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Leadership

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Chapter 15 Leadership Level 5 Leaders Modest Quietly determined based on inspired standards rather than charisma Ambitious for the firm rather than for themselves ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership


1
Chapter 15 Leadership
2
Objectives
  • Describe what followers expect of leaders
  • Differentiate between leadership and management.
  • Identify the traits that distinguish leaders from
    non-leaders.
  • Summarize the conclusions of behavioral theories
    of leadership
  • Explain why path-goal theory and the
    leader-member exchange model are contingency
    theories

15 -1
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
3
Objectives
  • Compare and contrast transformational,
    transactional, laissez-faire, and charismatic
    leadership
  • Describe emotional intelligence
  • Explain the role of trust in leadership
  • Summarize the relationships between leadership
    and both culture and gender

15 -2
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
4
Level 5 Leaders
  • Modest
  • Quietly determined based on inspired standards
    rather than charisma
  • Ambitious for the firm rather than for themselves
  • Driven to achieve sustained results and success
  • Give credit to others for success and take blame
    for failure

15 -3
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5
Leaders - Defined
  • Individuals who
  • establish direction for a group
  • gain the group members commitment
  • motivate them to achieve goals to move in that
    direction

15 -4
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
6
Leadership Point-of-View
See what needs to be done
Understand all underlying forces in a situation
Have courage to initiate action and improve
things
15 -5
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
7
Shared/Distributed Leadership - Defined
At different points in time, leadership is
rotated. The person with the most relevant skill
takes the initiative to influence the group
15 -6
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
8
Lateral Leadership - Defined
  • Colleagues at same hierarchical level
    collaborate and facilitate joint problem solving

15 -7
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
9
Follower Expectations of Leaders
Competence
Honesty
Forward-looking
Inspiring
CREDIBILITY
15 -8
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
10
Are All Managers Leaders?
Managers Leaders
Do things right Do the right thing
Planning and budgeting Vision
Processes and systems Imaginative ideas
Organizing and staffing Aligning people with vision
Control and problem solving Motivate and inspire
Produce order, predictability, results expected by stakeholders Produce change
15 -9
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
11
Traits of Successful Business Leaders
  • Drive
  • Honesty and integrity
  • Leadership motivation
  • Self-confidence
  • Cognitive ability
  • Business knowledge
  • Creativity
  • Flexibility

15 -10
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
12
Behavior Styles in Leadership
hi

Low People High Task
High People High Task
Task (initiating structure)

Low People Low Task
High People Low Task
lo
People
(consideration behavior)
hi
15 -11
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
13
Continuum of Leadership Behavior
Group Centered
Leader Centered
Use of authority by leader
Area of freedom of the group
Leader decides, announces decision
Sells decision to group
Gives group as much freedom as possible to define
problem and decide
Presents problem and boundaries, group decides
Presents problem, asks for ideas, decides
Presents tentative decision, consults group, and
decides
Announces decision, permits questions
15 -12
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
14
Path-Goal Theory
  • Employee Characteristics
  • Locus of Control
  • Self-perceived task ability
  • Need for achievement
  • Need for clarity
  • Need for independence
  • Experience
  • Leader Behaviors
  • Path-goal clarifying
  • Achievement-oriented
  • Work-facilitation
  • Supportive
  • Interaction-facilitation
  • Group-oriented decision making
  • Representation and networking
  • Value-based
  • Leadership Effectiveness
  • Employee motivation
  • Employee satisfaction
  • Employee performance
  • Leader acceptance
  • Work-unit performance
  • Environmental Characteristics
  • Task structure
  • Stressful work
  • Work group dynamics

15 -13
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
15
Leader-Member Exchange Model (LMX)
  • In-Group
  • Receives preferential
  • treatment
  • Therefore
  • More successful
  • More satisfied
  • Out-Group
  • No preferential
  • treatment
  • Therefore
  • Less successful
  • Less satisfied

Result of leaders favoritism
Less
communication and cooperation between these groups
15 -14
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
16
Transformational Leadership
  • Are value-driven change agents
  • Make followers more conscious of the importance
    and value of task outcomes.
  • Provide followers with a vision
  • Motivate followers to go beyond self-interest for
    the good of the organization

15 -15
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
17
Effective Leadership Practices
  • Challenge the process
  • Inspire a shared vision
  • Enable others to act
  • Encourage the heart

15 -16
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
18
Full Range of Leadership Styles
Follower motivation Job satisfaction Satisfaction
w/leader
  • Laissez faire Transactional Transformational
  • (noninterference)
  • Least effective Most effective

15 -17
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
19
Transactional Leadership - Defined
  • Transactional leadership is an exchange
  • process in which leaders clarify employee
  • roles and task requirements and then
  • reward or punish followers based on their
  • performance

