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Title: MAE 1202: AEROSPACE PRACTICUM


1
MAE 1202 AEROSPACE PRACTICUM
  • Lecture 1 Introduction and Course Overview
  • January 7, 2013
  • Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
  • Florida Institute of Technology
  • D. R. Kirk

2
LECTURE OUTLINE
  • Syllabus
  • Course Structure
  • Topics Covered
  • Advice for MAE 1202 and Florida Tech
  • Summary
  • Course Website
  • http//my.fit.edu/dkirk/1202/index.html

3
MAE 1202 COURSE STRCUTURE
  • Monday lecture to introduce elementary design
    concepts related to
  • Aerodynamics (Chapters 4 and 5)
  • Aircraft performance (Chapter 6)
  • Aerospace structures (Chapter 10)
  • Propulsion Air-breathing, rocket and spacecraft
    (Chapter 9)
  • Bi-weekly laboratory sessions
  • Tuesday and Thursday or Wednesday and Friday,
    Room 228/229 EC
  • Attendance is taken at every session free 5 of
    your grade
  • Introduce computational engineering tools
  • MS Word, MS Excel, MATLAB, and Computer Aided
    Design (CAD) Software
  • Introduction to machine shop
  • Introduction and tour of research laboratories
  • Wind tunnel, shock tunnel, structures, heat
    transfer, etc.
  • Team project to design, analyze, and build
    aerospace device

4
READING AND HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS
  • Reading Assignment
  • For January 14, 2013 lecture Chapter 4, Sections
    4.1 - 4.14
  • Lecture-Based Homework Assignment
  • Problems None
  • Due Date
  • Turn in hard copy of homework
  • Review and be familiar with textbook examples in
    Chapter 4
  • Note Answers to all homework problems are
    provided grading is dependent on your approach
    and procedure to arrive at a solution
  • Comment on your answers just a phrase or two
  • Laboratory Homework Assignment 1
  • Due Date Friday, January 18, 2013 by 11 AM
  • Details in Thurs./Fri. laboratory session

5
LABORATORY INSTRUCTORS
Section Date and Time Room Teaching Assistant
1 Tues. and Thurs. 930-1045 AM 229 EC Joel Faure jfaure_at_my.fit.edu
2 Tues. and Thurs. 200-315 PM 229 EC Joel Faure
3 Wed. and Fri. 830-945 AM 229 EC Darren Levine dlevine2008_at_my.fit.edu
4 Tues. and Thurs. 1100-1215 AM 229 EC Darren Levine
5 Tues. and Thurs. 800-915 AM 228 EC Sunil Chintalapati chintals_at_fit.edu
6 Tues. and Thurs. 800-915 AM 229 EC Sunil Chintalapati
  • GSA Graduate Student Assistant
  • Paid to go to grad school
  • Work on cutting edge research
  • Also teach and continue to take classes
  • Are available to help with any homework or
    laboratory project
  • Make sure they know who you are become their
    friends
  • Learn about their research
  • Learn from their successes and mistakes as
    undergraduates
  • Ask them questions about how to be successful at
    Florida Tech

6
LECTURE TOPICS OVERVIEWAerodynamicsVehicle
PerformancePropulsionStructures
7
PRICE OF OIL vs. AIRLINE STOCK PRICE
Crude Oil (OIS)
American Airlines (AMR, AAMRQ)
8
FUEL COST DRIVERS
  • Fuel now largest component of operating costs
  • Carriers turning to fuel-saving measures that
    once seemed hardly worthwhile
  • Upswept wingtips to increase range and improve
    aerodynamics
  • Taxi to and from runway on one engine to save
    fuel
  • Does it make sense to actually fly slower?
  • Do you polish an airplane or paint the airplane?
  • Airlines have new program to wash their
    aircraft/engines
  • Other cost saving measures
  • 1st and 2nd bag check fee (and many others new
    fees)
  • Remove all pillows from MD-80s
  • Think about bankruptcies and mergers over last
    several years (Delta, American, Continental,
    United, America West, ATA, etc.)

9
CHEMICAL EMISSIONS
10
AIRCRAFT NOISE
11
AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE NOISE
12
LECTURE TOPICS AERODYNAMICS
  • Why are airplanes, wings, rockets, etc. shaped
    way they are?
  • What is relevance of their shape?
  • How do we design such shapes and what is impact
    of that design?

