. Hyponatremia and Sodium Loss. Med. Sci. Sp.
    Ex. May 2003 35(5) S246.

HYPONATREMIA AND ADVENTURE RACING
  • Methods
  • Participants in an adventure race that ranged
    from 18 to 30 hours
  • Results
  • Average weight loss 2 of body weight
  • 50 of participants were hyponatremic
  • Abbott, K.D., Nichols, J.F. Hyponatremia and
    Adventure Racing. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003
    35(5) S246.

17
SNAPPING HIP SYNDROME
  • Type Cause Presenting Complaint Exam
    Tx
  • External Posterior, proximal snapping
    lateral Patient lateral Soft tissue
  • ITB or anterior to greater
    trochanter snapping side up mobilization,
  • gluteous maximus Flex extend hip
    modalities,
  • rubs over greater keep leg neutral
    stretch ITB
  • trochanter palpate
  • Internal Iliopsoas tendon snapping
    ant./medial Patient supine Stretch and
  • rubs over anterior to greater
    trochanter Flex, abduct strengthen
  • capsule or ilio- externally rotate hip.
    hip flexors.
  • pectineal eminence As you return to
    Soft tissue
  • neutral(Ext/add/ mobilization.
  • int.rot.) palpate
  • Intraartular Loose bodies, Deep
    snapping R/O Ext/int refer to ortho
  • acetabular tear, X-ray, CT or MRI
  • chronic subluxation or
  • (in kids) dislocation

18
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CHILDREN
  • In children ages 9 to 16, as total physical
    activity (TPA) increased, fasting
  • insulin decreased1
  • TPA decreased between ages 9 and 161
  • In children ages 6 to 8, TPA declined with
    age.2
  • In children ages 7 to 10, TPA increase leads
    to increased bone mineral density,
  • decreased blood pressure, decreased total
    cholesterol.3
  • In children ages 5 to 12, as TPA increased,
    bone mineral density increased.4
  • Children ages 8 to 9, were observed during
    recess on 4 consecutive days. As
  • body mass index increased, activity
    decreased that is, the heavier the child,
  • the less active.5
  • 1Hurtig Wennlöf, A., Yngve, A., Sjöström, M.
    Fasting Serum Insulin as Response to Total
    Physical Activity in Healthy Children. Med. Sci.
    Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S64.
  • 2Economos, C.D., Shea, K., Socorso, E. Age,
    Gender and Weight Status Predict Objectively
    Measured Physical Activity Levels in Early
    Elementary School Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May
    2003 35(5) S63.
  • 3Mjaavatn, P.E., Aa, K., Gundersen, U., Segberg,
    L., Bjørkelund, L.A. Physical Activity and
    Health-Related Variables in 6-9-Year-Old
    Norwegian Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003
    35(5) S63.
  • 4DiMarco, N.M., Greathouse, L.V., Essery, E.V.,
    Kallio, A.K., Nichols, D.L., Sanborn, C.F. Bone
    and Connective Tissue. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May
    2003 35(5) S76.
  • 5Foley, J.T., Yun, J.K. The Effect of Body Mass
    Index Level on Physical Activity During Recess.
    Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S161.

19
CHILDHOOD ACTIVITY, BOYS VERSUS GIRLS
  • Boys, ages 6 to 8, are more active than girls
    of the same age.1
  • Boys, ages 10 to 11, are more active than
    girls of the same age.2
  • Boys, ages 9 to 16, are more active than
    girls of the same age.3
  • 1Economos, C.D., Shea, K., Socorso, E. Age,
    Gender and Weight Status Predict Objectively
    Measured Physical Activity Levels in Early
    Elementary School Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May
    2003 35(5) S63.
  • 2Matsuzaka, A., Matsuzaka, K., Wilk, B., Bar-Or,
    O. Relationship Between Physical Activity and
    Aerobic Fitness in Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex.
    May 2003 35(5) S64.
  • 3 Hurtig Wennlöf, A., Yngve, A., Sjöström, M.
    Fasting Serum Insulin as Response to Total
    Physical Activity in Healthy Children. Med. Sci.
    Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S64.

20
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
  • Overweight adults have a stronger link to
    cardiovascular disease than adults
  • who were unfit.1
  • Adults with better cardiovascular fitness
    have lower levels of C-reactive
  • protein.2
  • Lower levels of fitness coupled with higher
    levels of abdominal fat lead to
  • higher levels of insulin (even in
    90-year-olds!)3
  • 1Christou, D.D., Gates, P.E., Seals, D.R. Is
    Fatness or Fitness the Best Predictor of
    Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Healthy
    Men? Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S67.
  • 2Reis, J.P., LaMonte, M.J., Ainsworth, B.E.,
    Durstine, J.L. C-Reactive Protein and
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness in an Adult Population.
    Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S68.
  • 3Racette, S.B., Evans, E.M., Villareal, D.T.,
    Holloszy, J.O. Fitness and Abdominal Fat Predict
    Insulin Action in Old Adults. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex.
    May 2003 35(5) S68.

