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Preventing Child Abuse


Definition of Child Abuse and Neglect ... Over 60% of people in drug rehabilitation centers report being abused or neglected as a child. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Preventing Child Abuse

Preventing Child Abuse
History Current Trends in Child Abuse
  • 1874 1st case of abuse
  • 1909 1st conference on childrens welfare
  • 1962 1st child abuse law
  • A report of child abuse is made every ten
  • Almost five children die every day as a result of
    child abuse. More than three out of four are
    under the age of 4.
  • Child abuse occurs at every socioeconomic level,
    across ethnic and cultural lines, within all
    religions and at all levels of education.

History Current Trends in Child Abuse
  • 31 percent of women in prison in the United
    States were abused as children.
  • Over 60 of people in drug rehabilitation centers
    report being abused or neglected as a child.
  • About 80 of 21 year olds that were abused as
    children met criteria for at least one
    psychological disorder.
  • About 30 of abused and neglected children will
    later abuse their own children, continuing the
    horrible cycle of abuse.
  • It is estimated that between 60-85 of child
    fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded
    as such on death certificates.

Definition of Child Abuse and Neglect(US
Federal Law-Public Law 104-235-definition)
  • The physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or
    exploitation, negligent treatment, or
  • Of a child under 18, or except in sexual abuse,
    the age specified by the child protection law of
    the state
  • By a person who is responsible for the childs
    welfare is harmed or threatened thereby.

Kentucky Statistics
  • 88,292 children were reported abused or neglected
    in 2008
  • 14,802 children were confirmed victims
  • 30 children died as a result of child abuse or
    neglect in the 2008 calendar year
  • Updated statistics found at
  • http//

Kentucky Statistics
  • 71 of child maltreatment deaths were children
    age 3 and under
  • 83 of perpetrators were parents

Additional Laws/Exceptions
  • Parent/Guardian also commits abuse by allowing
    another individual to inflict harm.
  • Religious Exception-A parent or other person
    exercising custodial control or supervision of
    the child legitimately practicing the persons
    religious beliefs shall not be considered a
    negligent parent solely because of failure to
    provide specified medical treatment for a child
    for that reason alone. This exception shall not
    preclude a court from ordering necessary medical
    services for a child.

Forms of Child Abuse
  • Physical Abuse
  • Any nonaccidental injury to the child causing
    tangible physical harm

Physical Abuse
  • Committed by parent, guardian or caretaker, or
    someone the child knows
  • By definition, the injury is not an accident,
    however, neither is it necessarily the intent of
    the adult to injure the child
  • May result from over discipline or from
    punishment which is inappropriate to the childs
    age or condition
  • Injuries to a child during a domestic dispute
    can also constitute physical abuse

Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma
  • As defined by KRS 620.020 Pediatric Abusive Head
    Trauma (PAHT) means the various injuries or
    conditions that result following the vigorous
    shaking, slamming, or impacting the head of an
    infant or child. These injuries or conditions,
    also known as Pediatric Acquired Head Trauma,
    have in the past been called Shaken Baby Syndrome
    or Shaken Infant Syndrome

Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma
  • 61 of children who die from child abuse are
    under 1 yr old
  • 43 of the KY fatalities/near fatalities due to
    child abuse are cases of PAHT
  • Most frequent reported reasons for shaking are
    crying child, caregiver frustration, and a lack
    of information.

Forms of Child Abuse
  • Emotional Abuse
  • Blaming, belittling or rejecting a child
  • Constantly treating siblings unequally
  • A persistent lack of concern by the caretaker for
    the childs welfare.
  • Bizarre or cruel forms of punishment

Forms of Child Abuse
  • Sexual Abuse
  • The use, persuasion, or coercion of any child to
    engage in any sexually explicit conduct for the
    purpose of
  • producing any visual depiction of such conduct
  • Rape, molestation, prostitution
  • Or incest with children

Sexual Abuse
  • Children who have been sexually abused are 2.5
    times more likely to abuse alcohol 
  • Children who have been sexually abused are 3.8
    times more likely develop drug addictions

Forms of Child Abuse
  • Neglect
  • Failure to provide for the childs basic needs
    (this abuse tends to be chronic)
  • Physical
  • Medical
  • Educational
  • Emotional

Observe Children
  • Watch for sudden behavior changes
  • Watch and listen to the children over a period of
  • Observe at different times of the day and in
    different settings
  • Observe more often if suspicion of maltreatment
  • If maltreatment if suspected, you must report

Indicators of Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Physical bruises and marks on soft tissues
  • Face
  • Back
  • Neck
  • Buttocks
  • Abdomen
  • Upper arms
  • Thighs
  • Ankles
  • Back of legs
  • Genitals

Stages of Healing for Bruises
  • Ages of bruises can be detected by the following
    consecutive colors
  • 1. Red
  • 2. Blue
  • 3. Black-purple
  • 4. Green
  • 5. Yellow
  • 6. Brown

