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Preventing slips, trips and falls

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... of the organization should practice good housekeeping measures whenever a condition is noted that could results in a slip, trip or fall. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Preventing slips, trips and falls


1
Preventing slips, trips and falls
2
Objectives
  • List the leading causes of slips, trips and falls
    in an office or industrial setting.
  • List the leading causes of slips, trips and falls
    in a construction setting.
  • List the steps in preventing slips, trips and
    falls in the workplace.

3
Definitions
  • Slip To slide involuntarily and lose one's
    balance or foothold
  • Trip A stumble or fall, usually at the same
    level
  • Fall To lose an upright or erect position
    suddenly this can be to the same level or a
    different level

4
2007 fatalities by accident type
Current numbers from Jan. 1, 2007, to July 31,
2007
5
The regulations
  • 1910.21 - Definitions
  • 1910.22 - General requirements
  • 1910.23 - Guarding floor and wall openings and
    holes
  • 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs
  • 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders
  • 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders
  • 1910.27 - Fixed ladders
  • 1910.28 - Safety requirements for scaffolding
  • 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands
    and scaffolds (towers)
  • 1910.30 - Other working surfaces
  • 1910 Subpart D - Authority for 1910 Subpart D

6
Office environments
  • Floor coverings such as rugs, mats and carpets
    should be in good repair and lay flat on the
    floor.
  • Close drawers when not in use.
  • Securely fasten telephone, computer and extension
    cords out of the way.
  • Properly store or dispose of boxes, files, papers
    and other material that can end up on the floor.

7
Walking and working surfaces
  • Keep aisles and passageways clear and in good
    repair with no obstructions across or in aisles
    that could create a hazard.
  • Mark permanent aisles and passageways
    appropriately.
  • Where mechanical handling equipment is used,
    aisles should be sufficiently wide. Improper
    aisle widths coupled with poor housekeeping and
    vehicle traffic can cause injury to employees,
    damage equipment and material, and can block
    emergency pathways.

8
General requirementsCovers and guardrails
  • Provide covers and/or guardrails to protect
    workers from the hazards of open pits, tanks,
    vats, ditches and the like.
  • Protect skylights to prevent workers from falling
    through them.

9
General requirementsFloor loading protection
  • Mark load-rating limits on plates and post
    conspicuously.
  • It is unlawful to place, or cause, or permit to
    be placed, on any floor or roof of a building or
    other structure, a load greater than that for
    which the floor or roof is approved.

10
Determining an opening
  • Floor hole An opening measuring less than 12
    inches but more than 1 inch in its smallest
    dimension in any floor, platform, pavement or
    yard through which materials but not workers
    may fall.
  • Floor opening An opening measuring 12 inches or
    more in its smallest dimension in any floor,
    platform, pavement or yard through which
    workers may fall.
  • Platform A working space elevated above the
    surrounding floor or ground for workers.
  • Wall hole An opening less than 30 inches but
    more than 1 inch high, of unrestricted width, in
    any wall or partition.
  • Wall opening An opening at least 30 inches high
    and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition,
    through which workers may fall.

11
Protection for floor openings
  • Provide standard railings on all exposed sides of
    a stairway opening, except at the stairway
    entrance.
  • For infrequently used stairways, where traffic
    across the opening prevents the use of a fixed
    standard railing, the guard shall consist of a
    hinged floor opening cover of standard strength
    and construction along with removable standard
    railings on all exposed sides, except at the
    stairway entrance.

12
Protection for floor openings
  • A standard railing consists of a top rail, mid
    rail and posts. It should have a vertical height
    of 42 inches nominal from the upper surface of
    the top rail to the floor, platform, runway or
    ramp level. The nominal height of a mid rail is
    21 inches.
  • A standard toeboard is 4 inches nominal in
    vertical height, with not more than ¼-inch
    clearance above floor level.

13
Protection for floor openings
  • Floor openings may be covered rather than guarded
    with rails.
  • When the floor opening cover is removed
  • Put a temporary guardrail in place, or
  • Station an attendant at the opening to warn
    personnel.
  • Guard every floor hole into which workers can
    accidentally walk by either
  • A standard railing with toeboard, or
  • A floor hole cover of standard strength and
    construction.

14
Protection of open-sided floors and platforms
  • Guard every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet
    or more above adjacent floor/ground level by a
    standard railing on all open sides.
  • Except where there is an entrance to a ramp,
    stairway or fixed ladder
  • Provide the railing with a toeboard wherever,
    beneath the open sides
  • Persons can pass
  • There is moving machinery
  • There is equipment with which falling materials
    could create a hazard.

15
Protection of open-sided floors and platforms
  • Regardless of height, open-sided floors,
    walkways, platforms or runways above or adjacent
    to dangerous equipment, guard pickling or
    galvanizing tanks, degreasing units and similar
    hazards with a standard railing and toeboard.

