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Anatomy & Physiology Fifth Edition Seeley/Stephens/Tate (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Blood Introduction Blood has been the source of mysteries for thousands of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy

Chapter 19
  • Anatomy Physiology
  • Fifth Edition
  • Seeley/Stephens/Tate
  • (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  • Introduction
  • Blood has been the source of mysteries for
    thousands of years.
  • Blood is a type of C.T. consisting of cells and
  • Blood is circulated by pumping action of the
    heart, the valves in blood vessels and by the
    contracting action of calf muscles.
  • The total volume of an adult female is 4 5 L,
    while that an adult is 5 6 L.
  • Blood constitutes about 8 of the total body
    weight of the human and the components may be
    divided with centrifugation.
  • Study Fig. 19.1 carefully.

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  • The Functions of Blood
  • At least 5 major functions of blood have been
    identified( I have broken down the functions to
    5, rather than 3 as shown in the text.)
  • Transportation for gases, nutrients, hormone,
    vitamins, and metabolic wastes.
  • Regulation of the pH, electrolytes and
    composition of interstitial fluids throughout the
  • Homeothermic keeping the organism at constant
  • Protection of damage sites with blood clots.
  • Immunogenic defense against toxins and

  • Blood Collection and Analysis
  • Collection of human blood is usually performed
    from a superficial vein via venipuncture or from
    the finger tip or sole.
  • Only when needed an arterial puncture may be
  • The temperature of blood is about 38C and is
    slightly higher than that of the body
  • Having a large quantity of proteins in plasma
    (7g/100ml) and corpuscles, bloods viscosity is
    more than five times higher than that of water.
  • The pH of blood is about 7.4.

  • Plasma (see Table 19.1)
  • The plasma volume remains relatively consistent.
  • Differences between plasma and interstitial
  • The composition of plasma and that of
    interstitial fluid is about the same, but the
    former has more proteins and dissolved gases.
  • Plasma Proteins
  • 7g/100ml of plasma
  • Albumin 58 of plasma proteins. Osmotic balance.
  • Globulin 38. Immunoglobulins, lipoproteins and
    transport proteins antibodies and thyroid
    hormone-binding proteins.
  • Fibrinogen 4. Can form large fibrins to form
    blood clot.
  • 50 of plasma proteins are produced by plasma
  • The other substances in plasma
  • In addition of dissolved proteins, plasma
    contains ions, nutrients, waste products, gases
    and regulatory substances.

  • Formed Elements
  • The hematocrit refers to the percentage of blood
    cells ( in practice the formed elements). This
    number is obtained by centrifuging the blood held
    in a thin glass tube at a high speed. The formed
    elements will settle down to the bottom and its
    ratio to the total volume is the hematocrit.
  • The hematocrit is about 46 for male and about
    42 for females.
  • Red blood cells 99.9 of the formed elements
    in volume or 4.2 6.2 million/mm³. Erythrocytes
    are enucleated and have little organelles.
  • White blood cells (leukocytes) have nuclei
  • Granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils and
  • Agranulocytes are lymphocytes, monocytes.
  • Platelets enucleated and have little

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  • Production of Formed Elements Hemopoiesis or
  • The major production sites of the formed elements
  • The first 8 weeks they start at the embryonic
    yolk sac and they begin to settle in the liver,
    spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. They become stem
  • Form the 8th week to 5th month in the liver and
    spleen are the primary sites of hemopoiesis.
  • No nucleus or organelles, thus only glycolytic
    enzymes to form energy by glycolysis.
  • Carbonic anhydrase responsible for conversion
    and transportation carbon dioxide.
  • Phospholipids and membrane proteins and others

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  • Erythrocytes are
  • 99.9 in volume of the formed elements.
  • 5.4 million cells/ one microliter (ul or mm³) of
    blood for a man.
  • 4.8 million cells/ one microliter (ul or mm³) for
    a woman.
  • 260 million RBC/drop of blood.
  • 25 trillion RBCs in the blood of an adult 1/3
    of all the cells in the human body. (75 trillion
  • The difference in the hematocrit mention earlier,
    I.e. 46 to men and 42 to women, arises from the
    fact that androgens in men stimulate
    erythropoiesis, while estrogens in women are
  • The ratio of white cells to red cells is 1 to
  • The hematocrit vs disease anemia and

  • Structure of RBCs
  • Uniquely biconcaved and flexible (Fig 19.3), have
    excellent exchange of gases between the cells and
    the environment. Contrary to a sphere, the RBC
    has the maximum surface to volume ratio.
  • The diameter is 7.5 microns and the thickness
    varies at the edge (thick, 1.5 microns) and the
    center (thinner, 1 micron) making it possible to
    tumble and bend in tissue capillaries.

