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Strategies for Reading the Literature, Filling the Page, and Finding Your Academic Voice

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Title: Strategies for Reading the Literature, Filling the Page, and Finding Your Academic Voice


1
Strategies for Reading the Literature, Filling
the Page, and Finding Your Academic Voice
If you need to go to advising, my feelings wont
be hurt. Cellphone off? Thanks.
December 2009
2
Objectives
  • Examine the relationship of critical reading and
    thinking to quality scholarly writing.
  • Review why audience matters so much to everything
    you write.
  • Share strategies for note-taking, annotating, and
    synthesizing the literature
  • Discover ways to find a comfortable scholarly
    voice.
  • Embrace ways to overcome writers block.

3
Purpose of Scholarly Writers
  • Your job is to show that you know what youre
    talking about, that what youre writing is
    true, and that what youre writing matters
    (i.e., so what? and who cares?).
  • You can best achieve these goals by using
    doctoral-level evidence in the authoritative
    style and voice of a scholarly writer, all of
    which must pass the critical eye of your reader.

4
  • What does it mean to write like a scientist?

5
Job of a Scholarly Writer
  • To shownot tellthe truth to your critical
    reader through your mining of useful evidence.
  • To distinguish useful evidence from that which is
    simply a crock.
  • To present as objectively as possible all sides
    to this audience.
  • Scientific

6
Use evidence to show, not tell, the truth
  • He was strung out.
  • versus

7
Use evidence to show, not tell, the truth
  • All day long on a bad day there is a knot in his
    stomach, a sour bow of anxiety that tightens and
    loosens and tightens again as the hours slowly
    pass. Sometimes it shakes itself free and flows
    upward to his chest so he cannot fill his lungs
    with breath. . . . By the end of a bad day, his
    stomach is a tight hot drum of gray worry and
    black bile. It appears slightly distended and he
    carries it before him like a volatile barrel of
    toxic waste. 64/9170 From Body Language by
    D. Schoemperlin

8
Use evidence to show, not tell, the truth Exec
  • Studies have shown statistical evidence that
    proves that, in fact, students enrolled in online
    programs do not earn as a high a salary after
    graduation, do more poorly on the GRE and other
    writing assessments

Carillo (2008), in a comparative study of 200
students who graduated with an MBA from an
online, for-profit university and a traditional
state university, found that the students
enrolled in the state institution earned 10,590
less upon graduation blah. Carillo discussed the
limitations. Indeed, Smart (2009) noted that
Carillo did not consider . . . Other evidence

9
Use evidence to show, not tell, the truth funda
  • But the so-called educational reforms of the late
    20th century, blurred by multiculturalism and
    muddied by relativism, have led to a curricular
    black hole that embodies everything and nothing.
    This is particularly acute in the public school
    system. Students in nonpublic high schools (which
    its safe to say often attract a less-talented
    student body) perform better in reading, civics,
    and history than their public school counterparts.
  • Bloom (1987) argued that attention paid on
    multiculturalism resulted in students lack of
    knowledge of the classicsand thus a morally
    relative view of ethics and values. . .
  • The Rhode Island Department of Education
    (2007) compiled data showing that private school
    students outperformed public school students in
    . Schmendrick (2008) countered that
    populations. . . .

10
zxzxz
  • A lot of very important research has been done on
    the effectiveness of treatment programs for sex
    offenders. Jenkins (2005) examined blah blah blah
    blah. In his study, he blah blah blahed. His
    study found that blah blah blah. The results
    indicated that blah blah blah blah (Jenkins,
    2005, p. 453).
  • In a different research study that was done by
    Smith and Jones (2006), the authors examined blah
    blah blah blah. In this particular study, it was
    shown that blah blah blah. The authors blah blah
    blahed. The study examined 25 released offenders
    in a blah blah treatment program. The results,
    according to Smith and Jones, showed that blah
    blah. This study was important because the
    results showed what I just wrote.
  • In a different study done by Roethlisberger and
    Ward (2009), the authors examined blah blah blah
    blah. In this particular study, it was shown that
    blah blah blah. The authors blah blah blah.ed.
    The study examined 25 released offenders in a
    blah blah treatment program. The results,
    according to the aubtors, showed that blah
    blah. This study was important because the
    results showed what I just wrote.