Boeing 777
SR-71
F-15
U-2
13
HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?
  • Lift due to imbalance of pressure distribution
    over top and bottom surfaces of wing
  • If pressure on top is lower than pressure on
    bottom surface, lift is generated
  • Why is pressure lower on top surface?
  • We can understand answer from basic physics
  • Continuity (Mass Conservation)
  • Newtons 2nd law (Euler or Bernoulli Equation)

14
COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT BOEING SERIES
707
757
727
767
737
777
747
787
  • What is same?
  • What is different?
  • Why?

15
BOEING 747-110 (1973) vs. 747-800 (2009)
16
Airbus Advanced Concept Aircraft
http//www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-1315836/
Boeing-takes-Airbus-invisible-planes-supersonic-sc
ramjet-engines.html
17
EXAMPLE SLATS AND FLAPS
18
EXAMPLE SWEPT WINGS
  • All modern high-speed aircraft have swept wings
    WHY?

19
DRONES IN THE NEWS
20
DO YOU NEED WINGS TO FLY?
  • "At some point I collided with one of the
    Skyhawks, at first I didn't realize it.  I felt a
    big strike, and I thought we passed through the
    jet stream of one of the other aircraft.  Before
    I could react, I saw the big fireball created by
    the explosion of the Skyhawk. 

21
SUPERSONIC FLOW
  • Can you fly faster than the speed of sound, HOW?
  • What can happen in supersonic flows?
  • Supersonic flows (M gt 1) are qualitatively and
    quantitatively different from subsonic flows (M lt
    1)

22
OTHER APPLICATIONS OF AERODYNAMICS
23
ROCKET VS. AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION
  • Take mass stored in a vehicle and throw it
    backwards
  • ? Use reaction force to propel vehicle
  • All fuel and oxidizer are carried onboard the
    vehicle
  • Rocket and Mission Analysis (MAE 4262)
  • Capture mass from environment and set that mass
    in motion backwards
  • ? Use reaction force to propel vehicle
  • Only fuel is carried onboard
  • Oxidizer (air) is harvested continuously during
    flight
  • Air-Breathing Engines (MAE 4261)

24
CROSS-SECTIONAL EXAMPLE GE 90-115B
Compressor
Nozzle
Fan
Turbine
Combustor
Inlet
  • Why does this engine look the way that it does?
  • How does this engine push an airplane forward,
    i.e. how does it generate thrust?
  • What are major components and design parameters?
  • http//www.geae.com/education/genx/theatre/genx_th
    eatre_go.html

25
TRENDS TO BIGGER ENGINES
1995 Boeing 777, FAA Certified
1958 Boeing 707, United States' first commercial
jet airliner
Similar to PWJT4A T17,000 lbf, a 1
PW4000-112 T100,000 lbf , a 6
26
COMMERCIAL VS. MILITARY ENGINES(APPROX. SAME
THRUST, APPROX. CORRECT RELATIVE SIZES)
GE CFM56 for Boeing 737 T30,000 lbf, Bypass
Ratio, a 5
PW 119 for F- 22, T35,000 lbf, Bypass Ratio a
0.3
27
HOW ARE ROCKET NOZZLES SHAPPED?
  • Converging-Diverging shape is ONLY way to
    accelerate a sub-sonic flow to super sonic
    velocities!

28
LECTURE TOPICS AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE
747
What drove this design? Fuel Cost
787
  • Examine behavior of entire airplane
  • How fast can this airplane fly (Range)?
  • How far can this airplane fly on a single tank of
    fuel (Endurance)?
  • How long can this airplane stay in the air on a
    single tank of fuel?
  • How fast and how high can it climb?
  • How well can the airplane maneuver?
  • How does the airplane perform?

