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Chapter 12 Organizational Change


Chapter 12 Organizational Change change is hard Why change? change is demanded by clientele citizens and customers technology is moving so quickly that today's work ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12 Organizational Change

Chapter 12 Organizational Change
  • change is hard

Why change?
  • change is demanded by clientele citizens and
  • technology is moving so quickly that today's work
    practices may become outdated almost overnight
  • change is difficult for most people
  • Either in our personal or in our work lives

Psychological Impacts of Change
  • that which is well-known and comfortable will be
    seen as giving way to something that is less
  • this can be scary
  • people can experience personal and psychological

Lessening the Stress of Change
  • change agents need to clarify and communicate
    problems in the current situation
  • financial crises or crises in public confidence
    make the problems understandable
  • managers should involve people throughout the
    organization in the change process

Lessening the Stress of Change
  • those who are part of the change process usually
    feel more comfortable with the process
  • change often leads to feelings of stress and
  • these problems must be addressed before the
    organization can move on

Types of Change
  • change can be incremental or discontinuous
  • incremental change results from tinkering or
    fine-tuning ongoing operations
  • discontinuous change is a complete break with the
    past and a major reconstruction of the
    organizations work
  • discontinuous change is far more difficult and
    can shock the system
  • people have to unlearn old approaches

Types of Change
  • strategic change refers to those choices made by
    executives, managers, consultants, and others who
    may be involved in planning activities leading to
    changes that are both broad range and long-term
  • strategic changes are often developed in the
    course of the strategic planning process that
    considers the mission, vision, and values of the
    organization and those forces acting upon the

Types of Change
  • grass-roots changes on the other hand are those
    take place at the local street level and involve
    middle level and supervisory level managers as
    well as workers in the front line of the
  • to be truly effective organizational change must
    be both strategic and grass-roots based

Classic approaches
  • social psychologist Kurt Lewin
  • group life is never without change, there is
    merely differences in the amount of type of
    change that exists
  • in any given field of human endeavor, there are
    both forces trying to bring about change in
    forces trying to resist change
  • the football analogy
  • driving and restraining forces

force field analysis
  • list in one column the driving forces at play
  • list in another the restraining forces at play
  • for change to occur there must be a shift in the
    balance of forces at play in any given
    organizational field
  • forces providing change must be increased
  • or those forces restricting change must be
  • often is easier to reduce the restricting forces

force field analysis
  • the first step is unfreezing the existing
  • disrupting the current condition of equilibrium
  • the second step is to introduce the change
  • the third step is to refreeze the situation
  • refreezing the situation includes
    institutionalizing the change and developing a
    new reward system

Organizational Culture
  • culture is generally taken to embrace the norms,
    policies, and values expressed by members of a
    particular culture and manifested in their
    typical behaviors and artifacts they produce
  • there are artifacts and creations of the culture
  • physical layout
  • technological preferences
  • language
  • operating routines

values of the organization
  • ideas about the way in which organization ought
    to be
  • ideal culture and real culture
  • espoused beliefs and real beliefs
  • basic underlying assumptions

values of the organization
  • Ott 1989 elements of organizational culture
  • related to societal culture
  • made up of values, beliefs, assumptions,
    perceptions, behavioral norms, artifacts, and
    patterns of behavior
  • socially constructed, unseen, and unobservable
    force behind organizational activities

values of the organization
  • functions as an organizational control mechanism,
    informally approving or prohibiting behaviors

Organizational Culture
  • the societal culture influences public
    organizations and the development of their
    organizational culture
  • cultures of public organizations are likely to be
    affected by the founding legislation
  • political sentiment concerning the work
  • public interpretation
  • in the imprint of early in important leaders

Organizational Socialization
  • Socialization is achieved and transmitted overtly
    to members to the process of
  • hiring
  • orientation
  • performance appraisal
  • promotion
  • informal processes
  • mentoring

Cultural Norms
  • the culture of the organization will shape the
    values in attitudes and actions of organization
  • changing the culture may be a key step in
    changing the behavior of the organizations
  • developing a culture of innovation?

