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Crew Resource Management/ Personal Survival

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CRM Summary Crew Resource Management Personal Survival Roadmap Causes of Aviation Accidents PowerPoint Presentation When Faced With Survival Situation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Crew Resource Management/ Personal Survival


1
Crew Resource Management/ Personal Survival
Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative
By University of Notre Dame Pilots/Navigators
2
Instructor Introduction
  • NROTC Unit Notre Dame
  • Naval Flight Officer Training
  • VP-10
  • VP-31
  • Iceland Defense Force
  • Naval Postgraduate School
  • VP-26
  • FASOTRAGRULANT DET Brunswick, ME
  • USS Enterprise (CVN-65)
  • NROTC Unit Notre Dame

3
Lesson Plan Objectives
  • Understand goal of CRM
  • Know the history of CRM
  • Understand behaviors that contribute to
    effective crew resource management
  • Understand factors that cause general aviation
    accidents
  • Possible actions to take when faced with
    potential survival situation

4
Aviation Sea Story
EFFECTIVE CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
5
Crew Resource Management
It takes a group of individuals
to make a CREW
6
CRM Roadmap
  • Goal
  • History
  • Seven Behaviors

7
What is the goal of CRM ?
  • To improve
  • mission effectiveness
  • by minimizing crew preventable errors, maximizing
  • crew coordination
  • and optimizing
  • risk management.

8
History of CRM
  • Airlines initiated program to increase crew
    coordination.
  • NASA conducted research and made recommendations.
  • U.S. Navy integrated Aircrew Coordination
    Training.
  • Naval Aviation Training and Operation Procedures
  • Standardized Flight Procedures
  • Academics
  • Simulators

9
What are the seven behaviors
  • D ecision Making
  • A ssertiveness
  • M ission Analysis
  • C ommunication
  • L eadership
  • A daptability/ Flexibility
  • S ituational Awareness

10
Decision Making
11
What is Decision Making?
  • "Decision making is the ability to use logical
    and sound judgment to make decisions based on
    available information "

12
Decision Making
  • Poor judgment / decision making
  • Leading cause of aviation mishaps
  • Primary failure to complete missions
  • Good decisions
  • Optimize risk management
  • Minimize errors
  • Poor decisions
  • increase errors

13
Decision Making Process
  • A ssess the problem
  • V erify information from all sources
  • I dentify solutions
  • A nticipate consequences
  • T ell others decision and rationale
  • E valuate the decision

14
Factors that Promote Good DM
  • Experience
  • Extra Time
  • Alert Crew Members
  • Decision Strategies
  • Synergy

15
Factors that Promote Good DM
  • "Synergy is achieved when the total effect of
    combined action or operation is greater than the
    sum of the individual effects"

SYNERGY
ISOLATION
TEAM EFFORT
16
Barriers to Good DM
How to Overcome Decision Biases
  • Be aware that we are all prone to them
  • Seek information from multiple sources
  • Evaluate potential of numerous options
  • Evaluate how it would sound on CNN

17
Assertiveness
18
What is Assertiveness?
  • Assertiveness is ones willingness/readiness to
    actively participate, state and maintain position
    until convinced by the facts that other options
    are really better.

19
Comfort Level
  • Degree to which you feel content with what is
    happening, while taking into account that flying
    a mission can be very dangerous and demanding
  • Whenever comfort levels exceeded
  • "SPEAK UP"

20
The behavior continuum
  • Passive

Assertive
Overly Aggressive
21
The behavior continuum
  • Passive-Overly courteous
  • - Avoids conflicts
  • - Beats around bush
  • - Along for the ride
  • Assertive-Actively involved
  • - Ready to take action
  • - Provides useful information
  • - Makes suggestions
  • Overly Aggressive- Dominates situation
  • - Intimidates
  • - Abusive
  • - Hostile

22
Position of authority Experience Rank Lack of
confidence Fear of reprisal
  • What are some barriers to assertiveness?

Assertiveness
Barriers
23
Mission Analysis
24
What is Mission Analysis ?
  • The ability to develop short-term, long-term,
    and contingency plans, as well as to coordinate,
    allocate, and monitor crew and aircraft resources.

25
Phases of Mission Analysis
When do we conduct Mission Analysis?
Inflight
  • Pre-Mission

Post-Mission
26
Communication
27
What is Communication?
  • Communication is clear and accurate sending
    receiving of information, instructions, or
    commands, and providing useful
  • feedback

28
What are the two modes of communication?
  • Verbal
  • ICS
  • Radio communication
  • Non Verbal
  • Any time gestures can be visually observed
  • Examples???

29
Process of Communication
Feedback
Receiver
Takes in information and provides feedback
Message
30
Noise Negative commands (don't go left) Radio
static/interference External radio
communication ICS broken and unreadable Poor
language skills Poor communication skills
Non-standard terminology Rank or experience
inequality Non-relevant communication Task
fixation Task overload/ underload Distractions
Personality conflicts
What are some barriers to communication?
31
Use active listening Use appropriate mode Use
standard terminology Require feedback
Techniques for overcoming barriers
32
Leadership
33
What is Leadership ?
  • Leadership is the ability to direct and
    coordinate the activities of crew members and to
    encourage the crew to work together as a team.