21
EFFECTS OF INCREASING FLUID MILK INTAKE ON BONE
MINERAL DENSITY IN RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE
TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES
  • Methods
  • Girls, ages 12 to 17, given 24 ounces of milk
    for 12 weeks, or 24
  • ounces of juice for 12 weeks.
  • Results
  • Milk group gained bone mineral density,
    especially in the lumbar spine.
  • Gómez, A.L., Volek, J.S., Rubin, M R, French,
    D.N., Sharman, M.J., Ratamess, N.A., McGuigian,
    M.R., Scheett, T.P., Kraemer, W.J. Effects of
    Increasing Fluid Milk Intake on Bone Mineral
    Density in Response to Resistance Training in
    Adolescent Females. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003
    35(5) S76

22
EFFECTS OF EXERCISE COMBINED WITH DIET ON BONE
MASSAND BIOCHEMICAL BONE MARKERS DURING WEIGHT
LOSS
  • Methods
  • Women, ages 35 to 48, went on a weight-loss
    diet for 14 weeks.
  • Results
  • In the non-exercise group, bone mineral
    density decreased.
  • In the group that performed resistance
    exercise, i.e., weight lifting, bone
  • mineral density loss was prevented.
  • Nakata, Y., Ohkawara, K., Lee, D.J., Tanaka, K.
    Effects of Exercise Combined with Diet on Bone
    Mass and Biochemical Bone Markers During Weight
    Loss. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S80.

23
ADDITION OF FAT TO POST-EXERCISE MEALS DOES NOT
ALTER THE EXERCISE-INDUCED REDUCTION IN FASTING
PLASMA TRIGLYCERIDES
  • Methods
  • On 2 occasions men biked 90 minutes including
    30 minutes of high
  • intensity intervals, followed by a low or
    high fat dinner.
  • Meal 1 12 gm of fat, Meal 2 165 gm of fat
  • Carb content was the same.
  • Pre exercise triglyceride .52 and .55 mm
    before LF and HF
  • Next morning triglyceride .37 and .32 mm
    after LF and HF
  • Conclusion
  • In this study, a high-fat meal (165 gm) did
    not alter the benefits of exercise
  • induced triglyceride clearance.
  • Kaufman, A.E., Fox, A.K., Horowitz, J.F. Addition
    of Fat to Post-Exercise Meals Does Not Alter the
    Exercise-Induced Reduction in Fasting Plasma
    Triglycerides. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5)
    S85.

24
EFFECTS OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON POSTPRANDIAL
LIPEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA
  • Methods
  • Ten 40-year-old males were studied.
  • Subjects jogged 1 hour at 40, 60, or 70 of
    maximum heart rate
  • 12 hours before a meal containing 100 gm of
    fat was consumed.
  • Results
  • From blood draws 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours
    after eating.
  • Triglyceride concentration mg/dl
  • Control 369
  • 40 jog 325
  • 60 jog 316
  • 70 jog 294
  • Zhang, J.Q., Ji, L.L., Fretwell, V., Nunez, L.,
    Zhang, K.Y., Hart, C., Yao, W.X. Effects of
    Exercise Intensity on Postprandial Lipemia in
    Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia. Med. Sci. Sp.
    Ex. May 2003 35(5) S87.

25
LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET INDUCES WEIGHT LOSS AND
CHANGES IN FUEL OXIDATION DURING EXERCISE IN
OBESE ADULTS
  • Methods
  • 13 obese young adults were put on a
    low-carbohydrate diet.
  • Subjects were instructed what foods to avoid
    but were not instructed on
  • quantities.
  • The study was to test changes in fuel
    oxidation.
  • Results
  • Low carb, high protein, high fat diet did
    increase fat oxidation during
  • activity.
  • Analysis of diet diaries revealed an unusual
    finding. Calories before the
  • study were 2599, calories during the study
    were 1473.
  • Komorowski, J.I., Schuler, G., Murrin, J.,
    Farnoush, M., Doucet, E., Kerr, J. Low
    Carbohydrate Diet Induces Weight Loss and Changes
    in Fuel Oxidation During Exercise in Obese
    Adults. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S87.

