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Chemistry: Matter and Change

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A chemical change, also known as a chemical reaction, involves a change in a substance s composition. In a chemical reaction, reactants form products. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemistry: Matter and Change


1
(No Transcript)
2
Chapter Menu
MatterProperties and Change
Section 3.1 Properties of Matter Section 3.2
Changes in Matter Section 3.3 Mixtures of
Matter Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds
Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the
corresponding slides.
Exit
3
Section 3-1
Section 3.1 Properties of Matter
  • Identify the characteristics of a substance.
  • Distinguish between physical and chemical
    properties.
  • Differentiate among the physical states of matter.

density a ratio that compares the mass of an
object to its volume
4
Section 3-1
Section 3.1 Properties of Matter (cont.)
states of matter solid liquid gas vapor
physical property extensive property intensive
property chemical property
Most common substances exist as solids, liquids,
and gases, which have diverse physical and
chemical properties.
5
Section 3-1
Substances
  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up
    space.
  • Matter is everything around us.
  • Matter with a uniform and unchanging composition
    is a substance.

6
Section 3-1
States of Matter
  • The physical forms of matter, either solid,
    liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter.
  • Solids are a form of matter that have their own
    definite shape and volume.
  • Liquids are a form of matter that have a definite
    volume but take the shape of the container.

7
Section 3-1
States of Matter (cont.)
  • Gases have no definite shape or volume. They
    expand to fill their container.
  • Vapor refers to the gaseous state of a substance
    that is a solid or liquid at room temperature.

8
Section 3-1
Physical Properties of Matter
  • A physical property is a characteristic that can
    be observed or measured without changing the
    samples composition.

9
Section 3-1
Physical Properties of Matter (cont.)
  • Extensive properties are dependent on the amount
    of substance present, such as mass, length, or
    volume.
  • Intensive properties are independent of the
    amount of substance present, such as density.

10
Section 3-1
Chemical Properties of Matter
  • The ability of a substance to combine with or
    change into one or more other substances is
    called a chemical property.
  • Iron forming rust
  • Copper turning green in the air

11
Section 3-1
Observing Properties of Matter
  • A substance can change forman important concept
    in chemistry.
  • Chemical properties can change with specific
    environmental conditions, such as temperature and
    pressure.

12
Section 3-1
Section 3.1 Assessment
Density is what kind of property? A. atomic
B. intensive C. extensive D. dependent
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

13
Section 3-1
Section 3.1 Assessment
What defines a gas? A. Gases have a definite
volume and shape. B. Gases have a definite
volume but take the shape of their
container. C. Gases have no definite volume
or shape. D. Gases have a definite shape but
no definite volume.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

14
End of Section 3-1
15
Section 3-2
Section 3.2 Changes in Matter
  • Define physical change and list several common
    physical changes.
  • Define chemical change and list several
    indications that a chemical change has taken
    place.
  • Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical
    reactions.

observation orderly, direct information
gathering about a phenomenon
16
Section 3-2
Section 3.2 Changes in Matter (cont.)
physical change phase change chemical change law
of conservation of mass
Matter can undergo physical and chemical changes.
17
Section 3-2
Physical Changes
  • A change that alters a substance without changing
    its composition is known as a physical change.
  • A phase change is a transition of matter from one
    state to another.
  • Boiling, freezing, melting, and condensing all
    describe phase changes in chemistry.

18
Section 3-2
Chemical Changes
  • A change that involves one or more substances
    turning into new substances is called a chemical
    change.
  • Decomposing, rusting, exploding, burning, or
    oxidizing are all terms that describe chemical
    changes.