29
EXAMPLE VIRGIN ATLANTIC GLOBALFLYER
World record for first non-stop solo
circumnavigation around the world
Wing Span 114 ft Wing Area 400 ft2 Length 44.1
ft Height 13.3 ft Gross Weight 22,000 lbs Empty
Weight 3,350 lbs
30
LECTURE TOPICS AEROSPACE STRUCTURES
  • Structural analysis plays a key role in aerospace
    design
  • Just as important as aerodynamics, propulsion,
    flight dynamics and control
  • Vast resources (money, time, etc.) dedicated to
    reducing weight and cost of aerospace structures
  • Aerospace structures operate in unique (often
    very harsh) environments
  • Rockets High G-loading and dynamic pressure (yet
    want lightweight and thin tanks to reduce mass
    penalty)
  • Gas turbine engine blades Operate above the
    melting temperature of material! Structure must
    be cooled

31
EXAMPLE SPACE STATION TRUSS STRUCTURE
  • In a weightless environment load calculations
    become easier?
  • No. Truss system being built for International
    Space Station must withstand both loading from
    launch and unusual forces and environment found
    on orbit.

32
EXAMPLE AIRCRAFT WAKE TURBULENCE
33
STRUCTURAL FAILURE EXAMPLE?
  • Aug. 5 The Nov. 12 2001 crash of American
    Airlines Flight 587 was the world's worst
    single-plane crash in a decade
  • Airbus pilot error as one possible cause
  • AA Airbus A300-600's composites, the material
    that makes up the tail, could have been the
    culprit
  • In theory, the airplane should be able to
    withstand a sudden yaw, yet it is well known that
    severe and dangerous horizontal gust loads can be
    imposed on vertical stabilizers under some flight
    conditions. That is why they have computer
    monitoring of airspeed so as to reduce the limit
    of rudder movement, on modern airliners  because
    structural limits of the vertical stabilizer can
    be exceeded if the rudder throw is too great when
    accompanied by a severe side loading

34
LABORATORY TOPICS OVERVIEW
35
ENGINEERING TOOLS MS WORD AND EXCEL
  • MS Word (1 Lecture)
  • Introduction of basic and higher order functions
  • Automatic generation of table of contents, lists
    of figures and tables
  • Spell and grammar check
  • Headers and footnotes
  • Important to produce professional quality
    engineering documents
  • MS Word facilitates document generation, but
    quality of technical writing is still up to you
  • MS Excel (1 Lecture)
  • Introduction to spreadsheet analysis
  • Introduction of basic and higher order functions
  • Freezing rows and columns, goal seek, generating
    plots

36
ENGINEERING TOOLS MATLAB
  • Overview of Matlab 4 Lectures
  • What is it and what can it do?
  • Matlab is a mathematical software that can be
    used to solve a wide range of engineering
    problems
  • Write your own programs and utilizes many
    built-in functions
  • Sum, mean, pi, sin, std, max, factorial, etc.
  • Very powerful for manipulation of matrices,
    linear algebra
  • Data analysis and plotting

37
ENGINEERING TOOLS CAD
  • One of most sophisticated and powerful solid
    modeling packages available
  • Provide foundation on how to use package over
    course of 10 laboratory sessions
  • Create models of relatively complex parts and
    assemblies
  • Know how to produce related detailed engineering
    drawings
  • Understand terminology use in CAD
  • Understand design philosophy and methods embedded
    in CAD

38
CADPROFESSIONAL EXAMPLES
39
PREVIOUS CAD FIT PROJECTS
40
PREVIOUS CAD FIT PROJECTS
41
EXAMPLES
42
MACHINE SHOP OVERVIEW
  • Useful throughout time at FIT, especially Junior
    and Senior Design Projects
  • Knowledge of how various components are made ?
    design process
  • Basic Machine Shop Training (6 sessions)
  • Shop Safety
  • Drawing and Manufacturing
  • Precision Instruments
  • Cutting Tools, Milling Machine, Saws, Welding,
    Lathe, Hand Tools, etc.