26
DOSE OF EXERCISE TO PROMOTE LONG-TERM WEIGHT
LOSS IN OVERWEIGHT ADULTS
  • Methods
  • 184 obese women were in a 12-month program.
  • Subjects were divided into 3 groups, all of
    which exercised 5 days a week.
  • Groups were prescribed exercise ranging from
    30 to 60 minutes a day.
  • Results
  • No group completely met their requirements.
    The 60-minute group averaged
  • 265/300 minutes per week. The 45-minute
    group averaged 173/225 per week.
  • The 30-minute group averaged 113/150 per
    week.
  • The 60-minute group lost 15, the 45-minute
    group lost 10, and the 30
  • minute group lost 7 bw.
  • Jakicic, J.M., Gallagher, K.I., Ferguson, E.,
    Marcus, B.H., Napoitano, M. Dose of Exercise To
    Promote Long-Term Weight Loss in Overweight
    Adults. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S106

27
EXERCISE HEMATOLOGY
  • Study
  • 280 boys and girls, ages 16 to 19, were
    tested.
  • 55 of the girls were iron deficient, 29 of
    the boys were iron deficient,
  • and 3 of the entire group was anemic.
  • Serum ferritin less than 16 mcg/dl was
    defined as iron deficient. Serum
  • ferritin less than 20 mcg/dl was defined as
    probable iron deficient.
  • Landahl, G., Börjesson, M., Rödjer, S. Exercise
    Hematology. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5)
    S126

28
PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY AND ANEMIA IN
TOP-LEVEL BASKETBALL PLAYERS
  • Study
  • 103 teenage boys and girls and adults rated
    as top-level basketball
  • players.
  • Testing revealed iron deficiency in 15 of
    the males, 35 of the females.
  • Anemia was present in 18 of the males, 38
    of the females.
  • Iron-deficient anemia (both) was present in
    5 of males and 22 of females.
  • Iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin
    less than 20 mcg/dl. Anemia
  • was defined as hemoglobin less than 14 gm/dl
    for boys and less than 12 gm/dl
  • for girls.
  • Constantini, N.W., Dubnov, G. Prevalance of Iron
    Deficiency and Anemia in Top-Level Basketball
    Players. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S126.

29
THE RELATION BETWEEN TRUNK STRENGTH MEASURES AND
LUMBAR DISC DEFORMATION DURING STOOP TYPE LIFTING
  • Methods
  • 12 50-year-old males under lateral video
    fluoroscopy lifted
  • ?No load 4 times a minute for 15 minutes
  • ?A 25-pound milk crate 4 times a minute for 15
    minutes
  • Subjects were also measured for strength of
    trunk flexion and extension via a
  • dynamometer and abdominal endurance by the
    number of curl-ups performed in
  • 60 seconds.
  •  
  • Results
  • Subjects with greater abdominal strength
    showed less shear deformation when
  • the trunk was flexed with a load.
  • Subjects with greater abdominal endurance
    show less shear deformation when
  • the trunk was erect.
  • Subjects with greater spinal erector muscle
    strength showed less shear
  • deformation when the trunk was erect.
  • DeBeliso, M.A., OShea, J.P., Harris, C., Adams,
    K.J. The Relation Between Trunk Strength Measures
    and Lumbar Disc Deformation During Stoop Type
    Lifting. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S134.

30
THE EFFECT OF AN ACUTE DOSAGE OF AN ANTIOXIDANT
MIXTURE UPON FATIGUE DURING INTERMITTENT WORK
  • Study
  • 25,000 IU beta carotene, 400 IU vitamin E,
    500 mg vitamin C taken in a
  • single dose did not improve work capacity.
  • Guillory, I., Nelson, A.G., Glickman, E. The
    Effect of an Acute Dosage of an Antioxidant
    Mixture Upon Fatigue During Intermittent Work.
    Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S145.

31
EFFECT OF VITAMIN C SUPPLEMENTATION ON IMMUNE
PARAMETERS FOLLOWING INTERMITTENT SHUTTLE RUNNING
  • Methods
  • 7 days of 800 mg of vitamin C or placebo
    followed by a vigorous shuttle
  • run.
  • Results
  • No differences in immune or inflammatory
    response (equally increased in
  • both groups).
  • Hurst, T.L., Bailey, D.M., Williams, C., Powell,
    J.R. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on
    Immune Parameters Following Intermittent Shuttle
    Running. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S156.

32
ANTIOXIDANTS DO NOT ATTENUATE THE RISE IN LIPID
HYDROPEROXIDES OBSERVED AT 4300 M ELEVATION
  • Methods
  • 3 weeks of 10,000 IU beta carotene, 200,000
    IU vitamin E, 250 mg vitamin
  • C, 50 mcg selenium, and 15 mg of zinc.
  •  
  • Results
  • Did not prevent an increase in lipid
    peroxidation at high elevation
  • compared to placebo.
  • Friedlander, A.L., Subudhi, A.W., Hagobian, T.A.,
    Jacobs, K.A., Fattor, J.A., Stone, K.S., Rock,
    P.B., Muza, S.R., Fulco, C.S., Hoffman, A.R.,
    Cymerman, A. Antioxidants Do Not Attenuate the
    Rise in Lipid Hydroperoxides Observed at 4300 M
    Elevation. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5)
    S163.

