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Chapter 12: Energy FROM FOSSIL FUELS


CHAPTER 12: ENERGY FROM FOSSIL FUELS Introduction- ANWR Section 12. 1- Energy Sources and Uses Section 12. 2- Exploiting Crude Oil Section 12. 3- Other Fossil – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12: Energy FROM FOSSIL FUELS

Chapter 12 Energy FROM FOSSIL FUELS
  • Introduction- ANWR
  • Section 12. 1- Energy Sources
  • and Uses
  • Section 12. 2- Exploiting Crude
  • Oil
  • Section 12. 3- Other Fossil
  • Fuels
  • Section 12. 4- Fossil Fuels and
  • Energy Security

  • Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1960 Dwight
  • Unexploited oil field below the 1002 area.
  • Best estimate7 billion barrels of oil.
  • Peak 700,000 barrels per day. Same amount US
    imports from Iraq before US Iraqi war of 2003.
  • Estimated 4 trillion tons of natural gas.
  • Home to caribou, porcupine and musk oxen herds.

  • Republicans/Inupiat Eskimos- wants ANWR to be
    opened to oil exploration.
  • ANWR survived many congressional battles until
    2005, but rising oil prices have made this more
  • Bush- developing oil in ANWR would
  • Lessen US dependence on foreign oil.
  • Maintain thousands of jobs
  • Profit for the industry.

  • Democrats/numerous environmental groups/Gwichin
    Indians- Do not want oil exploration.
  • Pristine wilderness that roads, etc. would
  • Loss of habitat, breeding grounds, subsistence
    way of life.
  • Oil spills (which seem to happen on a regular
  • Air pollution.
  • Rising green house gases/global climate change.

Chapter 12 Section 1
  • Energy Sources and Uses

Harnessing Energy
  • Throughout human history, the advance of
    technological civilization has been tied to the
    development of energy sources.
  • The breakthrough invention? The STEAM ENGINE
  • At first, the major source of fuel was firewood.
  • As the demands for energy increased and firewood
    became scarce, coal was used as a substitute.
  • In addition to being used to fuel steam engines,
    coal was also used in heating, cooking, and
    industrial processes of the Industrial
  • 1920s coal provided 80 of US energy.
  • Drawbacks of the burning of these two sources was
    very harmful.
  • Smoke, fumes, air pollution.

Oil Rules
  • In the late 1800s, the simultaneous development
    of three technologies- the internal combustion
    engine, oil-well drilling, and the refinement of
    crude oil into gasoline and other fuels- provided
    alternatives to steam power.
  • Benefits convenience, air quality improved.
  • Drawbacks 1960s cars take over and pollution
    from gasoline engines become the problem.
  • By 1951, crude oil became the dominant energy
    source for the nation
  • Since then, it has become the top fuel throughout
    the world.
  • Crude oil provides about 39 of total global
    energy production.

Gas, Naturally
  • Natural gas is the 3rd primary fossil fuel
  • Natural gas burns much more cleaner than coal or
    oil thus, in terms of pollution, is the more
    desirable fuel.
  • Three fossil fuels- crude oil, coal, and natural
    gas- provide 85 of U.S. energy consumption and
    87 of the worlds consumption.
  • The remaining percentage are nuclear power,
    hydropower, and renewable resources.
  • Used to create electrical power!

Fluctuations In Demand
  • Where does your electricity come from?
  • Most utility companies are linked together in
    what are called pools. The utility is responsible
    for balancing electricity supply and demand,
    regardless of daily social or seasonal
  • As demand increases, utility companies can draw
    on additional plants that can be turned on/off.
  • Base load vs. peak-load power sources.
  • Primary energy Coal, waterpower, etc.
  • 3 units of primary power to generate 1 unit of
    electrical energy.
  • Electrical energy is a clean energy at the point
    of its use, but the creation of it still causes
    pollution in the burning of fossil fuels that run
    the generators that create the energy.

Matching Sources to Uses
  • Primary energy use is commonly divided into four
  • (1) Transportation
  • (2) Industrial Processes
  • (3) Commercial and Residential Uses
  • Such as heating, cooling,
    lighting, and appliances.
  • (4) The Generation of Electrical Uses
  • goes into categories 23 as secondary
    energy use.
  • Oil and natural gas are the most versatile
    primary energy sources.

Lesson 12.2
  • Exploiting Crude Oil

How Fossil Fuels Are Formed
  • The reason crude oil, coal, and
  • natural gas are called fossil fuels is
  • that all three are derived from the
  • remains of living organisms.
  • Over millions of years, the remnants of the
    organisms are gradually buried under layers of
    sediment and converted by pressure and heat to
    coal, crude oil, and natural gas.
  • It takes 1,000 years to accumulate the amount of
    organic matter that world consumes daily!

The Oil Crisis of the 1970s
  • A group of dominantly Arab countries known as the
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
    (OPEC) formed a cartel agreed to restrain
    production in order to get higher prices.
  • With the Arab-Israeli War happening in 1973, OPEC
    initiated an embargo of oil sales to countries
    that gave military and economic support to
    Israel. Because the limitation of oil production
    all through the 1970s, OPEC was able to force
    prices higher and higher.

