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Transfers in Water Resources Planning Transfers Worldwide, The Ebro Transfer and the Spanish National Hydrologic Plans

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A Conversation about California Water Management: Past, Present and Future John A. Dracup Professor of the Graduate School Department of Civil and Environmental ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Transfers in Water Resources Planning Transfers Worldwide, The Ebro Transfer and the Spanish National Hydrologic Plans


1
A Conversation about California Water Management
Past, Present and Future
John A. Dracup Professor of the Graduate
School Department of Civil and Environmental
Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Science Cafe Series _at_ Cafe Royale San Francisco,
California Tuesday, August 21, 2007
2
Outline
  • The Past
  • The Present
  • The Future
  • A Summary

3
Outline
  • The past How Californias major water projects
    developed over time.

4

The evolution of Californias Major Water
Projects
Source DWR web page
5
Los Angeles Aqueduct-Mono Lake and Owens Valley
  • Municipal Supply for the city of Los Angeles
  • Two Aqueducts (1913 and 1970)
  • Total capacity 775 ft3/s
  • Length 223 and 137 miles
  • Combination of channels, conduits,
  • pipelines and tunnels

Jawbone Siphon - Owens Valley Aqueduct
6

The evolution of Californias Major Water
Projects
Source DWR web page
7
Central Valley Project (CVP)
  • Multi-purpose Project
  • Irrigation
  • Municipal, and Industrial Water
  • Recreation and Fish and Wildlife
  • Hydroelectric Power
  • Flood Control
  • Water Quality
  • Integrated Federal scheme of reservoirs, dams,
    canals, power plants, etc.
  • Started in 1937

Shasta Dam
8

The evolution of Californias Major Water
Projects
Source DWR web page
9
Colorado River Aqueduct
  • Colorado River Basin
  • Area 242,900 sq mi (629,100 km²)

Grand Canyon
10
Colorado River Aqueduct
  • Completed in 1941
  • Municipal Industrial use for MWD service areas
    (other cities than LA in So. Cal.)
  • Length 240 miles (386 km)
  • Capacity 1.3 MAF/year

Campaign to raise funds
11
The evolution of Californias Major Water
Projects
Source DWR web page
12
State Water Project (SWP)
  • The SWP is the nation's largest state-built water
    and power development and conveyance system
  • Operated by the California DWR
  • Supplies water for 23 million Californians and
    755,000 acres of irrigated farmland

13

The evolution of Californias Major Water
Projects
Source DWR web page
14
San Francisco Supply
  • Provides water to 2.4 million people in San
    Francisco, Santa Clara, Alameda and San Mateo
    counties
  • Completed in 1934

Hetch Hetchy Reservoir
15
San Francisco Supply
Tuolomne River
16
East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD)
  • Network of reservoirs, aqueducts, treatment
    plants, and distribution facilities
  • Extends from its principal water source, the
    Mokelumne River Basin in the Sierra Nevada range,
    90 miles to the East of the Bay Area

Main Water Treatment Facility Cogeneration Plant
17
Outline
  • The Past
  • The Present
  • The Future
  • A Summary

18
Sources and Supply (in hm3/yr and percentage)
Source California Water Plan, 1998
19
Demand and Uses
  • Urban 15.4
  • Agriculture 50.1
  • Environmental 31.1
  • Other 2.8

20
Robust Matrix Meeting the Needs
Source California Water Plan (2005 Update)
21
California Water Supply/Demand Imbalance 20
million Californians have the right to vote to
move the water from North to South
22
Over the past 50 years, we have been able to
meet our water demands primarily through an
extensive network of water storage and conveyance
facilities, groundwater development, and, more
recently, by improving water use efficiency
California Water Plan (2005 Update)
23
Current System
Groundwater ManagementGroundwater Basins Map
24
Current System
Groundwater Management Status of
GroundwaterManagement
25
Sustainable Groundwater Management
  • Sustainable yield concept
  • Reduce and eliminate overdraft
  • Monitoring quantity (well and basin metering) and
    quality (protect aquifers from contamination)
  • Explore new treatment technologies for
    remediation