Cultural Norms
  • altering and organizations culture is far from
    simple and they are disagreements in the
    literature on change about how to be successful
  • cultural norms are deep-seated and may be quite
    resistant to change
  • successful changes and organizations culture
    typically occur over a long period -- -- 5 to 15
  • manipulating the norms and values of
    organizations may be unethical

Organizational learning
  • Peter Senge's the fifth discipline
  • personal mastery
  • mental models
  • shared vision
  • team learning
  • systems thinking

Organizational learning
  • for public organizations undertaking change there
    is consensus that managers need
  • a commitment to values
  • serving the public
  • empowerment shared leadership
  • pragmatic incrementalism
  • dedication to public service

Approaches to bring about change
  • change by management action or reorganization
  • historically most organizational changes have
    been brought about by fairly unilateral action on
    the part of managers
  • organizational systems have been similar to the
    military in their hierarchical structure
  • managers are assumed to have the prerogative to
    basically tell others what to do

Approaches to bring about change
  • commands are expected to flow downward through
    the hierarchy and the expectation is that they
    will be obeyed
  • many managers continue to use this approach
    especially in situations where tasks are somewhat
    routine, highly structured, and easily programmed

Early Thinking
  • early writers and public administration were
    preoccupied with questions organizational design
    such as
  • steps to forming a new public office
  • the job to be carried out
  • selecting the director
  • determining the nature number of units required
  • establishing a structure of authority so that the
    coordinator can control the activities of the
    unit (1937)

Contemporary Thinking
  • Mechanistic and organic organizations
  • many organizations are becoming flatter
  • they have fewer levels from top to bottom
  • there's an effort to break down the silos that
    are represented by parallel agencies

organizational development
  • this approach is based on the behavioral sciences
  • is aimed at system wide improvements in the
    functioning of the organization
  • is conducted primarily the focus on personal
    capabilities especially process skills
  • it focuses on how things are done as opposed to
    what is being done
  • a consultant may be hired to provide expertise to
    the organization

organizational development
  • The consultant tells a manager what should be
    done in a doctor-patient like relationship
  • or there may be a process consultation

the interventionist role in organizational
  • valid and useful information
  • identifying real problems in the client systems
  • free choice
  • decision-making stays within the client systems
  • internal commitment
  • high degree of ownership among the clients

Organizational Development
  • organizational development represents a
    particular philosophy at odds with traditional
    top-down tendencies -- it is
  • mutually accessible and open
  • values experimentation
  • collaborative concept of authority
  • creation of the mutual helping relationship
  • authenticity in interpersonal relationships 
  • biased clearly towards Democratic tendencies as
    opposed authoritarian

Organizational Development Techniques
  • T-groups
  • process consultation
  • third party interventions
  • survey feedback
  • quality of work life
  • team building

the management of change
  • many people are hired specifically to fix
    existing agencies
  • new legislative mandates
  • public crisis of confidence
  • dramatic changes in the environment
  • a feeling that things can be working better

the steps in organizational transformations
  • assess the organizations environments need for
  • plan for change both strategically and grassroots
  • build support
  • implement specific changes
  • institutionalized changes
  • diagnosis
  • clarification coalition building
  • action
  • consolidation and refinement
  • sustainability

the steps in organizational transformations
  • managers often overestimate their own influence
    in organizations and underestimate how difficult
    it is to get people to change
  • without a sense of urgency people won't give
    extra effort that is often essential
  • some suggestradicallyto allow things to blow up
    instead of being corrected to create a sense of
  • The most important and pressing problems come
    across agencies and jurisdictional boundaries
  • Change is needed to tackle them
  • to fashion effective agencies change is necessary

the steps in organizational transformations
  • nearly every move that managers make has
    political implications
  • all barriers to effective agency performance
    started out as reforms
  • political history is important to consider
  • any change-oriented public manager needs to
    consider how proposed changes will be viewed by
    officials, citizens, and others
  • creativity is a key in creating organizational
  • norms about experimentation and innovation
  • organizations -- like people -- are risk-averse
  • they place high value on not rocking about

Ways of Acting
  • consider carefully the emotional and
    psychological component of resistance to change
  • both your own and of others
  •  try to clarify and communicate throughout the
    organization the problems associated with the
    current way of operating
  • what benefits might accrue from trying something
  • try to incorporate people throughout the
    organization in change process
  • think about the forces are driving change and
    those that are resisting change