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Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) Collaborative Learning (CL)

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Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) Collaborative Learning (CL) Learning is; Dependent on socially structured exchange of information in groups. Motivated to increase ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) Collaborative Learning (CL)


1
Cooperative Language Learning (CLL)Collaborative
Learning (CL)
  • Learning is
  • Dependent on socially structured exchange of
    information in groups.
  • Motivated to increase the learning of others.
  • Also connected to individual accountability.

2
History
  • U.S. Educator John Dewey is credited with
    prompting the idea of cooperation on regular and
    systematic basis.
  • CLL prompted in 1960s and 1970s as a response to
    typical classroom groups.

3
How cooperative groups differ from typical
classroom groups?
  • In typical groups
  • One leader is chosen by the teacher.
  • Groups are homogenious in nature.
  • Each member has his/her own product.
  • Priority is get the job done.
  • In cooperative groups
  • Leadership is shared by all members.
  • Group members are chosen randomly.
  • All members have one single product.
  • Priority is get the job done with social skills
    and by the help of every member.

4
Benefits of CLL
  • Raise the achievements of all the students.
  • Positive relationships among students.
  • Healty social, psychological and cognitive
    development.
  • Cooperation rather than competition
  • Positive interdependence.
  • Face to face interaction.
  • Individual accountability.
  • Social skill development.

5
In Second Language Teaching
  • Learning is through communicative interaction in
    the classroom.
  • Extension of CLT.
  • Learning is learner-centered, not teacher-fronted.

6
Thory of Language
  • CLL has some basic premises on the
    interactive/cooperative nature of language.
  • There are 5 basic premises.
  • 1) born to talk
  • 2) conversation
  • 3) maxims
  • 4) learning of L1 maxims
  • 5) learning of L2 maxims

7
Theory of Learning
  • Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky ? social interaction
    in learning.
  • Critical thinking ? Question Matrix

8
CLL also emphasizes cooperation rather than
competition in learning.
  • Advantages of CLL in ESL Classrooms
  • Frequency and variety in second language
    practice.
  • Possibility for developing and increasing
    language skills
  • Chance for students to act as resources for each
    other.
  • Freedom for teachers to develope new skills and
    activities.
  • Positive social attitude
  • Social support in learning

9
  • DESIGN
  • The objectives of the CLL
  • To develop critical thinking skills.
  • To develop communicative competence through
    interaction activities.
  • Syllabus
  • Cll doesnt assume any particular form of
    language syllabus since activities can be taught
    via cooperative learning.
  • Cll is the systematic and carefully planned use
    of group based procedures thus Cll is an
    alternative to teacher-fronted teaching.

10
  • Types of learnig and teaching activities
  • Formal cooperative learning groups ensure that
    students are actively part of the work of
    organizing material, explaining it, knowing the
    summary it, and integrating it into conceptual
    structures.
  • Informal cooperative learning groups ensure that
    students are cognitively processing the material
    being taught. 
  • Cooperative base groups The primary purpose is
    to give members the support, help, encouragement,
    and assistance so that each can progress
    successfully.

11
  • The success of CLL is crucially dependent on the
    nature and organization of group work and thanks
    to the well-designed program in which the
    elements of CLL is implemented carefully, the
    students have chance to interact with each other
    and they are motivated to increase each others
    learning.
  • So when we look at a successful group based
    learning in CL we will see
  • Positive Interdependence
  • Group formation
  • Individual accountability
  • Social skills
  • Structuring and structures

12
  • Positive interdependence happens when group
    members realize that their success is linked with
    each other. If everybody is ok in the group, the
    group will be successful.
  • Group formation is an important factor in
    creating positive interdependence.
  • In group formation
  • size of the group, assigning students to
    groups, and students roles in the group is
    important.
  • Individual accountability exists when the
    performance of each individual is assessed and
    the results are given back to the group and the
    individual in order to determine who needs more
    assistance, support, and encouragement in learning

13
  • Social skills determine the way students interact
    with each other as teammates.
  • Structuring and Structures refer to ways of
    organizing students interaction
  • The teachers can enable students different
    interaction ways in the group.

14
Learners Roles
  • Learning working cooperatively
  • Directing their own learning (compilation
    lifelong learning)
  • PLAN-MONITOR-EVALUATE
  • in pair working learners roles alternate as
  • -tutors
  • -checkers
  • -recorders
  • -information sharers

15
Teachers Roles
  • Setting goals
  • planning ad structuring tasks
  • establishing the physical arrangement of the
    classroom
  • assigning the students to pairs

16
  • As a facilitator
  • Interacts
  • Teaches
  • Refocuses
  • Questions
  • Clarifies
  • Supports
  • Expands
  • Celebrates
  • Empathizes
  • Depending on the
  • problem evolve
  • Gives feedback
  • Redirecting the group
  • Encourage the group t solve their own
    problems
  • Extending activity
  • Encourage thinking
  • Managing conflict
  • Observing students
  • Supplying sources

17
  • Johnson et al sums teachers roles up as follows
  • Structuring the lesson, curriculum and sources
    cooperatively.
  • Designing the lesson according to the unique
    instructional needs, circumstances, curricula and
    students.
  • Diagnosing the problems in groups and intervening
    for effectiveness.

18
Role of the Instructional Materials
  • Thanks to the materials students can work
    cooperatively
  • Same materials can be used but variations are
    required
  • For students working in groups one set of
    materials is needed for each.

19
Procedure
  • E.g. of carrying a cooperative writing lesson
    out
  • 1) Teacher assigns the students to pairs.
  • 2) Students tell each other what they are
    planning to write. Student a listens to student
    Bs ideas and they discuss it. The student A
    outlines Bs ideas and gives him/her its written
    form.
  • 3) The same procedure reversed for student Bs
    ideas.
  • 4) Students research materials for their own
    writings.
  • 5) Students work together to write the
    introduction. This is to ensure that they have a
    clear start.
  • 6) Students write their compositions
    individually.
  • 7) After completing the compositions each student
    check his/her pairs composition making
    corrections and giving suggestions.
  • 8) Students revise their own composition
    considering the pairs corrections and
    suggestions.
  • 9) Students read their pairs composition again
    and sign their names to ensure that it is error
    free.

20
Conclusion
  • Discussion groups, group work and pair work are
    useful in all learning. These kinds of activities
    are used to increase the participation. However,
    such activities are not necessarily cooperative.
    In CLL, these activities carefully planned to
    maximize interaction and contribution to each
    others learning.
  • CLL can be used with other teaching methods and
    approaches.
  • CLL has been researched and evaluated more than
    most language teaching proposals. And research
    findings are generally supportive.
  • However CLL is criticized for its use with
    learners of different proficiency levels. In
    addition CLL teachers have much to do in
    classroom environment.
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