33
 ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT REDUCE
INCIDENCE OR SEVERITY OF ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS
AT 4300 M
  • Methods
  • 3 weeks of 10,000 IU beta carotene, 200,000
    IU vitamin E, 250 mg vitamin
  • C, 50 mcg selenium, and 15 mg of zinc.
  •  
  • Results
  • Did not reduce incidence of acute mountain
    sickness.
  •  
  • Jacobs, K.A., Muza, S.R., Pidgeon, S., Hagobian,
    T.A., Subudhi, A.W., Stone, K.S., Fattor, J.A.,
    Fulco, C.S., Rock, P.B., Cymerman, A.,
    Friedlander, A.L. Antioxidant Supplementation
    Does Not Reduce Incidence or Severity of Acute
    Mountain Sickness at 4300 M. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex.
    May 2003 35(5) S164.

34
ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION HAS NO EFFECT ON
MUSCLE DAMAGE FOLLOWING AN ULTRAMARATHON RUN
  • Methods
  • 400 IU vitamin E and 1000 mg vitamin C 6
    weeks prior to and 1 week after a
  • 31-mile run.
  •  
  • Results
  • No effect on plasma markers of muscle damage.
  • Mastaloudis, A., Widrick, J., Traber, M.G.
    Antioxidant Supplementation Has No Effect on
    Muscle Damage Following an Ultramarathon Run.
    Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S197.

35
DIETARY ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT
AFFECT CYTOKINE RESPONSE TO ECCENTRIC EXERCISE
  • Methods
  • 400 mg vitamin C, 800 IU vitamin E for 29
    days prior to and 6 days after a
  • 20 minute eccentric cycle exercise designed
    to damage muscles
  •  
  • Results
  • Plasma creatine kinase increased 11 fold
    placebo, 3 fold antioxidant.
  • All other markers including IL/TNF/mRNA were
    unchanged.
  •  
  • Condlin, M.L., Kellogg, M.D., Young, A.J. Dietary
    Antioxidant Supplementation Does Not Affect
    Cytokine Response to Eccentric Exercise. Med.
    Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S156.

36
ARE MENS PERCEPTIONS OF A DESIRABLE BODY IMAGE
RELATED TO THE ACTUAL PREFERENCES OF WOMEN?
  • Methods
  • 206 college males and females were shown 16
    male figures of varying body
  • types.
  •  
  • Results
  • The males perceived their current body to be
    less muscular than they would
  • like.
  • The body males thought females would prefer
    was more muscular.
  • The most desirable male body picked by the
    women was less muscular than
  • the males thought they would pick.
  • Women knew that men thought they preferred a
    more muscular physique.
  •  
  • Downing, A.J., Giuliano, T.A., Smith, J.C. Are
    Mens Perceptions of a Desirable Body Image
    Related to the Actual Preferences of Women? Med.
    Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S140.

37
THE EFFECTS OF ECHINACEA ON THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE
RESPONSE AND UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
  • Methods
  • 32 adults, ages 19 to 46.
  • A series of intense wingate tests known to
    decrease mucosal immunity were
  • given (decreased mucosal immunity increases
    rate of upper respiratory tract
  • infection).
  • Results
  • 4 weeks of echinacea or placebo revealed no
    change in the percentage of the
  • number of upper respiratory tract infections
    caught by each group.
  • There was a significant difference in disease
    length 1.7 days for echinacea,
  • 5.4 days for placebo.
  • Hall, H.L., Fahlman, M.M., Engels, H.J. The
    Effects of Echinacea on the Mucosal Immune
    Response and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections.
    Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S156.

38
DOSE-EFFECT RESPONSE OF 80 WEEKS OF RESISTANCE
TRAINING ON MUSCLE STRENGTH AND MUSCLE MASS OF
OLDER MEN AND WOMEN
  • Methods
  • 46 men and women, ages 60 to 70, in an
    80-week exercise program performed
  • either 2 or 3 times per week, were divided
    into 4 groups.
  • 2 high intensity weight lifting (80 of 1
    repetition max, 8 repetitions to failure).
  • 2 low intensity weight lifting (40 of 1
    repetition max, 16 repetitions).
  •  
  • Results
  • Gains were as follows
  • Muscle mass and strength gains were the
    greatest in high intensity 3 times a
  • week, followed by high intensity 2
    times a week, low intensity 3 times a week,
  • and low intensity 2 times a week.
  • Conclusion
  • High intensity twice a week is more
    beneficial than low intensity 3 times a week.
  • Bemben, M.G., Bemben, D.A. Dose-Effect
    Response of 80 Weeks of Resistance Training on
    Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass of Older Men and
    Women. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S171.

39
EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER INTAKE ON MUSCLE OXYGEN
CONSUMPTION IN HUMANS
  • Methods
  • 1 gm of dried, powdered, red hot pepper
    increased metabolic rate for 2-1/2
  • hours.
  •  
  • Results
  • The red pepper group had a 10 increase in
    pulmonary oxygen uptake and
  • a 15 increase in muscle oxygen consumption.
  •  
  • Ueda, C., Hamaoka, T., Murase, N., Sako, T.,
    Murakami, M., Kime, R., Homma, T., Nagasawa, T.,
    Kitahara, A., Ichimura, S., Motobe, M., Nakagawa,
    N., Katsumura, T. Effects of Red Pepper Intake on
    Muscle Oxygen Consumption in Humans. Med. Sci.
    Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S248.