U.S. Response to OPEC
  • In response to the higher prices, the United
    States made new changes to increase the domestic
    production of crude oil
  • Exploratory drilling was stepped up
  • The Alaska pipeline was constructed.
  • Fields that were closed down as uneconomical were

U.S. Response to OPEC continued
  • To decrease consumption of crude oil
  • Standards were set for automobile fuel
  • Other conservation goals were promoted for such
    things as insulation in buildings, and efficiency
    of appliances.
  • The development of alternative energy sources was
    begun. The government supported
    research-and-development efforts and gave tax
    breaks to people for installing new alternative
    energy systems.
  • To protect against the OPEC boycott
  • A strategic oil reserve was created. As of 2006,
    the United States had stockpiled 688 million
    barrels of oil in underground caverns in
  • As we entered the 1980s, the United States
    still depended on oil from foreign countries, but
    the consumption began to decline and the Alaska
    pipeline production of oil was holding its own.

Problems of Growing U.S. Dependency on Foreign
  • As the U.S. dependency on foreign oil grows
    again, we
  • are faced with problems on three levels
  • (1) The costs of purchasing oil
  • (2) The risk of supply disruptions due to
    political instability in the Middle East
  • (3) Ultimate resource limitations in any case
  • Costs of Purchase- The cost for crude oil
    represents about 30 of the United States current
    balance-of-payment deficit. This is important
    because it tells us the price we pay at the pump
    and if it is basically the same whether oil is
    produced here or abroad.
  • Supply Disruptions- Politically unstable
    situations such as the Persian Gulf
  • Resource Limitations- U.S. crude-oil production
    is decreasing because of diminishing domestic
    reserves. We have an increasing percentage of our
    needs that must be met by importing oil.

The True Cost of Oil
  • Beyond the 30 of our current balance-of-payment
    deficit, there are other costs as well
  • Ecological (oil spills and other forms of
  • Military costs to maintain access.

Hubberts Peak
Two oil geologists, Colin Campbell and Jean
Laherrère, calculated a Hubbert curve from data
in which they estimated oil in reserves at 850
BC. This curve was used to show the peak of oil
production within the current decade. (pg. 320
Figure 12-16) For the United States to become
more independ-ent of crude oil, they have three
possibilities (1) Increasing the fuel
efficiency of our transportation systems
(2) Using other fossil fuels for vehicle
resources (3) Developing alternatives
Lesson 12.3
  • Other Fossil Fuels

Natural Gas
  • In the United States, natural gas has been
    rising as a fossil fuel of choice.
  • The expected long-term recovery in the US is
    about 50 years. Worldwide even more plentiful.
  • Natural gas can be used to meet the fuel needs
    for transportation. With the installation of a
    tank for compressed gas and some modifications of
    the engine fuel-intake system, a car is able to
    run perfectly fine on natural gas, although trunk
    problem is a problem.
  • Natural gas is a clean-burning fuel, producing
    carbon dioxide and water but virtually no
    hydrocarbons or sulfur oxides.

  • Pros
  • Cons
  • Natural gas can be turned into a synthetic oil.
  • Promise to make the natural gas supply
  • May extend the life of oil supplies.
  • Approx. 10 more expensive than oil.
  • Search for a catalyst to convert natural gas to
  • 3600 mile long pipelline
  • Enviro costs.

Other Fossil Fuels
  • Coal
  • In the United States, 50 of electricity comes
    from coal fired power plants.
  • Coal can be obtained by surface (strip) mining or
    underground mining.
  • Strip mining destroys the ecology of an area.
  • Underground mining, at least 50 of the coal must
    be left in place to support the roof of the mine.
  • Coal fires around the world produce almost as
    much carbon dioxide as do all the cars and trucks
    in the United States, contributing to the worlds
    greenhouse gas emissions.

Oil Shales and Oil Sands Oil shale- a fine
sedimentary rock containing a mixture of solid,
waxlike hydrocarbon called kerogen. When a shale
is heated to about 1,000 ºF the kerogen releases
hydrocarbon vapors that can be recondensed to
form a black substance similar to crude oil. Oil
Sands- Sedimentary material containing bitumen, a
tarlike hydrocarbon. When heated, the bitumen can
be melted out and be refined just like crude
Lesson 12.4
  • Energy Security and Policy

Security Threats
Oil Dependence- As the United States depends on
oil, their imports cost 300 billion dollars in
2006, representing 30 of our balance-of-pay
deficit and 66 of our oil consumption.
Consequently, we are being thrown onto an
economic roller coaster by relying on oil from
the OPEC cartel and the volatile Persian Gulf
states. Terrorism- Nuclear power plants,
hydropower dams, oil gas pipelines, refineries,
tankers, and the electrical grid are all possible
sites for an act of terrorism. Our continued
involvement in the Middle East has done so much
to inflame the anger and frustration that can
provide sufficient information on the terrorist
attacks against the U.S. For example, the
Trans-Alaska pipeline was closed down three days
after a hunter shot a hole in it.
Energy Policies
  • Cheney report recommended ways to meet rising
    demands and the new Energy Policy Act acted on
    many, but not always favorably.
  • Both supply-side and demand-side policies options
    are available
  • Supply-Side Policies
  • (1) Exploring and developing domestic sources of
  • (2) Increasing use of the vast coal reserves for
  • (3) Continuing subsidies to oil and nuclear
  • (4) Removing environmental and legal obstacles
    to energy development
  • (5) Providing access to remote sources of
    natural gas
  • Demand-Side Policies
  • (1) Increasing the mileage standards for motor
  • (2) Increasing the energy efficiency of
    appliances and buildings
  • (3) Encouraging industries to use combined heat
    and power (CHP) technologies
  • (4) Promoting greater use of non-fossil-fuel
    sources of energy (nuclear renewable