  • The primary function of RBCs is performed by
  • 33 of RBC is hemoglobin, Hb, an oxygen and CO2
    carrying protein.
  • Each Hb consist of two pairs of subunits (alpha
    and beta) and each subunit has an oxygen binding
    heme. (Fig. 19.4)
  • Since the oxygen binding to heme is reversible,
    the number of oxygen bound to heme depends upon
    the amount of oxygen is in the environment of Hb.
  • Thus, in the lungs, where oxygen pressure is
    high, Hb binds oxygen and carries the gas to the
    tissues where the oxygen pressure is low.

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  • Binding of CO2 to Hb is not at the heme, but is
    at the alpha amino group of the N-terminal ends
    of four subunits.
  • CO2 binding is essentially opposite to that of
    oxygen, but again follows the amount of CO2 in
  • (O2 - 95 w/Hb, 5 dissolved)
  • (CO - 7 dissolved, 23 w/ Hb, 70 as
  • The circulation of CO2 also relies on the
    chemically dissolved form of CO2, i.e.,
    bicarbonate. This process is facilitated by
    carbonic anhydrase.
  • Thus carbon dioxide may be transported as
    carboamino hemoglobin, dissolved bicarbonate and
    free carbon dioxide.

  • Life Span and Circulation
  • Complete circulation of an erythrocyte in a body
    usually takes less than a minute.
  • During this period, especially while negotiating
    through tissue capillaries of less than several
    microns of diameter, pulsating motion of blood
    flow severely stresses the erythrocytes.
  • In addition, despite the presence of complex
    protective mechanisms, carrying of oxygen would
    provide ample opportunities to cause oxidative
    damages to the contents of the cells.
  • As a consequence, the life span of a RBC is about
    120 days.
  • Since the hematocrit of a normal person is
    relatively consistent, the loss of erythrocytes
    is compensated with continuous erythropoiesis.
  • Old or damaged erythrocytes are usually
    phagocytically broken down in the liver, spleen
    and bone marrow.
  • Recycled Hb, when in small quantities, its path
    is through the kidneys and into the urine. If
    this level goes up, there will be discoloration
    of the urine.(yellowish ---- iron)

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  • Recycling of RBC/hemoglobin Components
  • Macrophages in the spleen, liver, and other
    lymphatic tissues phagocytically engulf
  • Globular proteins are broken down to amino acids
    for resumption.
  • Heme is separated from its iron and becomes
    biliverdin (green) then to bilirubin to be
    absorbed in the liver, there conjugated and then
    excreted in bile from the intestines. A build up
    of bilirubin in the circulation and intestinal
    spaces is known as jaundice.
  • Iron may be stored with the plasma protein,
    transferrin and recycled.
  • Erythropoiesis is regulated with erythropoetin
    from the kidneys, which appears in the plasma
    when peripheral tissues are exposed to low oxygen
    concentration, hypoxia.

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  • White Blood Cells leukocytes
  • They are different from RBC because of the
    presence of nuclei and the lack of hemoglobin
    thus the transparent or white appearance.
  • They are loosely divided into (Table 19.2)
  • Granulocytes Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
  • Agranulocytes monocytes, lymphocytes
  • There are as many as 6-8,000 leukocytes in 1
    microliter of blood, but most of the leukocytes
    are found on peripheral tissues.

  • WBC Movement
  • WBC are capable of amoeboid movement.
  • Thus, they can migrate out of the epithelia of
    capillary walls, diapedesis.
  • Positive chemotaxis leads them to the troubled
    spots. There they are phagocytotic.
  • General Functions
  • General defense neutrophils, eosinophils,
    basophils and monocytes
  • Specific immunity lymphocytes
  • Neutrophils polymorphonuclear
  • Live in the circulatory system for only 10-12
    hours, then move into tissues, where they live up
    to 1-2 days.
  • Phagocytic and secrete lysozymes to digest
    bacteria and others.

