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Introduction to Social Anthropology SOC1016b

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Introduction to Social Anthropology SOC1016b Lecture 9 Politics, violence, feud and the maintenance of order Political anthropology Concepts: Aggression Violence War ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Social Anthropology SOC1016b


1
Introduction to Social Anthropology SOC1016b
  • Lecture 9
  • Politics, violence, feud and the maintenance of
    order

2
Political anthropology
  • Concepts
  • Aggression
  • Violence
  • War, raid, feud
  • Terror
  • Key issues
  • cultural interpretation of behaviour - what is
    labelled violence?
  • is such behaviour assessed by the intention or
    the consequence?
  • what are the social mechanisms by violence is
    organised?
  • Can people live without government?
  • How are disputes settled?

3
Ethnography of the Yanomamo.
  • Yanomamo were studied by Napoleon Chagnon, and
    also Lizot and Donner.
  • Known as the Fierce People, which is title of
    Chagnons book.
  • described as aggressive, assertive, short
    tempered, and quick to violence
  • Live on Venezuela/ Brazil border. Head waters of
    the Orinoco river.
  • Very hot steamy dense tropical rainforest cut by
    rivers.
  • Remote and not pacified i.e. policed directly
    by the state. This was Chagnons reason for
    studying them.
  • http//video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid-2548114
    635643820643eijiIASsi-LcTC-AbAiqinAQqYanomamo
    hlenemb1

4
Yanomami inter group relations
  • Horticultural society, bananas, plantain gardens.
    Some hunting by game animals few and scarce.
  • Shabono - circular village hut.
  • Central agnatic core - group of brothers and
    patrilineal cousins and allies.
  • Typically 40-100 people.
  • Relationships to other groups are fraught with
    danger four ways to relate to other groups - all
    somewhat similar.
  • Trade
  • Feasting
  • Exchange of women.
  • War

5
Shabono
6
http//www.throckmorton-nyc.com/images/pages/E3661
6.htm
7
http//cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/macionis
9/medialib/intros/chapter02/0202.html
8
Rules of violence
  • Chest pounding,
  • Club fights
  • Raiding

9
Why do the Yanomamo go to war with one another?
  • They say - shortage of women.
  • Harris comment
  • short of women because of systematic female
    infanticide practised by the women.
  • He presents a materialist explanation
  • short of protein, therefore prefer male hunters
    as children
  • newly settled hunters and gatherers without the
    overall social mechanisms for dispute settlement,
    such a chiefdoms or elaborated kinship
    organisations.

10
violence is culturally and socially constructed
  • Yanomomo society is violent
  • it is not chaos or anarchy
  • violence is conducted according to rules
  • There is no conquest or subjugation by the
    Yanomamo
  • because there is no mechanism for rule or for
    economic exploitation (only reproductive
    exploitation)
  • it requires states to organise war - carry though
    violence to achieve political ends, and to
    organise social subjugation.

11
Is it possible to live without government
  • Order settlement of disputes without violence
  • Power - the ability, by what ever means, to
    enforces ones own will on others behaviour
  • Coercion v Legitimacy.
  • Webers three types of authority.
  • Traditional, Charismatic, legal-rational

12
The Nuer studied by E.E.Evans-Pritchard
  • Southern Sudan
  • Transhumant cattle herders, move with Nile
    floods. Grow some maize and millet.
  • Reputation as
  • aggressive and quick to violence
  • independent and egalitarian
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJ0VBnrIkAtA

13
http//www.artnet.com/artwork_images_1050_107975_H
ugo-Adolf-Bernatzik.jpghttp//www.dlib.indiana.ed
u/collections/nuer/slides/full/046.jpg
14
Evans-Pritchard describes them as poets of cattle.
15
http//www.anthrophoto.com/cgi-bin/ImageFolio31//i
mageFolio.cgi?directHumans/Africa/Nuer
16
Ordered anarchy
  • Patrilineal kinship.
  • Segmentary lineage system
  • http//www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropolog
    y/tutor/descent/unilineal/segments.html

17
http//www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/nuer/slide
s/full/085.jpg
  • Feud
  • Complementary opposition.

18
http//www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/nuer/slide
s/
  • Dominant clan.
  • Leopard-skin chiefs/ priests of the earth

19
http//www.anthrophoto.com/cgi-bin/ImageFolio31//i
mageFolio.cgi?directHumans/Africa/Nuer
20
Settlement of feud
  • The symbolism of blood in blood feud
  • The order is in the system
  • Social structure sets up motivations and
    mechanisms for settling disputes
  • Traditional and charismatic authority of the
    leopard skin chief helps settle those conflicts
    participants want to avoid.
  • Sanctuary. Compensation in cattle
  • Excellent re-study by Sharon Hutchinson Nuer
    Dilemmas

21
Conclusion
  • Can individual emotional predispositions explain
    group behaviour?
  • It takes civilisation to organise killing on a
    mass scale.
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