40
ACUTE EFFECTS OF TRANS-10,CIS-12 CONJUGATED
LINOLEIC ACID CONSUMPTION ON FUEL USE
  • An acute (4.8 gm) dose of conjugated linoleic
    acid (CLA) 80 minutes before
  • exercise was given to 13 participants.
  • Results
  • CLA was absorbed in 8/13 subjects.
  • CLA did not affect resting metabolic rate,
    exercise metabolic rate, or fuel
  • source indicators (glucose, glycerol,
    lipolysis).
  • Conclusion
  • Animal studies that show acute ingestion
    raises metabolic rate and fat
  • oxidation. This was not seen in humans.
  • Shute, M., Rankin, J.W., Herbein, J. Acute
    Effects of Trans-10,Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic
    Acid Consumption on Fuel Use. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex.
    May 2003 35(5) S248

41
THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE CITRUS AURENTIUM INGESTION
ON ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN MILDLY OBESE SUBJECTS
  • 24 subjects mean age 25 - mean BMI 26.5
  • 3 doses on day 1 am dose day 2 tested
    pre/post
  • Results
  • Day 1 Day 2
  • Calorie Expenditure CA 1.18 kcal/min 1.26
    kcal/min
  • placebo 1.26 kcal/min 1.24 kcal/min
  • Oxygen update CA 230 mL/min 250 mL/min
  • placebo 250 mL/min 250 mL/min
  • CA (Synephrine) increased calorie expenditure
    8
  • Seifert, J.G., Burke, E.R., Devonish, J., Nelson,
    A., Bacharach, D.W. The Effects of Acute Citrus
    Aurentium Ingestion on Energy Expenditure in
    Mildly Obese Subjects. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May
    2003 35(5) S248.

42
REPEATED EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND CAFFEINE
INGESTION
  • Methods
  • 9 male caffeine users were tested on 4
    occasions.
  • Testing consisted of morning workout (80 VO2
    max ride to exhaustion)
  • followed by a second bout 5 hours later.
  • Results
  • AM caffeine PM caffeine AM Times PM Times
  • 5 mg/kg/bw 2.5 mg/kg/bw 24.9 minutes 21.5 minutes
  • 0 mg/kg/bw 0 mg/kg/bw 18.0 minutes 18.3 minutes
  • 5 mg/kg/bw 0 mg/kg/bw 21.8 minutes 21.0 minutes
  • 0 mg/kg/bw 5 mg/kg/bw 17.7 minutes 22.4 minutes
  • A single morning dose of caffeine has a
    carryover effect in exhaustive exercise 5
  • hours later.
  • Bell, D.G., McLellan, T.M. Repeated Exercise
    Performance and Caffeine Ingestion. Med. Sci. Sp.
    Ex. May 2003 35(5) S267

43
THE EFFECTS OF OXYGENATED WATER ON HEART RATE AND
ARTERIAL SATURATION RESPONSES DURING HYPOXIA
  • Methods
  • 20 subjects given 20 oz of oxygenated water or
    placebo water following an
  • induced hypoxia.
  •  
  • Results
  • There was no difference in heart rate or
    oxygen saturation between 2 types
  • of water.
  •  
  • Porcari, J.P., Witt, L., Foster, C., Aiuppa, T.,
    Doberstein, S. The Effects of Oxygenated Water on
    Heart Rate and Arterial Saturation Responses
    During Hypoxia. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003
    35(5) S269.

44
THE EFFECTS OF HMB SUPPLEMENTATION ON INDICES OF
EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE IN MAN
  • Methods
  • 14 days of 3 gm of HMB or placebo followed by
    a single bout of 3 sets of
  • 10 repetitions of eccentric arm curls
    designed to provoke muscle damage.
  •  
  • Results
  • HMB had reduced DOMs 24 hours post exercise.
  • HMB had lower levels of plasma creatine
    kinase activity.
  •  
  • Van Someren, K.A., Edwards, A.J., Howatson, G.
    The Effects of HMB Supplementation on Indices of
    Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Man. Med. Sci.
    Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S270.