Example Inside Micrometer
Example Outside Micrometer
43
LABORATORIES OVERVIEW
  • A wind tunnel is a ground-based experimental
    facility used to produce air flow to study flight
    of airplanes, missiles, space vehicles, etc.
  • Many different types of wind tunnels
  • Subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic

Excellent Wind Tunnel Site http//vonkarman.stanf
ord.edu/tsd/pbstuff/tunnel/
44
TEAM PROJECT
GOAL Launch and recover student designed, Built,
and tested rockets to a given altitude
Excellent preparation for junior and senior
design projects and Pioneer Cup Participation
45
FREE ADVICE
46
STATISTICS AND COMMENTS
  • Aerospace Engineering largest major, in largest
    department, in largest college at Florida Tech
    (lots of leverage)
  • 86 students currently enrolled in 2013 MAE 1202
    Aerospace Practicum
  • 100 students initially enrolled in 2012 MAE 1201
    Introduction to Aerospace Engineering
  • 14 loss in enrollment
  • 2010 93 in Intro, 74 started Practicum (20
    loss)
  • 2007 105 in Intro, 91 started Practicum (13
    loss)
  • Last year Aerospace Practicum had 72 students
  • 30 As
  • 45 Bs
  • 2 Fs

47
THE GOOD ABOUT MAE 1202
  • Class is exceptionally difficult to fail or
    even get a D
  • Nonetheless it happens, however never because of
    academic inability
  • Doing all homework, participating in team
    project, attending every lab, and taking every
    concept quiz will probably get you a B
  • Team project turns out to be a lot of fun
  • You will be graded by your teammates for project
  • Projects are well-funded
  • Take advantage of office hours and many evening
    review sessions
  • Exams follow closely from lecture concepts,
    homework and text reading
  • Exams are open book and notes
  • Exams are rather lengthy and challenging
  • Foundation for many course at Florida Tech

48
THE BAD ABOUT MAE 1202
  • Foundation for many course at Florida Tech
  • Course is listed as 2 credits it will feel like
    4
  • Lots of lecture homework (8 problems per week)
  • Lots of new fundamental concepts
  • Laboratory assignment every week
  • New engineering tools (MATLAB and ProEngineer)
    to learn
  • Team project is a lot of work
  • You probably will like aspects of the course
    better than others
  • Your team may work well together or you may not
    work together
  • There will undoubtedly be complaining
  • Complain to me never to your Teaching
    Assistants
  • HOWEVER If you dedicate yourself to doing all
    this work
  • You will be extremely prepared for all other
    aerospace courses at FIT
  • You will be among the most prepared and
    knowledgeable sophomores

49
OTHER ADVICE
  • College is 3½ years long, not 4
  • When you apply for grad school or a job, your
    transcript will only cover your first 7
    semesters!
  • Job offers or a grad school plan in place before
    your last semester is over
  • The difference between a 3.01 GPA and a 2.98 GPA
    is much larger than the difference between a 3.2
    and 3.5 GPA
  • 3.01 GPA grad school, completely paid for yes!
  • 2.98 GPA grad school bye bye, good luck not
    finding a job!
  • It is almost impossible to dig out of a big GPA
    hole
  • Pay attention to 4 credit courses
  • Big hitters in your GPA
  • Be well rounded, but balanced we dont need
    engineering dorks
  • Setting a good precedent early is important
    without being a suck-up
  • Good student As I grade this exam, let me find
    where to give her points
  • Bad student As I grade this exam, let me find
    where she went wrong

50
COURSE SUMMARY
  • MAE 1202 Aerospace Practicum offers exciting
    mix
  • Interesting lectures
  • Aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance,
    structures
  • Content will extend through FIT, grad school,
    career
  • Introduction to modern and highly useful
    engineering tools
  • MS Word, MS Excel, Matlab, ProEngineer Wildfire
  • Tour of machine shop and research laboratories
  • Design Project
  • Opportunity to work in teams on aerospace related
    project
  • Apply theoretical results with engineering tools
  • Design, analyze, and build

51
ONLINE REFERENCES
  • http//www.aircraftenginedesign.com/enginepics.htm
    l
  • http//www.pratt-whitney.com/
  • http//www.geae.com/
  • http//www.geae.com/education/engines101/
  • http//www.ueet.nasa.gov/StudentSite/engines.html
  • http//www.aeromuseum.org/Education/Lessons/HowPla
    neFly/HowPlaneFly.html
  • http//www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal109/NEWHTF/H
    TF532.HTM
  • http//www.aircav.com/histturb.html
  • http//inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bljje
    tenginehistory.htm
  • http//inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bleng
    inegasturbine.htm
  • http//www.gas-turbines.com/primer/primer.htm
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