34
Traits of a Good Leader
  • Directs, coordinates, and delegates duties
  • Leads by example
  • Has knowledge how to accomplish mission
  • Fosters superior information flow
  • Gives timely feedback in effective manner
  • Maintains a professional atmosphere
  • Keeps crew constantly informed
  • Minimizes assumptions and confusion

35
Traits of a Good Follower
  • Accomplishes task to accepted standard
  • Maintains the necessary knowledge level
  • Provides input, suggestions feedback without
    prompting
  • Keeps leader informed
  • Actively participates
  • Helps maintain a positive professional
    team atmosphere

36
Adaptability / Flexibility
37
What is Adaptability/Flexibility?
  • Ability to alter course of action when new
    information becomes available.

38
Situations requiring quick adaptation
  • Un-briefed situations
  • Emergency
  • Transition occurs
  • Incapacitated crewmember
  • Interactions become strained

39
Maintaining adaptability/flexibility?
  • Anticipate problems
  • Recognize and acknowledge changes
  • Determine appropriate response
  • Offer alternative solutions
  • Provide and ask for assistance
  • Interact constructively with others

40
Encouraging adaptability/flexibility?
  • Establish open, positive, and professional
    atmosphere
  • Ensure crew understands mission

41
Situational Awareness
42
What is Situational Awareness?
The degree of accuracy by which ones perception
of the current environment mirrors reality
The Crystal Ball
43
Three steps of Situational Awareness
  • 1. Perception
  • 2. Comprehension
  • 3. Projection

44
An example using the 3 steps of SA
  • Perception We need to get updated
  • weather for our destination.

Comprehension The weather for our destination
is below minimums.
  • Projection If the weather is below minimums for
    our destination, then we may need to proceed to
    our alternate.

45
Factors which reduce SA
  • Fatigue
  • Stress
  • Lack of communication
  • Task overload
  • Task underload
  • Group mindset
  • Press On Philosophy
  • Attitude
  • Habits
  • Assumptions
  • Biases
  • Distractions
  • Emergencies
  • Weather

46
How to maintain good SA?
  • Provide information in advance
  • Identify potential problems
  • Verbalize a course of action
  • Detect and discuss deviations
  • Demonstrate an ongoing awareness through good
    communication

47
CRM Summary
  • Decision Making
  • Assertiveness
  • Mission Analysis
  • Communication
  • Leadership
  • Adaptability / Flexibility
  • Situational Awareness

48
Crew Resource Management
  • A Finely Tuned Crew

functions as ONE
49
Personal Survival Roadmap
  • Causes of Aviation Accidents
  • Survival Situation Priorities
  • Psychology of Survival
  • Search and Rescue
  • Survival Kits

50
Causes of Aviation Accidents
  • Inadequate preflight preparation / planning
  • Failure to obtain / maintain flying speed
  • Failure to maintain directional control
  • Improper level-off during landing flare
  • Failure to see and avoid obstructions
  • Mismanagement of fuel
  • Improper in-flight decisions or planning
  • Mis-judgement of distance and speed
  • Selection of unsuitable terrain for landing
  • Improper operation of flight controls

51
Causes of Aviation Accidents
52
When Faced With Survival Situation
  • Priorities Should Be
  • Medical Care
  • Shelter and Fire
  • Signaling
  • Sustenance
  • Water
  • Food

53
Psychology of Survival
  • Survival is
  • 5 physical stress
  • 95 mental stress
  • Worst enemies
  • Boredom
  • Loneliness
  • Bottom line Occupy your mind!!!
  • Maintain the WILL TO SURVIVE!!!

54
Search And Rescue
  • Statistics Most downed aircraft are located
    within 72 hours of crash (3 days/nights)
  • Stay with the aircraft??
  • Physical Condition of Survivors
  • Food / Water Sources
  • Availability of Shelter
  • Possibilities of Rescue

55
Survival Kits
  • Required for Pilot to ensure availability
  • Certain items required in different areas
  • Over Water
  • Over Land
  • Desert
  • Jungle

56
Survival Kits (Continued)
  • Necessary Survival Kit Items
  • Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
  • Shelter (Tarp or Tent)
  • Blankets
  • Fire Starter
  • Medical Kit
  • Signaling Device
  • Food / Water
  • Other optional items

57
Importance of Water
  • Can survive 28 days without food
  • Can only survive 2 days without water
  • Human body needs 64 oz per day
  • Methods of procurement
  • Dew
  • Rain
  • Filtered Puddles
  • Melted Snow
  • Solar Still

58
Personal Survival
  • A Well Prepared Crew

THE END
can survive any situation together
59
Questions?
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