11
zxzxz
  • Efficacy of treatment programs for sex offenders
    has been discouraging. De los Santoss (2007)
    research on sex offenders at an Oregon prison
    suggested that known treatments used there were
    largely ineffective. ?Thats the assertion. It
    might be your opinionmaybe even your
    experience--that treatment doesnt work, but you
    will show the truth of the assertion through the
    evidence that follows. Using the Celaya
    Likelihood to Offend (CLO) instrument, de los
    Santos found that inmates who had participated in
    prison rehabilitation programs were more likely
    to be repeat offenders upon release than were
    those who had not taken part in such therapies.
    Although de los Santos warned that his study did
    not examine all known types of treatments, the
    results did beckon those in the counseling field
    to reexamine assumptions about blah blah. A study
    of molesters in New England found that 81 of
    offenders had been through treatment (Quiles,
    2007). Unclear from these findings was the extent
    to which successful treatment did not result in
    recidivist behavior. Only one study (Posner,
    2005), completed in Alabama, suggested that only
    among Buddhist monk offenders did

12
Your Audience
  • Is your cheerleader
  • But is a bit grumpy
  • Cares how well you showbut not tellthe truth
  • Does not want you to just regurgitate the
    literature.
  • Does want you to analyze, evaluate, compare,
    contrast, interpret, and synthesize the
    literature

13
A synthesized paper
  • is an integrated, critical essay on the most
    relevant and current published knowledge on the
    topic. Waldens rubric

14
What synthesis AINT Common blunders
  • Organization based on solely on authors, not
    ideas.

Author A
Author C
Author B
15
A synthesized paper
theories
trends
B
A
C
A
C
B
methods
16
A synthesized paper
  • is organized around major ideas or themes and
    subconcepts of all aspects of the study.
    Waldens rubric

theories
trends
B
A
C
A
C
B
methods
17


Marshall McLuhan
Alvin Toffler
Everett Rogers
Compare and contrast how theorists think social
change takes place.
Write Across
Compare how theorists define and explain how
social change takes place in an education system.
Read Down
Read Down
Read Down
Compare how theorists would bring about social
change to integrate technology in educational
institutions/schools.
Communication technology as a strategy for social
change.
18
Synthesis
  • One section of the literature review might read
  • Zuckerman (2008) has suggested that X is true.
    Patterson (2009) has also argued that X is true,
    but has pointed out that the effects of X may be
    different from those suggested by Zuckerman.
  • X

19
Synthesis
  • Subtopic X is the main idea covered in these
    sentences.
  • Zuckerman and Patterson agreed that X is true,
    but they disagreed on Xs effects. There is both
    agreement and disagreement, but what links the
    two arguments is that they both concern X.

X
20
Evidence of synthesis
  • In line with these findings
  • The results of X are consistent with Y
  • Although X suggested ___, Y reached a different
    conclusion

21
Evidence of synthesis
  • But synthesized paper is more than one that
    includes those synthesizing phrases.
  • A synthesized paper should leave a reader with a
    HOLISTIC SENSE that the writer has conveyed his
    or her own new ideas, and has drawn on a chorus
    of support.

22
Evidence of synthesis
  • Dude at Lansdowne residency
  • Research has shown that the arts, when
     integrated with other subjects, revitalizes 
    teaching and learning in schools (Darts, 2006
    Gajda Dorfman, 2006 Levin, 2008 Lynch, 2007).
    Barnes and Shirley (2007) identified that the
    arts can be used to motivate students to learn in
    all subject areas. Lynch also concluded that when
    the students learn though the arts, the whole
    child is developed. Reeves (2007), however,
    pointed out that a challenge policymakers may
    face is how to provide all students with
    rewarding arts experiences without reducing their
    other academic needs.
  • One potential solution is to infuse the arts into
    the core curriculum. This process of adding the
    arts to the core curriculum is termed arts
    integration.  This is a strikingly well
    synthesized paragraph.

23
The Dinner Party
24
What synthesis AINT Common blunders
  • Two or more sources in a paragraphperiod.
  • The effects of dark chocolate have been found
    on mood (Hershey, 2004) namely, the more dark
    chocolate one eats,
  • the more cheerful one tends to be. White
    chocolate has
  • little effect on mood (Ghirardelli, 2005).
  • Synthesis does not mean simply having two or more
    sources. Having more than one source is an
    excellent first step, but real synthesis isnt
    happening unless a relationship between the
    sources is apparent.

25
What synthesis AINT Common blunders
  • Random synthesis words thrown in for good measure
  • One reason that chocolate should be on every
    elementary school lunch menu is that it makes
    students feel good. Rita Dove, president of Dove
    Chocolate, agreed, stating, Chocolate is the
    perfect end to a satisfying luncheon (Hershey,
    2009, p. 18).

Use words deliberately. A word like agrees should
be reserved for occasions when a real
relationship is being explored.
26
What synthesis AINT Common blunders
  • Quotes upon quotes
  • Dark chocolate contains antioxidants
    (Ghirardelli, 2008, p. 3) antioxidants protect
    cells from free radical damage (Oz, 2009, p.
    27). Dark chocolate can be incorporated into
    many snacks or meals (Crocker, 2002, p. 22).
  • Always ask yourself are you interpreting quotes
    and furthering your own ideas, or are you just
    piling quotes one on top of the other?

27
What synthesis AINT Common blunders
  • Too much of one source
  • Hershey (2005) has found that chocolate can
    boost ones mood
  • Hershey (2005) has discovered a relationship
    between happiness and consumption of chocolate
  • Hersheys (2005) study revealed that women eat
    significantly more chocolate than men
  • One source shouldnt be driving your study.