19
Section 3-2
Conservation of Mass
  • The law of conservation of mass states that mass
    is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical
    reaction, it is conserved.
  • The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the
    products.
  • massreactants massproducts

20
Section 3-2
Section 3.2 Assessment
When one substances turns into another, what kind
of change has taken place? A. chemical reaction
B. physical reaction C. extensive
reaction D. nuclear reaction
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

21
Section 3-2
Section 3.2 Assessment
The law of conservation of mass states that
A. Matter can be created and destroyed.
B. Matter can be created but not
destroyed. C. The products of a reaction always
have a greater mass than the reactants. D. The
products of a reaction must have the same mass
as the reactants.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

22
End of Section 3-2
23
Section 3-3
Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter
  • Contrast mixtures and substances.
  • Classify mixtures as homogeneous or
    heterogeneous.
  • List and describe several techniques used to
    separate mixtures.

substance a form of matter that has a uniform
and unchanging composition also known as a pure
substance
24
Section 3-3
Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter (cont.)
mixture heterogeneous mixture homogeneous
mixture solution filtration
distillation crystallization sublimation chromatog
raphy
Most everyday matter occurs as mixturescombinatio
ns of two or more substances.
25
Section 3-3
Mixtures
  • A mixture is a combination of two or more pure
    substances in which each pure substance retains
    its individual chemical properties.
  • A homogenous mixture is a mixture where the
    composition is constant throughout.

26
Section 3-3
Mixtures (cont.)
  • Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions.
  • A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture where the
    individual substances remain distinct.

27
Section 3-3
Mixtures (cont.)
28
Section 3-3
Separating Mixtures
  • Filtration is a technique that uses a porous
    barrier to separate a solid from a liquid in a
    heterogeneous mixture.
  • Distillation is a separation technique for
    homogeneous mixtures that is based on the
    differences in boiling points of substances.
  • Crystallization is a separation technique for
    homogenous mixtures that results in the formation
    of pure solid particles from a solution
    containing the dissolved substance.

29
Section 3-3
Separating Mixtures (cont.)
  • Sublimation is the process of a solid changing
    directly to a gas, which can be used to separate
    mixtures of solids when one sublimates and the
    other does not.
  • Chromatography is a technique that separates the
    components of a mixture on the basis of tendency
    of each to travel across the surface of another
    material.

30
  • Image of distillation
  • Image of sublimation

31
Section 3-3
Section 3.3 Assessment
Which is NOT a technique for separating a
homogenous mixture? A. crystallization
B. distillation C. filtration D. chromatography
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

32
Section 3-3
Section 3.3 Assessment
Which of the following is a heterogeneous
mixture? A. seawater B. silver mercury
amalgam C. atmosphere D. salad dressing
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

33
End of Section 3-3
34
Section 3-4
Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds
  • Distinguish between elements and compounds.
  • Describe the organization of elements in the
    periodic table.
  • Explain how all compounds obey the laws of
    definite and multiple proportions.

proportion the relation of one part to another
or to the whole with respect to quantity
35
Section 3-4
Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds (cont.)
element periodic table compound
law of definite proportions percent by mass law
of multiple proportions
A compound is a combination of two or more
elements.
36
Section 3-4
Elements
  • An element is a pure substance that cannot be
    separated into simpler substances by physical or
    chemical means.
  • 90 elements occur naturally on Earth.
  • Each element has a unique name and a one, two, or
    three-letter symbol.
  • The periodic table organizes the elements into a
    grid of horizontal rows called periods and
    vertical columns called groups.

37
Section 3-4
Compounds
  • A compound is a made up of two or more elements
    combined chemically.
  • Most of the matter in the universe exists as
    compounds.
  • Table salt, NaCl, and water, H2O, are compounds.

38
Section 3-4
Compounds (cont.)
  • Elements can never be separated.
  • Compounds can be broken into components by
    chemical means.

39
Section 3-4
Compounds (cont.)
  • This figure shows electrolysis of water to form
    hydrogen and oxygen.

40
Section 3-4
Compounds (cont.)
  • The properties of a compound are different from
    its component elements.

41
Section 3-4
Law of Definite Proportions
  • The law of definite proportions states that a
    compound is always composed of the same elements
    in the same proportion by mass, no matter how
    large or small the sample.

42
Section 3-4
Law of Definite Proportions (cont.)
  • The relative amounts are expressed as percent by
    mass, the ratio of the mass of each element to
    the total mass of the compound expressed as a
    percentage.

43
Section 3-4
Law of Definite Proportions (cont.)
  • This table demonstrates that the percentages of
    elements in sucrose remain the same despite
    differences in sample amount.

