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Early History of Photography

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Early History of Photography Dr. Janet Bonsall 2010 * Advancing Toward Photography 5th Century BC Chinese Philosopher Mo Ti discovered the effect of the pinhole in a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early History of Photography


1
Early History of Photography
  • Dr. Janet Bonsall
  • 2010

2
Advancing Toward Photography
The Effects of Light
  • 5th Century BC Chinese Philosopher Mo Ti
    discovered the effect of the pinhole in a
    darkened room.
  • Aristotle wrote of the pinhole about 300BC

3
Early Observations
  • Alhanzen
  • 10th Century Arabian mathematician demonstrated
    how a pinhole worked. Images that were formed
    became sharper when the opening was made smaller

4
Early Writings
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • 1490
  • Earliest surviving description of the Camera
    Obscura

5
The Camera Obscura
First Illustration of a camera obcura drawn in
1544 by Dutch Physician/mathematician Reinerius
Gemma-Frisius.
6
Early Writings
  • Giovanni Battista della Porta
  • 1558 Natural Magic (a treatise)
    Described the Camera Obscura and how it could
    maker drawing easier
  • 1589- described the use of a mirror to reverse
    the image that was reflected backward in the
    camera obscura

7
Addition of a Lens
  • Girolamo Cardano-1550 attached a biconvex lens to
    make a sharper, brighter image for the camera
    obscura
  • Daniele Barbaro- 1568 fit a diaphragm to the lens
    to control the amount of light reaching the lens
    thus controlling depth of field

8
The Camera takes shape
  • Johannes Kepler 1611 - human size / tent-type
    portable camera obscura

9
Non-film camera
  • The Camera Lucida
  • 1807
  • William Hyde Wollaston, inventor
  • Trace the projected image

10
Early Chemistry
  • Angelo Sala
  • 1614 Darkening effects of silver nitrate upon
    exposure to sunlight
  • Johann Heinrich Schultz
  • 1727 accidentally created calcium nitrate and
    silver carbonate which turned deep purple when
    exposed to sunlight

11
Almost, not quite
  • Elizabeth Fulhame- 1794 suggested that maps could
    be made by using silver and light since the
    chemistry process was in existence.
  • Thomas Wedgewood- son of Josiah
  • Used silver nitrate
  • Verified chemical transfer of images with light
  • Could not fix images
  • Observations written by Sir Humphrey Davy- 1802

12
Joseph Nicephore Niepce The worlds first
permanent photograph
  • First system for making permanent images through
    the action of light
  • 1824
  • Piece of pewter coated with Bitumin of Judea
    dissolved in lavender oil
  • Placed in a camera obscura for an extended
    daylight exposure
  • View from His Window
  • at Le Gras 1826-7

13
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
14
The Contract
15
Niepce Daguerreare Partners
December 1829
16
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
  • 1825 Daguerre writes to Niepce suggesting a
    partnership
  • 1829 they agree to share all knowledge, honor and
    profit
  • 1833 Niepce dies
  • 1834 Sensitizes plates with mercury vapor after
    exposure
  • 1837 Stabilizes images with sodium chloride
  • 1838 Recruited Count Francois Arago

Daguerre, by Sabattier, 1844
17
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Camera, 1839
18
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Published his Procedures, 1839
19
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Boulevard, Paris, 1839
20
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Boulevard, Paris, 1839 (detail)
21
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Earliest Surviving Portrait 2-3 minute
exposure 1837 This photograph was found only
recently but has been authenticated
Of Nicholas Heut, Naturalist
22
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Still Life, 1837
23
Daguerrotype
  • January 1839
  • Lifetime pension to Daguerre and Isadore Niepce
    from the French Government for freely presenting
    invention to the world (except England) August
    19,1839
  • Presented to joint meeting of-
  • Academie des Sciences and-
  • Academie des Beaux-Arts
  • Published a manual
  • Arranged for manufacture of equipment

Daguerre, Fossils and Shells, 1839
24
Sir John Herschel
  • In February 1839
  • Herschel, an Englishman, informed Daguerre that
    Hyposulfite of soda (Hypo) would fix his
    images and make them permanent

25
Daguerrotyping
Camera Outfit, 1847
26
Daguerreotypes
J.L. Gross, Parlor, 1850
27
Daguerreotypes
Paris Waterfront, 1850
28
Daguerreotypes
Postmortem Portrait, 1854
29
Daguerreotypes
Harry and Edward Manchester, Edgar Allen Poe, 1848
30
Daguerreotypes
Anonymous, Organ Grinder, 1848
31
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
  • 1814 Began experiments to spontaneously
    create original pictures
  • 1816 Technical elements were in place
  • 1822 Bitumen of Judea sensitive to light
  • 1822-4 Made first permanent image
  • 1829 Partnered with Daguerre
  • 1833 Died

32
Daguerre
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
1829 Partner with Joseph Niecephore Niepce
Announced a fully working process in January 1839
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