45
EFFECTS OF ORAL D- RIBOSE SUPPLEMENTATION ON
ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND SELECTED METABOLIC MARKERS
IN HEALTHY MALES
  • 19 trained males
  • Pre and post supplementation Wingate sprint
    (30sec) tests separated by 3
  • minute recovery
  • Placebo or Ribose 10gr/d for 5 days
  • Ribose did not alter peak power, average
    power, torque, fatigue index,
  • lactate, ammonia, glucose, uric acid or
    anaerobic exercise capacity.
  • Kreider, R.B., Melton, C., et al Effects or Oral
    D-Ribose Supplementation on Anaerobic capacity
    and Selected Metabolic Markers in Healthy Males.
    International Journal of Sport Nutrition and
    Exercise Metabolism, 2003, 13, 76-86

46
REHYDRATION WITH FLUIDS CONTAINING BETAINE
RUNNING PERFORMANCE AND METABOLISM IN A 31C
ENVIRONMENT
  • Betaine at 5 gm per liter when added to
    sports drink improved sprint time to
  • exhaustion following 75 minutes of running
    in 88 weather.
  • This improvement was not seen with a placebo
    beverage, or a placebo
  • beverage and betaine. It was a greater
    improvement than 6 carbohydrate
  • electrolyte drink
  •  
  • Conclusion
  • Betaine added to a carbohydrate electrolyte
    drink may be synergistic.
  •  
  • Armstrong, L.E., Roti, M.W., Hatch, H.L.,
    Sutherland, J.W., Mahood, N.V., Clements, J.M.,
    Seen, A.D., Fiala, K.A., Craig, S.A.S., Casa,
    D.J., Maresh, C.M. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003
    35(5) S311.

47
INFLUENCE OF PRE-EXERCISE CARBOHYDRATE MEALS ON A
21-KM RUN
  • Methods
  • 8 endurance-trained male runners, averaging
    33 years of age, in a random,
  • crossover study.
  • Testing was performed on 2 occasions with a
    meal, 2 hours prior to testing,
  • that provided 15 protein, 65 carbohydrate,
    and 20 fat, totaling
  • approximately 580 calories. One meal
    contained high glycemic index
  • carbohydrates (77), the other low glycemic
    index carbohydrates (37). Protein
  • and fat sources were unchanged.
  •  
  • Results
  • All 8 improved their time in a 21K (12.5
    mile) run following the low
  • glycemic index meal.
  • Average improvement was 98 minutes versus 101
    minutes.
  • Low glycemic index also increased fat
    oxidation 17.9 and decreased
  • carbohydrate oxidation 9.5.
  •  
  • Wong, S.H., Lok, A., Morris, J. Influence of
    Pre-exercise Carbohydrate Meals on a 21-KM Run.
    Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S298.

48
EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH INTENSITY AEROBIC
EXERCISE ON BODY COMPOSITION IN OVERWEIGHT MEN
  • Methods
  • 16 overweight males in the military, ages 18
    to 33 years, were trained for 14
  • weeks.
  • All meals were consumed on the base.
  • Training protocol was as follows 3 times a
    week for 5 weeks a 3K run (1.8
  • miles), followed by 3 times a week for 9
    weeks a 4K run (2.4 miles).
  • One group ran with high intensity (75-90 max
    heart rate), the other group
  • with medium intensity (60-70 max heart
    rate).
  • Results
  • High intensity group lost 4.91 body fat.
  • Medium intensity group lost 1.4 body fat.
  • Marra, C.C., Bottaro, M.M., Oliveira, R.J.,
    Novacs, J.S. Effect of Moderate and High
    Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Body Composition in
    Overweight Men. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003
    35(5) S308.

49
THE EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY RESISTANCE TRAINING
ON BODY COMPOSITION AMONG COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL
PLAYERS
  • Methods
  • 40 Division I college football players were
    divided into 2 groups.
  • Over 10 weeks subjects used 2 exercise
    protocols 1 set to failure 6-10 RM,
  • versus 3 sets to fatigue 6-10 RM.
  •  
  • Results
  • The 1-set high intensity group reduced body
    fat by 1.5.
  • The 3-set medium intensity group reduced body
    fat by 0.45.
  •  
  • Fincher, G.E. The Effect of High Intensity
    Resistance Training on Body Composition Among
    Collegiate Football Players. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex.
    May 2003 35(5) S324.

50
INDUCTION OF LOW T3 SYNDROME IN FEMALE SWIMMERS
DURING A COMPETITIVE SEASON
  • Methods
  • 10 sub-elite adolescent female swimmers were
    evaluated during a 12-week
  • period.
  • Swimmers were divided into improved an
    unimproved groups. Results
  • Testing revealed that the group that did not
    improve had signs of low T3
  • syndrome. 
  • VanHeest, J.L., Mahoney, C.E., Cappaert, J.M.,
    Hill, K.W., DeSouza, M.J., Rodgers, C.D.
    Induction of Low T3 Syndrome in Female Swimmers
    During a Competitive Season. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex.
    May 2003 35(5) S330.