44
Section 3-4
Law of Multiple Proportions
  • The law of multiple proportions states that when
    different compounds are formed by a combination
    of the same elements, different masses of one
    element combine with the same relative mass of
    the other element in whole number ratios.
  • H2O2 and H2O
  • Copper(I) chloride and copper(II) chloride

45
Section 3-4
Law of Multiple Proportions (cont.)
46
Section 3-4
Section 3.4 Assessment
What is a period on the periodic table of the
elements? A. a vertical columns B. even
numbered elements only C. horizontal rows
D. the last vertical column only
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

47
Section 3-4
Section 3.4 Assessment
An element is a substance that cannot be
A. divided into simpler substances. B. combined
to form a mixture. C. combined to form an
element. D. different phases.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

48
End of Section 3-4
49
Resources Menu
Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter
Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image
Bank Concepts in Motion
50
Study Guide 1
Section 3.1 Properties of Matter
Key Concepts
  • The three common states of matter are solid,
    liquid, and gas.
  • Physical properties can be observed without
    altering a substances composition.
  • Chemical properties describe a substances
    ability to combine with or change into one or
    more new substances.
  • External conditions can affect both physical and
    chemical properties.

51
Study Guide 2
Section 3.2 Changes in Matter
Key Concepts
  • A physical change alters the physical properties
    of a substance without changing its composition.
  • A chemical change, also known as a chemical
    reaction, involves a change in a substances
    composition.
  • In a chemical reaction, reactants form products.
  • The law of conservation of mass states that mass
    is neither created nor destroyed during a
    chemical reaction it is conserved.
  • massreactants massproducts

52
Study Guide 3
Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter
Key Concepts
  • A mixture is a physical blend of two or more pure
    substances in any proportion.
  • Solutions are homogeneous mixtures.
  • Mixtures can be separated by physical means.
    Common separation techniques include filtration,
    distillation, crystallization, sublimation, and
    chromatography.

53
Study Guide 4
Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds
Key Concepts
  • Elements cannot be broken down into simpler
    substances.
  • Elements are organized in the periodic table of
    the elements.
  • Compounds are chemical combinations of two or
    more elements and their properties differ from
    the properties of their component elements.

54
Study Guide 4
Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds (cont.)
Key Concepts
  • The law of definite proportions states that a
    compound is always composed of the same elements
    in the same proportions.
  • The law of multiple proportions states that if
    elements form more than one compound, those
    compounds will have compositions that are
    whole-number multiples of each other.

55
Chapter Assessment 1
Which of the following is NOT a physical property
of water? A. Ice melts at 0C. B. Water boils
at 100. C. Water reacts violently with pure
sodium. D. Water is a liquid at room
temperature.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

56
Chapter Assessment 2
28.0 grams of nitrogen gas reacts completely with
6.0 grams of hydrogen to form 34.0 grams of
ammonia. What does this demonstrate? A. the law
of conservation of energy B. sublimation
C. distillation D. the law of conservation of
mass
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

57
Chapter Assessment 3
What is the best way to separate salt dissolved
in water? A. sublimation B. crystallization
C. freezing D. filtration
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

58
Chapter Assessment 4
Two or more elements chemically joined form what?
A. substance B. heterogeneous mixture
C. homogenous solution D. compound
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

59
Chapter Assessment 5
What is the ratio of oxygen to carbon in carbon
dioxide (CO2)? A. 21 B. 12 C. 11 D. 13
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

60
STP 1
Which is NOT a chemical reaction? A. a car
rusting B. dissolving sugar in water C. wood
burning D. a banana ripening
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

61
STP 2
Which describes a substance that is in the liquid
state? A. It has a definite shape. B. It has
no definite volume. C. It can be compressed into
a smaller volume. D. It has a definite volume.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

62
STP 3
Elements in the same period are likely to have
similar ____. A. physical properties
B. densities C. chemical properties D. melting
points
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

63
STP 4
Filtration is an easy way to separate what?
A. heterogeneous mixture B. homogeneous mixture
C. compounds D. solutions
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

64
STP 5
Compounds can be broken into their component
elements by which of the following?
A. crystallization B. distillation
C. filtration D. chemical reaction
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

65
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IB 4
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IB 5
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IB 6
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IB 7
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74
CIM
Figure 3.4 Three Common States of Matter Figure
3.10 Conservation of Mass Table 3.3 Types of
Solution Systems
75
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