Behavioral Indicators
  • Not always easily discernible
  • Conversational Indicators
  • Sexual Indicators

Sexual Indicators STDs
  • Spotting
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Redness or swelling of vulva or vagina
  • Itching or discomfort accompanying any of the
  • Pain when using the bathroom

Factors Leading to Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Individual Factors
  • Fussy children
  • Special needs children
  • Mothers w/ a hx of violence (poor parenting in
    their own childhood)
  • Maternal depression, mental illness or substance

Factors Leading to Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Family Factors
  • Large numbers of siblings
  • Stressful life events
  • Poor social support social isolation
  • Unrelated father figure/ mothers boyfriend in
  • Unmet emotional needs
  • Lack of parenting knowledge

Factors Leading to Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Poverty
  • Low education achievement

Characteristics of Abusive Parents
  • Poor self-concept
  • Fear of authority
  • Rigidity or compulsiveness
  • Hostility and aggressiveness
  • Undue for fear of spoiling child
  • Unreasonable expectations for child
  • Lack of skills to meet own emotional needs
  • Belief of necessity for harsh physical discipline
  • Acceptance of violence as a means of communication

Kentucky Unified Juvenile Code KRS 620.030
  • Basic principles
  • A child has a fundamental right to be safe and to
    be nurtured
  • A child has a basic right to br raised by hi/her
    own parents whenever possible

Kentucky Unified Juvenile CodeKRS 620.030
  • Mandated reporting
  • Any person who knows or has reasonable cause to
    believe that a child is dependent, neglected or
    abused shall immediately make a report
  • In addition, the following persons may be
    required to submit a more detailed report,
    including, but not limited to teacher, school
    personnel, etc.
  • Also states, Any supervisor who receives from an
    employee a report shall promptly make a report to
    the proper authorities for investigation.
  • Reports will be assessed and investigated
  • Social Services provided to children experiencing

Reporting Child Abuse1-877-KYSAFE
  • What the Cabinet needs to know
  • The childs identity
  • Any person believed to be responsible for the
    abuse or neglect, if that person is known
  • The nature and extent of the abuse or neglect
  • The name and address of the reporter ( if he/ she
    so chooses, they may remain anonymous)
  • Where the child can be found
  • If there are any dangers in the house

Reporting Child Abuse1-877-KYSAFE
  • Where to report
  • Cabinet for health Family Services, 24 hr child
    abuse hotline
  • Local or State Police
  • Commonwealth or County Attorney

Who Must Report
  • ANYONE who has reasonable cause to believe.
  • Caregivers in all settings at all levels of
    employment shall know the child abuse reporting
    requirements as they apply to themselves, how
    to report them.

Failure to Report
  • Any person intentionally violating the provisions
    of this chapter shall be guilty of a Class B
  • Up to 90 days in jail /or a fine up to 250.00

Child Care Center Standards
  • If you report acting upon reasonable cause you
    cannot lose your job or receive any other
    disciplinary action or retaliation
  • REMEMBER You can report anonymously

Safeguard Yourselves
  • Providers should be able to take breaks and find
    relief during stressful times. 15 min. breaks
    every 4 hours and 30 min. lunch breaks.
  • Physical layout of centers should allow all areas
    to be viewed by at least one other adult,
    especially in dressing and toileting areas.

Primary Prevention Strategies
  • Staff selection procedure
  • Staff supervision
  • Staff training
  • Operational policies

How the Child Care Provider Can Support Families
to Prevent Abuse
  • Provide parent education
  • Actively promote and encourage family involvement
  • Form strong partnerships with parents based on
    trust, respect, and understanding that the
    childs development will be enhanced when all
    work together
  • Refer parents to resources for positive parenting

How the Child Care Provider Can Support Families
Experiencing Abuse
  • Cultivate partnerships with parents
  • Tell parents that you appreciate their child
  • Collaborate with other service providers and make
    referrals to work with your families.
  • Continue to provide child care during times of

Community Resources
  • Prevent Child Abuse Kentucky
  • 1- 800- Children
  • Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services,
  • Child Protection Services
  • Child Protection Hot Line
  • 1-877-KYSAFE1or (Toll Free)
  • 1-877-597-2331
  • http//
  • Child Care Health Consultation Helpline
  • http//
  • Family Nurturing Center
  • Catholic Social Services
  • Parents Anonymous
  • Family Resource Centers

  • Thanks to Kate Dean, Programs and Trainings
    Specialist with Prevent Child Abuse Kentucky
  • Thanks to Cindy Wilson, RN, BSN, Catherine Lowe
    RN, BSN and Holly Clendenin, RN Child Care Health
    Consultation Lexington- Fayette County Health
  • Caring for our Children National Health and
    Safety Performance Standards Guidelines for Out
    of Home Child Care Programs 2nd edition
  • Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services
    website http//