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Electrical Safety (Thanks to Oklahoma State University for sharing information!)

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This training module will cover some basic safety rules you should follow in regards to electrical safety, and it is for those who are unqualified to be ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Electrical Safety (Thanks to Oklahoma State University for sharing information!)


1
Electrical Safety (Thanks to Oklahoma State
University for sharing information!)
2
Why Worry About Electricity? 
  • DEATHS! Electrocutions rank fourth (9) in causes
    of industrial fatalities (behind traffic,
    violence and construction). 
  • The National Safety council estimates 600 people
    die every year of electrical causes. 
  • Most of these accidents involve a low voltage
    (600 volts or less).
  • Roughly 3,600 disabling electrical contact
    injuries occur every year in the United States,
    along with another 4,000 non-disabling injuries.

3
Effects on Your Body
  • A small night-light with a 6-watt bulb draws .05
    ampere, and even that small amount of current can
    be fatal. Here are some effects of current (in
    milli amps) passing through a 150 pound body
    (note that perception is only .5 to 1.5 milli
    amps)

4
Remember Electricity Can Kill
  • Electricity is an integral part of today's modern
    world, and sometimes it is easy to forget just
    how dangerous it can be.  Given the correct
    circumstances, it can kill.  But it can also
    shock you painfully, damage sensitive equipment,
    and ignite combustible materials.

5
In This Training
  • This training module will cover some basic
    safety rules you should follow in regards to
    electrical safety, and it is for those who are
    unqualified to be electricians, but whose work
    may be performed close to electrical systems.

6
What Are The Leading Causes of Electrical
Accidents? 
  • There are 2 reasons for unsafe acts
  • We know better but intentionally do something
    unsafe
  • We don't know better

7
Unsafe Acts
  • Avoid the following unsafe acts
  • Failure to de-energize, lockout tagout hazards
    during maintenance, repair or inspections
  • Use of defective and unsafe tools
  • Use of tools or equipment too close to energized
    parts
  • Not draining off stored energy in capacitors
  • Using 3-wire cord with a 2-wire plug
  • Removing the third prong (ground pin) to make a
    3-prong plug fit a 2-prong outlet
  • Overloading outlets with too many appliances
  • Using the attached electrical cord to raise or
    lower equipment
  • Not verifying power is off when making repair
    (drilling into a 110 Volt a.c. line can kill)
  • Working in an elevated position near overhead
    lines

8
Unsafe Equipment
  • Some common causes of unsafe equipment
  • Loose connections
  • Faulty insulation
  • Improper grounding (removal of 3rd prong)
  • Use of "homemade" extension cords
  • Defective parts
  • Unguarded live parts--for example
  • Bare conductors or exposed terminals
  • Metal parts of equipment may become energized
    when connected by cord or plug.  Capacitance may
    cause up to 55 of line voltage to be stored on
    the casing of metal tools

9
Hazardous Environments
  • Use special precautions when working in
    potentially hazardous environments and
    situations. Even an accidental static discharge
    can cause a fire or explosion in areas where the
    following are present
  • Flammable vapors, liquids and gasses
  • Combustible dusts
  • Corrosive atmospheres
  • Explosive environments
  • Poor housekeeping  blocked electrical boxes,
    flammable materials stored in equipment rooms,
    lack of proper hazard signs, excess clutter

10
What Can You Do to Help Protect Yourself? 
  • Know about electricity and how it can harm you
    and your colleagues.
  • Basics of electricity
  • Electrical current will not flow unless it has a
    complete path (circuit) that returns to its
    source (battery, transformer)
  • Current flows through you and other conductors,
    such as metals, earth and concrete
  • Current can harm you when it flows through your
    body (electric shock)
  • Insulators resist the flow of electricity. 
    Insulating materials are used to coat copper
    conducting wires and are used to make electrical
    work gloves.  Insulators help to protect humans
    from coming into contact with electricity flowing
    through conductors
  • Just as there is pressure in a water pipe, even
    with no water flowing, there is voltage at a
    receptacle, even if current is not flowing. 
    Another word for voltage is "Potential"

11
  • Special care is needed in wet or damp locations
    water and electricity are a bad combination. If
    the wire is frayed or damaged, a fatal electrical
    shock can result.

12
How Electricity Can Harm You
  • Current passing through your body can cause
    electric shock, resulting in two types of
    potential injuries
  • Burns (arcs burn with heat radiation)
  • Physical injuries (broken bones, falls, muscle
    damage)
  • At 10 mA, the muscles clamp on to whatever the
    person is holding
  • Nervous system effects (stop breathing at 30 to
    75 mA alternating current at 60Hz, fibrillation
    at 75 to 100 mA at 60Hz)
  • Fibrillation heart is "twitching" and there is
    no blood flow to the body

13
How Electricity Can Harm You
  • The heart can be damaged because it is in the
    path of the most common routes electricity will
    take through the body
  • Hand-to-hand
  • Hand-to-foot
  • Know about static electricity and how it can do
    harm
  • Minimize your exposure to static shocks
  • Never clean the glass face of your computer
    monitor while the computer is on
  • During normal operation, the glass surface of a
    monitor's CRT accumulates an electrostatic
    charge.   When you touch the screen with a
    finger, the charge is from the portion of the
    screen you touched and it discharges through your
    finger with a tiny spark.  Electric current does
    not normally flow through glass, so only the part
    of the screen that your finger touches is
    discharged
  • However, when you clean a monitor the entire
    glass is wet and the charge on the entire screen
    will discharge to your finger or hand, causing a
    much more painful shock
  • You can be injured by the reaction to the shock
    even though such shocks in themselves are not
    hazardous