15 -18
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
20
Charismatic Leadership - Defined
  • Charismatic leaders
  • develop a special
  • relationship with
  • followers who attribute
  • extraordinary or heroic
  • leadership abilities to
  • them

15 -19
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
21
Charismatic Leaders
  • Are adept at communicating an inspiring vision
  • Elicit
  • High levels of performance
  • Loyalty
  • Sacrifice
  • Enthusiasm

15 -20
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
22
Unethical Charismatic Leaders
  • Motivated by personalized power
  • Pursue their own vision and goals
  • Censure critical or opposing views
  • Encourage blind obedience, dependency, submission
  • Lack internal moral compass

15 -21
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
23
Servant Leaders - Defined
Servant leaders are stewards who are responsible
for serving, developing, and transforming the
organization and its people
15 -22
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
24
Servant Leaders At
  • Recognize they dont have all the answers
  • Demonstrate sense of humility and vulnerability
  • Build capability of company and people
  • Advance transformation of self, others, and
    company

15 -23
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
25
Emotional Intelligence (EI) - Defined
  • Emotional intelligence refers to an ability
  • to recognize the meanings of emotions
  • and their relationships and to reason and
  • problem-solve on the basis of them
  • Self awareness
  • Self-management
  • Social awareness
  • Relationship management

15 -24
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
26
Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence (EI)
  • Self-awareness
  • Reading ones own emotions
  • Realistic self-assessment
  • Self-confidence

15 -25
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
27
Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence (EI)
  • Self-management
  • Emotional self-control
  • Transparency integrity and trustworthiness
  • Adaptability
  • Achievement
  • Initiative
  • Optimism

15 -26
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
28
Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence (EI)
  • Social awareness
  • Empathy
  • Organizational awareness
  • Service to clients

15 -27
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
29
Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence (EI)
  • Relationship management
  • Inspirational leadership
  • Influence
  • Developing others
  • Change catalyst
  • Conflict management
  • Building bonds
  • Teamwork and collaboration

15 -28
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
30
Emotional Hijack - Defined
  • Emotional hijacks occur when the fight-or-
  • flight reaction is triggered in the amygdala of
  • the brain and an emotional reaction
  • overcomes reason

15 -29
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
31
Trust and Leadership
  • Confident expectations of followers about the
    leaders behavior and intentions
  • Leader trust relates to increased
  • job performance
  • organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
  • intention to stay with the organization
    (?turnover)
  • job satisfaction
  • organizational commitment
  • commitment to leaders decisions

15 -30
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
32
Theoretical Approaches to Trust
  • Relationship-based social exchange process
  • Basis of trust goodwill and perceived mutual
    obligations
  • Character-based leaders personal integrity
  • Basis of trust leaders integrity, sense of
    fairness, dependability, competence

15 -31
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
33
Gender and Leadership
  • Men and women are equally effective as leaders
  • BUT
  • Gender stereotypes sometimes lead women to be
    perceived as less effective

15 -32
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
34
Gender and Leadership
  • There are few differences in the way women and
    men lead
  • BUT
  • Women are more likely to
  • be participative
  • use transformational style rather than laissez
    faire or transactional
  • offer contingent rewards

15 -33
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
35
Culture and Leadership
  • Leadership schemas and behaviors often vary among
    cultures
  • Transformational leadership style viewed as
    universally effective

15 -34
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
36
The Globe Project
DATA COLLECTION 170 Country
Co-Investigators (CCIs) SAMPLES 62
Countries At least three from each
major region of the
world QUESTIONNAIRE Middle managers in
financial RESPONDENTS services, food
processing, telecommunications
services 150 country specific
industries gt 1,000 organizations
SURVEYS Executives of the middle managers
UNOBTRUSIVE MEASURES
15 -35
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
37
Universal Positive Leader Attributes
  • Decisive Honest
  • Informed Dynamic
  • Administratively skilled Coordinator
  • Just Team builder
  • Effective Bargainer Dependable
  • Win-win problem solver Excellence oriented
  • Plans ahead Intelligent

15 -36
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
38
Universal Negative Leader Attributes
Ruthless Egocentric Asocial Non-explicit Irrit
able Non-cooperative Loner Dictatorial
15 -37
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
39
Culturally Contingent Leader Attributes
Enthusiastic Self-sacrificial Risk
taking Sincere Ambitious Sensitive Self-effac
ing Compassionate Unique Willful
15 -38
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
40
Global Leadership - Defined
  • Global leadership is a process of influencing
  • the thinking, attitudes, and behaviors of a
  • global community to work together
  • synergistically toward a common vision and
  • common goals

15 -39
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
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