28
What synthesis AINT Common blunders
  • Starting or ending a paragraph with a direct
    quote.
  • Potato chips are tasty treats but leave your
    fingers feeling greasy, (Smith, 2005, p. 267).
    Potato chips are a favorite snack food among
    Americans (Wise, 1997, p. 23), but researchers
    have documented how they tend to leave your
    fingers, arteries, and intestinal tract with a
    Vaseline-like substance (Edwards, 2006). There
    is a big problem for people who eat potato chips
    while typing on a laptop (p. 19).
  • Another snack food with potential problems is
    the corn chip, (Jones, 2008, p . 45).
  • According to Wise (1997), potato chips are a
    favorite snack food among Americans (p. 23).

29
This sounds difficult. How can I stay organized?
  • The synthesis matrix www.zotero.org

Author/ article Theoretical framework Questions/ hypotheses Methods Sample Analysis Conclusions



30
On Finding a Scholarly Voice
31
  • The move from a structuralist account in which
    capital is understood to structure social
    relations in relatively homologous ways to a view
    of hegemony in which power relations are subject
    to repetition, convergence, and rearticulation
    brought the question of temporality into the
    thinking of structure, and marked a shift from a
    form of Althusserian theory that takes structural
    totalities as theoretical objects to one in which
    the insights into the contingent possibility of
    structure inaugurate a renewed conception of
    hegemony as bound up with the contingent sites
    and strategies of the rearticulation of power.

32
  • We are pleased to announce winners of the fourth
    Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly
    journal Philosophy and Literature. Judith Butler,
    a Guggenheim Fellowship-winning professor of
    rhetoric and comparative literature at the
    University of California at Berkeley, admired as
    perhaps one of the ten smartest people on the
    planet, wrote the sentence that captured the
    contest's first prize. Professor Butler's
    first-prize sentence appears in Further
    Reflections on the Conversations of Our Time, an
    article in the scholarly journal Diacritics
    (1997).

33
Finding Your Voice
  • The suggestions by Shaw et al. (2007), as it
    applies statistically, further indicates that it
    is not that one theory cannot be concluded to
    apply to all women in general, but there is
    enough evidence to prove it should not be done
    (Livneh, 2000), and functional components of many
    of these theories leaves little room for
    maneuverability when such conclusion is drawn
    because of the way of life most of these
    individuals, especially when race is a factor
    (Spiegel, 1997).

34
Finding Your Voice
  • The suggestions by Shaw et al. (2007), as it
    applies statistically, further indicates that it
    is not that one theory cannot be concluded to
    apply to all women in general, but there is
    enough evidence to prove it should not be done
    (Livneh, 2000), and functional components of many
    of these theories leaves little room for
    maneuverability when such conclusion is drawn
    because of the way of life most of these
    individuals, especially when race is a factor
    (Spiegel, 1997).

35
Finding Your Voice
  • What Makes Nutrition So Good?
  • Making good food choices is key to feeling great.
    Proper nutrition and smart eating build the solid
    foundation for the healthy lifestyle we all want.
    Eating a variety of foods provides energy, plus
    the basic essential nutrients you need to keep
    you looking and feeling your best.
  • Many people eat when actually they are thirsty.
    Drinking eight glasses of water each day
    maintains body fluids and helps control ones
    appetite.

36
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37
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38
  • Back of a cereal box. (1999). Golden Valley, MN
    General Mills.

39
Finding Your Voice
  • All you must do is show you know what youre
    talking about and its true. Do so by letting
    the evidence do the work for you.

A 2-yr low-carb, high fiber diet with 546 g per
day of dried plums decreased incidence of obesity
by .75 (p .05) (Skinner, 2007). In a similar
study Cuckold et al. (2008) compared reported
weight loss but noted a 22 morbidity rate.
Psychological effects included higher self-esteem
and irritability. Adding 2 gal of water to
the Skinner diet, King and Burger (2008) reported
increased appetite control. The authors did not,
however, measure ensuing urinary infections,
which, as Visine (2006) noted, can result from
excess water intake.
Making good food choices is key to feeling great.
Proper nutrition and smart eating build the solid
foundation for the healthy lifestyle we all want.
Eating a variety of foods provides energy, plus
the basic essential nutrients you need to keep
you looking and feeling your best. Many
people eat when actually they are thirsty.
Drinking eight glasses of water each day
maintains body fluids and helps control ones
appetite.
40
Note-Taking Tips
  • Smart people What works for you?

41
Organizing Tips
  • Inspiration.com or kidspiration.com

42
Writers Block Tips
  • Tip 1 Stop trying so hard.
  • Tip 2 Use PowerPoint to organize your stuff and
    as an outliner.
  • Tip 3 You need not be perfect. The first draft
    can be pretty bad. Just write. Thats what the
    delete key is for.
  • Tip 4 The paper. Not my paper.
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