  • Eosinophils reduce inflammation and parasitic
  • Basophils releases histamines, which promotes
    inflammation also release heparin, which inhibits
    blood clotting.
  • In new born and young children, both have mostly
    red bone marrow.
  • In adults, red bone marrow found in the skull,
    fibs, sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, proximal femur
    and proximal humorous.
  • Observe the hematopoiesis of stem cell in Fig.
  • Stem cell are the origin of all formed elements.
  • Note the types of blast cells and the final cell
  • Monocytes live 2-3 days in circulation and
    migrate in the tissues as macrophages, which
    phagocytose foreign bodies. An increased number
    of monocytes is an indication of an infection.

  • Lymphocytes
  • They are about the size of an RBC and they
    contain a nucleus. Most of the lymphocytes dwell
    in the lymphatic system. There are three types
  • T-cells attack foreign bodies.
  • B-cells differentiate into plasma cells, which
    secrete antibodies.
  • Natural Killer cells (NK cells) destroys the
    bodies own abnormal cells.

  • Platelets
  • Megakaryocytes in bone marrow, which release
    their fragments into circulation, then called
  • Platelets have no nuclei.
  • Participate in blood clotting.
  • Platelets survive about 10-12 days in circulation
    and are about 150,000 300,000/ul
  • Thrombocytopenia is a loss of platelets and is a
    sign of bleeding etc..
  • Thrombocytosis is excess platelets and is a sign
    of infection.

  • Hemostasis arrest of bleeding.
  • Prevents loss of blood in three phases.
  • The vascular phase immediate temporary closure
    of a blood vessel by constriction of vascular
    smooth muscles.
  • The platelet phase formation of a platelet plug
    by platelet adhesion and aggregation (Fig 19.9).
    Platelets bind to collagen in damaged tissues.
    Platelets are adhered and form a plug.
  • The coagulation phase for a large blood clot
    formation by the network of fibrin from
    fibrinogen. A large number of steps involving
    many factors are required, some of which require
    thrombin and Ca.

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  • The clotting process
  • Clotting is the phenomenon where blood cells are
    trapped in the framework of fibers.
  • The clotting process requires Ca and 11
    different plasma proteins, mostly enzymes.
  • The process goes through 3-stages
  • Activation of prothrombinase by either the
    extrinsic or intrinsic pathway.
  • Prothormbinase converts prothrombin to thrombin.
  • Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
  • Extrinsic pathway the process is triggered by a
    tissue factor of damaged endothelial cells, the
    other enzymes are successively activated to
    complete the clotting process- a cascade. The
    process is fast and takes only 15 seconds.
  • Intrinsic pathway starts with the activation of
    factor XII by contacting the damaged blood
    vessels and is a slower process.

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  • Clot retraction am Removal
  • The platelets begin to contract clot
  • During the repair process of tissue, the clot
    gradually dissolves fibrinolysis.
  • This process draws a lot of attention because
    dissolving clots in heart attack or stroke
    patients is clinically important.
  • To dissolve a clot
  • Activated plasminogen by tissue plasminogen
    activator (t-PA) ? plasmin is produced ? plasmin
    digest the fibrin strands to dissolve the clot.

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  • Blood tests and RBCs (review)
  • Blood types
  • Genetically determined RBC antigens
    (glycoproteins) rest on the surface of the
  • There are at least 50 different kinds of antigens
    on the surface of an RBC.
  • Their antibodies are found in plasma.
  • One set of important antigens are A and B, typed
    ABO. Although A/B antibodies are not found in the
    blood until about 2 months after birth. (Fig

  • Blood Type Surface-antigen US pop
    In plasma antibodies
  • A B
    A B
  • TYPE A -
    40 -
  • TYPE B -
    4 -
  • TYPE O - -
  • Rh D
  • Blood donor and Recipient
  • Blood may be received from the subject of the
    same blood type, but not from the other type,
    except one with subject with type O.
  • Type O subject, who has no surface A/B antigen,
    has been considered as a universal donor, since
    the donated RBC will not be coagulated.
  • However, the antibodies in the plasma can
    interact with the surface antigens of the
    recipient and may induce minor reactions. Thus,
    the word universal donor is misleading.

  • Another important antigen is the Rh factor.
    Rh-positive or Rh-negative. The Rh positive
    subjects have the D antigen on the surface of the
    erythrocytes. About 86 of the people in the US
    are RH positive.
  • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)

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The End.