14
Use OSHA-Safe Work Practices
  • Control hazards though safe work practices
  • Plan your work and plan for safety
  • Avoid wet working conditions and other dangers
  • Use Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters.  GFCI's
    are electrical devices that are designed to
    detect ground faults (when current is "leaking"
    somewhere outside its intended pathway).  If your
    body provides the path to ground for the leaking
    current, you could receive a shock or be
    electrocuted. GFCI's should be used in all wet
    locations and on outside outlets
  • Avoid overhead power lines  Position yourself so
    that the longest conductive object you are using
    (saws, poles, tools, brooms, etc.) cannot come
    closer than at least 10 feet to any unguarded,
    energized overhead line.
  • Use proper wiring and connectors

15
Use OSHA-Safe Work Practices
  • Use extension cords properly and temporarily
  • Cords must be UL listed and have 3 prongs
  • Power bars must have a fuse or breaker
  • Do not use 2-prong, ungrounded cords in a lab
  • Do not run cords through walls, doors, under
    rugs, or across aisles
  • Do not repair cordsbuy new ones
  • Make sure the total number of watts connected to
    the cord does not exceed the rating of the cord

16
Use OSHA-Safe Work Practices
  • Use and maintain tools properly
  • Avoid wearing items such as jewelry, watch bands,
    bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, and etc.
    that might come into contact with exposed,
    energized parts
  • Wear correct PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
  • Hard hats rated Class E
  • ANSI-approved footwear coded EH

17
Follow the Administrative Controls
  • Safe work procedures
  • Lockout and Tagout
  • Proscribed work practices
  • Signs warning of electrical hazards

18
Use Safe Equipment
  • Do not use equipment that has been damaged or
    improperly modified
  • Always use equipment according to the
    manufacturer's specifications
  • "Live" parts (greater than 50 volts) must be
    guarded by one or more of the following
  • An enclosure that requires a tool for access
  • A locked enclosure
  • An interlocked access door
  • A substantial insulating guard to prevent contact
  • Check cords--they should
  • Be completely free of damage and deterioration
  • Should always have an appropriate strain relief
    device where they enter the enclosure

19
Electrical Emergencies How to Respond
  • Electrical shock Protect Yourself
  • Don't touch the person. That person might be
    energized, so take time to protect yourself
  • Don't try to use a conductive tool to free the
    person
  • Don't touch anyone who has become grounded

20
Electrical Injuries How to Respond
  • Call 911 (office or emergency phone) or
  • 937-775-2111 for help, IF the person
  • Is obviously injured (loss of consciousness,
    significant trauma, etc.)
  • Has an altered mental status (confusion,
    slow/slurred speech, etc.)
  • Has other obvious injury (laceration, burn,
    etc.), or
  • At your discretion or that of the shock victim or
    supervisor

21
Electrical Injuries How to Respond
  • Keep others from being harmed
  • Shut off the power (fuse or circuit-breaker or
    pull the plug this might be difficult because
    there might be secondary sources if you are not
    sure, get help)
  • Move the victim to safety only when power is OFF
    and no neck or spine injuries are possible
  • Give necessary first aid (keep CPR training
    up-to-date)
  • Report accident to supervisor (even minor shocks
    and close calls must be reported)
  • Secure the area
  • Collect data for an investigation and to prevent
    reoccurrence

22
What to Do Until Aid Arrives
  • Pulse
  • If the person's heart has stopped, start CPR if
    you are trained
  • Breathing
  • If the person isn't breathing, begin
    mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if you are trained
  • Treat for shock
  • Keep person lying down
  • If unconscious, put them on their side to let
    fluids drain
  • Don't move the person if neck or spine injuries
    are possible
  • Cover the person to maintain body heat
  • Stay with patient until help arrives
  • Inform medical personnel about patient conditions

23
What to Do Until Aid Arrives
  • If not an emergency
  • Often symptoms are delayed and the person might
    need medical attention.
  • All persons, who have received shocks but do not
    fall into the categories on the previous slide,
    must be taken to the nearest urgent care center
    by a co-worker or supervisor.
  • Medical EVALUATION is a must.

24
Regulations
  • Qualified and Authorized
  • According to OSHA 1910.331, Electrical
    safety-related work practices
  • "Electrical equipment or electrical system
    design, installation, modification, testing,
    repair, and maintenance shall be done by
    QUALIFIED AND AUTHORIZED electrical personnel.
  • OSHA - The Federal Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration's purpose and policy is to assure
    that every working person has safe and healthful
    working conditions.

25
Regulations
  • Here are the OSHA requirements that must be
    followed
  • Live parts of 50 volts or more shall be guarded.
  • Systems, Circuits and Equipment shall be grounded
    to
  • Protect people from shock
  • Safeguard from fire
  • Protect equipment from damage
  • Exposed non-current carrying metal parts of
    equipment connected by cord and plug which may
    become energized shall be grounded to prevent
    shocks.
  • If housing not connected to ground and if there
    is any leakage, a shock could result.
  • Most common wiring violations are
  • 1 - Flexible cords shall have strain relief to
    prevent pull from being directly transmitted to
    joints or terminal screws.
  • 60 of fires are caused by poor connections and
    faulty outlets, plugs and cords.
  • 2 - Conductors entering cabinets, etc. shall be
    protected from abrasion.

26
For More Information
  • Contact the Department of Environmental Health
    and Safety at
  • ehs_at_wright.edu
  • (937) 775-2215
  • www.wright.edu/admin/ehs/

27
Congratulations!
  • You have completed the
  • Electrical Safety Training Module.
  • Please click the following link to document your
    training
  • Training Certification
  • Thank You!
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