26
Current System
Conjunctive Use
  • Operation of a groundwater basin in coordination
    with a surface water system to increase total
    water supply availability, improving the overall
    reliability of supplies
  • - Recharge in years of above-average
    precipitation
  • - Groundwater extraction in years of
    below-average precipitation when surface water
    supplies are below normal

27
Pioneering Water Use Efficiency Water pricing
in California
  • Urban prices City of Los Angeles, 3.30 per
    1000 gallons
  • 0.91/m3
  • Agricultural prices MWD of Southern California,
    241 per acre-foot
  • 0.21/m3

28
Pioneering Water Efficiency Urban use in City
of LA
  • 1970 to present 35 increase in population 7
    increase in water use
  • Rebates for low water use clothes washers
    toilets
  • 1.5 million bathroom retrofit kits distributed
  • Teacher water conservation workshops
  • Xeriscape water saving landscapes

29
Outline
  • The Past Present
  • The Future
  • A Summary

30
Outline
  • The Future
  • Challenges
  • Integrated Water Management
  • Water conservation
  • Drought-Proofing

31
Challenges are more complex
  • Population increases
  • Demand patterns shift
  • Environmental needs are better understood
  • Climate change effects become more evident

It is not the strongest of the species that
survives, nor the most intelligent that survives.
It is the one that is the most adaptable to
change. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
32
Integrated Water Management in Action
  • Water conservation
  • Retrofitting low flow showers toilets
  • Public education
  • Water use efficiency
  • Leak reduction
  • Water recycling
  • Drought-proofing drought preparedness
  • Off-stream storage
  • Urban Agricultural water pricing
  • Metering of urban households irrigation wells

Source California Water Plan (Update 2005) DWR
web page http//www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/cwpu20
05/index.cfm
33
Water Recycling
in Southern California
  • Water Factory 21
  • Water Recycling Facility
  • Secondary recycled water is injected into the
    coastal aquifer, replenishing the aquifer and
    creating a barrier for seawater intrusion


Water Factory 21
34
Sustainable Irrigation Regulated Deficit
Irrigation (RDI)
  • RDI limits vegetative growth and enhances water
    use efficiency for crop production
  • Uses no more water than is available on a
    recurring basis from rainfall over a catchment
  • Great potential to contribute to an increasingly
    water-efficient horticulture
  • Validated on both fruit crops and wine grapes
    (quality improvement)
  • Pioneered in Australia

35
Off-line Storage
  • Diamond Valley Reservoir (MWD)

36
Water Conservation 60 of new water sources
California Water Plan (2005 Update), DWR
37
Water Conservation EBMUD Program
  • Clothes washer, toilet and landscape rebates
  • Water usage studies and surveys
  • Leak repairs
  • Recycled water projects
  • Public education, workshops and marketing

East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD)
Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Report
38
Water Conservation EBMUD Program Decoupling
Demand
East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD)
Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Report
39
Outline
  • The Present
  • The Future
  • Conclusions

40
Conclusions
  • California water system is highly dependent on
    large scale water transfers/reservoirs and
    conjunctive use
  • Under future climate conditions, flexible systems
    allow management adjustments or midcourse
    corrections without causing major economic and
    social disruptions

41
Conclusions
  • Aggressive water conservation and recycling
    methods are effective in reducing water demands
  • Water conservation incorporates flexibility and
    adaptability into our system

42
Conclusions
  • Even though CA has been promoting aggressive
    water conservation programs, a great part of the
    additional future water will come from this source

43
THANK YOUQUESTIONS?
  • dracup_at_ce.berkeley.edu

44
Dealing with Droughts
45
California Last Major Drought 1987-1992
  • Most severe drought on record
  • At peak, 155 CA reservoirs at ½ capacity

Marina at Folsom Lake (near Sacramento), Oct. 1992
46
Drought-Proofing
  • Long-Term Drought Preparedness Planning
  • Multi-year operations strategies for the
    large-scale water schemes (transfers/reservoir
    systems)
  • Local assistance actions (funding, monitoring)
  • Response Plans for Dry Periods Drought Events
  • State water actions and local assistance actions
    for Water year one and Early water year two

47
Integrated Water ManagementGenerics
Source California Water Plan (2005 Update)
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