51
THE EFFECTS OF CREATINE ON CAST IMMOBILIZATION
INDUCED MUSCLE ATROPHY AND DETRAINING
  • Methods
  • Subjects were given 20 mg of creatine, 5 gm 4
    times a day for 7 days,
  • versus a placebo while 1 arm was in a cast.
  • The study was then repeated with the opposite
    arm in a cast.
  • Upon removal results were
  • When subjects arms were in a cast and they
    consumed creatine, 0.17 lean
  • mass was lost on the casted arms.
  • Placebo beverage losses for the casted arms
    were 4.0.
  • Single repetition strength was reduced 29
    with placebo and 6 with
  • creatine.
  • Maximum number of repetitions was reduced 46
    with placebo and 5
  • with creatine.
  •  
  • Johnston, A.W., Burke, D.G., MacNeil, L.G. The
    Effects of Creatine on Cast Immobilization
    Induced Muscle Atrophy and Detraining. Med. Sci.
    Sp. Ex. May 2003 35(5) S401.

52
OXYGENATED WATER AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
  • Methods
  • 5 brands of oxygenated water plus tap water
    were analyzed for their oxygen
  • content.
  •  
  • Results
  • Brands 1 2 3 4 5 Tap Water
  • mL O2 per 355 mL (12 oz) 8.9 33.7 37.3 42.6 80.2 8
    .9
  •  
  • Hampson, N.B., Pollock, N.W., Piantadosi, C.A.
    Oxygenated Water and Athletic Performance.
    JAMA.2003 290(18) 2408-9.

53
OXYGENATED WATER AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
  •   Air contains 20.9 oxygen.
  • Normal human breath contains 500 mL of air.
  • .209 x 500 104.5 mL O2 average single
    breath
  • Given that hemoglobin is already nearly
    saturated with oxygen during air
  • breathing, and that only a small amount of
    additional oxygen can be
  • dissolved in plasma, it is not surprising
    that oxygenated water did not
  • improve maximal exercise performance.
    Hampson et al
  •  
  • Hampson, N.B., Pollock, N.W., Piantadosi, C.A.
    Oxygenated Water and Athletic Performance.
    JAMA.2003 290(18) 2408-9.

54
DOES REJECTION HURT? FMRI STUDY OF SOCIAL
EXCLUSION
  • Methods
  • 13 subjects from UCLA underwent MRI brain
    scans on 3 different
  • occasions.
  • 1 as bystanders
  • 2 as participants in a virtual video game
  • 3 as a participant in a video game where
    systematic exclusion resulted in a
  • sense of social rejection
  • Results
  • As social isolation increased, so did blood
    flow to the anterior cingulate
  • cortex.
  • This is very similar to the blood flow
    pattern found in physical pain.
  • Social and physical pain share common
    neuroanatomical brain blood flow
  • patterns.
  •  
  • Eisenberger, N.I. Does Rejection Hurt? fMRI Study
    of Social Exclusion. Science. 2003 302 290-2.

55
A META-ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE DOSE RESPONSE
FOR STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT
  • Methods
  • 140 studies with a total of 1433 subjects
    analyzed.
  •  
  • Results
  • Optimal Loads maximum strength gains
    attained
  • Untrained subjects, 60 of 1-rep maximum.
  • Trained subjects, 80 of 1-rep maximum.
  • Frequency maximum gains attained (muscle
    group)
  • Untrained subjects, 3 times per week.
  • Trained subjects, 2 times per week.
  •  
  • Rhea, M.R., Alvar, B.A, Burkett, L.N., Ball, S.D.
    A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Dose Response
    for Strength Development. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. 2003
    35(3) 456-64.

56
EFFECTS OF GINSENG ON SECRETORY IGA, PERFORMANCE,
AND RECOVERY FROM INTERVAL EXERCISE
  • Methods
  • 400 mg a day of a standardized ginseng
    concentrate equivalent to 2000 mg
  • of Panax ginseng powder or placebo was
    consumed for 8 weeks.
  •  
  • Results
  • Ginseng did not enhance immune response,
    exercise performance, or heart
  • rate recovery following repeated bouts of
    exhaustive exercise.
  •  
  • Engels, H.J., Falman, M.M., Wirth, J.C. Effects
    of Ginseng on Secretory IgA, Performance, and
    Recovery from Interval Exercise. Med. Sci. Sp.
    Ex. April 2003 35(4) 690-6.

57
 EFFECT OF ALPHA LIPOIC ACID COMBINED WITH
CREATINE MONOHYDRATE ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE
CREATINE AND PHOSPHAGEN CONCENTRATION
  • Methods
  • Experienced weight lifters with higher than
    normal levels of creatine who eat
  • red meat on a regular basis were tested
    following 3 protocols.
  • Creatine 5 gm, 4 times a day for 5 days
  • Creatine 5 gm plus 25 gm of sucrose, 4 times
    a day for 5 days
  • Creatine 5 gm plus 25 gm of sucrose plus 250
    mg of alpha lipoic acid, 4 times
  • a day for 5 days
  •  
  • Results
  • When lipoic acid was added to loading
    regimen, there was a significant
  • increase in intramuscular phosphocreatine
    and total creatine compared to
  • creatine and creatine with a small amount
    of sugar in trained participants who
  • consumed red meat.
  •  
  • Burke, D.G, Chilibeck, P.D., Parise, G., et al.
    Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid Combined with
    Creatine Monohydrate on Human Skeletal Muscle
    Creatine and Phosphagen Concentration. Int. J
    Sport Nutr. Ex. Meta. 2003 13(3) 294-302.