16
Stairway railings and guards
  • Every flight of stairs with four or more risers
    will have standard stair railings or standard
    handrails.
  • On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both
    sides enclosed, affix at least one handrail,
    preferably on the right side descending.
  • On stairways less than 44 inches wide with one
    open side, affix at least one stair rail on the
    open side.
  • On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both
    sides open, provide two stair rails, one for each
    side.
  • On stairways more than 44 inches wide, but less
    than 88 inches, provide one handrail on each
    enclosed side and one stair rail on each open
    side.
  • On stairways 88 inches or more in width, provide
    one handrail on each enclosed side, one stair
    rail on each open side and one intermediate stair
    rail placed approximately in the middle of the
    stairs.

17
Standard stair railing
  • The vertical height will be no more than 34
    inches nor less than 30 inches from the upper
    surface of the top rail to the surface of the
    tread.
  • Mount the lengthwise member directly on a wall or
    partition by means of brackets attached to the
    lower side of the handrail to keep a smooth,
    unobstructed surface along the top and both sides
    of the handrail.
  • The supports for the rail will be 3 inches from
    the wall and be no more than 8 feet apart.
  • The height of handrails will be no more than 34
    inches nor less than 30 inches from the upper
    surface of the handrail to the surface of the
    tread

18
Fixed industrial stairs
  • Provide fixed industrial stairs for access to and
    from places of work where operations necessitate
    regular travel between levels.
  • OSHA requirements include
  • Fixed industrial stairs strong enough to carry
    five times the normal anticipated live load
  • At the very minimum, any fixed stairway will
    safely carry a moving concentrated load of 1,000
    pounds
  • All fixed stairways will have a minimum width of
    22 inches
  • Fixed stairs will be installed at angles to the
    horizontal of between 30 degrees and 50 degrees
  • Vertical clearance above any stair tread to an
    overhead obstruction will be at least 7 feet
    measured from the leading edge of the tread.

19
Inspecting stairs
  • Handrails and stair rails
  • A. Lack of
  • B. Placement
  • C. Smoothness of surface
  • D. Strength
  • E. Clearance between rail and wall or other
    object
  • Treads
  • A. Strength
  • B. Slip resistance
  • C. Dimensions
  • D. Evenness of surface
  • E. Visibility of leading edge

20
Inspecting stairs
  • Improper/inadequate design, construction or
    location of staircases
  • Wet, slippery, or damaged walking or grasping
    surfaces
  • Improper illumination ... there is no general
    OSHA standard for illumination levels. Consult
    the Illuminating Engineering Societys
    publications for recommendations.
  • Poor housekeeping

21
Use of ladders
  • Place ladders with a secure footing, or lash/hold
    them in position.
  • Extend ladders used to gain access to a roof or
    other area at least 3 feet above the point of
    support.
  • Do not use the top of a regular stepladder as a
    step.
  • Use both hands when climbing or descending
    ladders.
  • Never use metal ladders near electrical equipment.

22
Use of ladders
  • Use the foot of a ladder, where possible, at such
    a pitch that the horizontal distance from the top
    support to the foot of the ladder is one-quarter
    of the working length of the ladder (the length
    along the ladder between the foot and the
    support).

23
Use of ladders
  • Always face the ladder when climbing up or down.
  • Do not splice short ladders together to make long
    ladders.
  • Never work on ladders placed in the horizontal
    position as scaffolds or work platforms.

24
Introduction to fall protection
  • A basic introduction to fall protection

25
Fall protection standards in general industry
  • 1910.23 Guarding floor and wall openings and
    holes
  • 1910.66 Powered platforms for building
    maintenance
  • App. A Guidelines (advisory)
  • App. C Personal fall-arrest system (Section I -
    mandatory Sections II and III - non-mandatory)
  • 1910.132 General requirements (personal
    protective equipment)
  • 1910.269 Electric power generation, transmission
    and distribution
  • References 1926 subpart M and contains additional
    requirements for fall protection

26
Frequently cited violations
  • Failure to protect workers from falls of 6 feet
    or more off unprotected sides or edges, e.g.
    floors and roofs. (1926.501(b)(1) (b)(10) and
    (b)(11))
  • Failure to protect workers from falling into or
    through holes and openings in floors and walls.
    (1926.501(b)(4) and (b)(14))
  • Failure to provide guardrails on runways and
    ramps where workers are exposed to falls of 6
    feet or more to a lower level. (1926.501(b)(6))

27
Work positioning systems
  • These systems are designed to hold and sustain
    the user at a work location and limit the free
    fall to 2 feet or less, as in rebar work or tree
    trimming. Below are examples of typical
    components of a work positioning system.
  • Body support Full-body harness
  • Connecting component Chain or web rebar
    assembly, rope or web lanyard
  • Anchorage connector Carabiner or snap hook
  • Anchorage Rebar or support structure