58
EFFECTS OF A CARBOHYDRATE-PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT ON
ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE DURING EXERCISE OF VARYING
INTENSITY
  • Methods
  • 9 trained cyclists on 3 separate occasions
    rode 3 hours of variable intensity
  • followed by an 85 VO2 max sprint to
    exhaustion.
  •  
  • Results
  • Sprint to exhaustion times
  • Placebo beverage 13 minutes
  • Carbohydrate beverage (7.75 CHO) 20
    minutes
  • Carbohydrate-protein beverage (7.75
    CHO-1.94 protein) 27 minutes
  • Carbohydrate versus placebo Endurance
    improved in 10 of 12 subjects with
  • carbohydrate
  • Carbohydrate-protein versus carbohydrate
    Endurance improved in 10 of 12
  • subjects with protein
  •  
  • Ivy, J.L., Res, P.T., Sprague, R.C., Widzer, M.O.
    Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Supplement on
    Endurance Performance During Exercise of Varying
    Intensity. Int. J Sport Nutr. Ex. Meta. 2003
    13(3) 382-95.

59
Vitamin D and Adolescents
  • Methods
  • 307 teens - mean age 15 were tested
  • Results
  • 40 insufficient
  • 24 deficiency breaks down as follows
  • 35 of Blacks 22 of Latinos 17 of
    Asians 6 Whites
  • Summer levels are 20 higher than Winter and
    Spring
  • 0/307 had excessive Vitamin D levels
  • MacReady, N. Many Teens May Not Get Enough
    Vitamin D, Family Practice News, January 1 2004
    P77

60
New Side Effect of Iron Deficiency
  • Study
  • Women who complain of hair loss when compared
    to normal controls
  • had much lower mean Ferritin levels.
  • Kantor, J., Cotsarelis, G. Decreased Serum
    Ferritin Is Associated With Alopecia in Women, J
    Invest Dermatol, November 2003 121(5) P985-988

Restless Legs Syndrome
  • 21/22 patients with normal serum iron had
    resolution after Fe
  • supplementation
  • When serum ferritin is at 15 or below 50
    mag/dl, a high percent
  • respond to Fe.
  • Earley, C.J. Restless Legs Syndrome. New England
    Journal of Medicine 348 (21) 2003 2103-9

61
Vitamin B-12 and Seniors
  • 24 deficient over 60 32 deficient over 70
    37 deficient over 80
  • B-12 in food is protein bound. GI
    inflammation and atrophy can not
  • break the protein bonds.
  • Vitamins that are not protein bound are
    absorbed.
  • RX- Oral deficiency replacement 100-500
    meg/day (RDA 2meg/day)
  • to insure enough gets absorbed.
  • Consider referral for IM delivering.
  • Zoler, MC. B12 Deficiency Can Escape Detection,
    Family Practice News, January 1 2004, P25

62
EFFECT OF POST-EXERCISE ETHANOL INTOXICATION ON
THE FREE TESTOSTERONE RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE
EXERCISE IN MEN
  • Methods
  • 9 physically fit subjects (10.81.8 body
    fat), ages 21 to 34, on 3 different
  • occasions performed each of the following
  • 1. Resistance exercise 45 minute whole
    body circuit weight training with
  • a heavy load (5-RM).
  • 2. The same resistance workout followed
    by ethanol ingestion to a blood
  • alcohol level of 0.10 g/dL.
  • 3. No exercise or alcohol.

63
EFFECT OF POST-EXERCISE ETHANOL INTOXICATION
CONTINUED
  • Results
  • Getting intoxicated following exercise not
    only prevented a post-resistance
  • testosterone decrease, but actually
    increased testosterone 25 over resting
  • conditions. This increase was present
    beginning at 60 minutes post exercise.
  • Free testosterone continued to be elevated
    over the 5-hour period of
  • monitoring.
  •  
  • Recommendations
  • This study must be repeated with a much
    larger sample size and a much
  • longer time period before the American Board
    of Chiropractic Sports
  • Physicians can issue a position statement
    recommending that our patients
  • get hammered following workouts.
  • Vingren, J.L., Koziris, L.P., Ben-Ezra, V.,
    Kraemer, W.J. Effect of Post-Exercise Ethanol
    Intoxication on the Free Testosterone Response to
    Resistance Exercise in Men. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May
    2003 35(5) S330.

64
FOOD PSYCHOLOGY BONUS SLIDE
  • Carrots Study
  • Popcorn Study
  • Glass Size Study
  • MMs Study
  • Hershey Kiss Study
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