28
Restraint systems
  • These are systems designed to prevent the user
    from reaching an area where free fall could occur
    so no free fall is possible, as in leading edge
    roof work. Below are elements and examples of
    restraint systems.
  • Body support Full-body harness or body belt
  • Connecting component Rope or web lanyard
  • Anchorage connector Carabiner, tie-off adapter,
    roof anchor
  • Anchorage Beam or support structure

29
Rescue systems
  • These systems are designed to raise or lower a
    user to safety in the event of an emergency, so
    no free fall is possible (i.e. confined space
    work). Below are the four elements of a rescue
    system and examples
  • Body support Full-body harness
  • Connecting component Lifeline (winch,
    self-retracting lifeline) and Y-lanyard
  • Anchorage connector Tripod, davit arm
  • Anchorage Support structure or surface

30
Fall arrest
  • These systems are designed to stop a free fall of
    up to 6 feet, and limit the maximum forces of a
    user to 1,800 pounds or less, as in steel
    erection or elevated maintenance work. Below are
    the four elements of a fall-arrest system and
    examples.
  • Body support Full-body harness
  • Connecting component Shock-absorbing lanyard,
    self-retracting lifeline, rope grab
  • Anchorage connector Carabiner, tie-off adapter,
    trolley, roof anchor
  • Anchorage Beam or support structure

31
Suspension system
  • These systems support and suspend the user while
    being transported up or down vertically and will
    not allow a free fall. Below are elements and
    examples of suspension systems.
  • Body support Full-body harness and a boatswain's
    chair
  • Connecting component Lifeline (rope, rescue
    positioning device) rope or web lanyard
  • Anchorage connector Carabiner, tripod, davit arm
    tie-off adapter
  • Anchorage Beam or support structure or surface

32
A typical fall-arrest arrangement
  • A typical system consists of
  • An anchorage connector
  • A shock-absorbing lanyard
  • A full-body harness.
  • You must attach the anchorage connector must to a
    suitable and strong attachment point.

33
Requirements for personal fall-arrest system
  • Limit maximum arresting force on a worker to 900
    pounds (4 KiloNewtons) when used with a body
    belt.
  • Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to
    1,800 pounds (8 KiloNewtons) when used with a
    body harness.
  • Be rigged so that an employee can neither free
    fall more than 6 feet (1.8 meters) nor contact
    any lower level.
  • Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit
    maximum deceleration distance an employee travels
    to 3.5 feet (1.07 meters).
  • Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the
    potential impact energy of an employee free
    falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 meters) or the
    free fall distance permitted by the system,
    whichever is less.

34
Common pieces of equipment
Rope and cable grabs
Self-retracting lifelines
Shock-absorbing lanyard
Carabiners
Cross-arm strap
Full-body harness
35
Use of body belts
  • Effective Jan. 1, 1998, body belts are prohibited
    as a fall-arrest device.
  • You can use body belts as a positioning device.

36
Dee-rings and snap hooks
  • Dee-rings and snaphooks must have a minimum
    tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2
    KiloNewtons).
  • Proof-test dee-rings and snaphooks to a minimum
    tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 KiloNewtons)
    without cracking, breaking or suffering permanent
    deformation.

37
Personal protective equipment
  • Proper shoes are a major consideration in many
    operations.
  • The nature of the walking surface should dictate
    the type of footwear needed to increase traction
    and reduce the potential for slips, trips and
    falls.
  • Oil, water and other liquids, as well as dusts,
    pellets and other small solids may require
    special footwear as well as special housekeeping
    and engineering design to reduce the potential
    for slips, trips and falls.

38
Additional training
  • Extensive training is needed to fully understand
    and use much of the fall-protection equipment
    available.
  • A competent person must evaluate work conditions
    to ensure safety when working in elevated
    locations.
  • Most manufacturers provide very extensive
    programs in fall protection.

39
General requirementshousekeeping
  • Keep all places of employment, passageways,
    storerooms and service rooms clean and orderly,
    and in a sanitary condition.
  • Maintain the floor of every workroom in a clean
    and (so far as possible) dry condition. Where wet
    processes are used, maintain drainage and
    gratings, and provide mats or raised platforms.
  • Keep every floor, working place and passageway
    free from protruding nails, splinters, holes or
    loose boards.

40
General requirementshousekeeping
  • Place equipment needed for housekeeping, such as
    mops, absorbents, brooms and trash containers, in
    locations where they are frequently used and kept
    available.
  • All levels of the organization should practice
    good housekeeping measures whenever a condition
    is noted that could results in a slip, trip or
    fall.

41
Human factors
  • Eyesight
  • Age
  • Balance
  • Medications, alcohol and drug effects

42
Summary
  • It is important to properly engineer walking and
    working surfaces to avoid the potential for
    slips, trips and falls.
  • Use proper fall-protection systems when working
    on elevated surfaces.
  • Obtain and use proper personal protective
    equipment to reduce the potential for falls.
  • Management should implement good housekeeping
    practices and ensure its done on a regular basis.
  • Train employees in the prevention of slips, trips
    and falls.

43
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