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Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management


Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management University of Alaska Fairbanks Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management April 2012 * Refer to page 12-13 of your ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management

Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management
  • April 2012

Course Outline
  • Overview of hazardous materials regulations
  • Hazardous waste at UAF
  • What is hazardous waste?
  • What do I do with my hazardous waste?
  • Emergency response

Overview of Hazardous Materials Regulations
Hazardous Materials Regulations
  • Hazardous materials are regulated by three
    primary government agencies
  • Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  • Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR)

The International Fire and Building Codes also
regulate hazardous materials
Hazardous Materials Regulations (cont.)
  • DOT regulations direct us how to properly
    package, identify, and label hazardous materials
    and hazardous wastes for transportation
  • OSHA regulations tell us how to protect ourselves
    from the effects of hazardous materials in the
  • EPA regulations tell us how to protect our

DOT Regulations
  • DOT classifies hazardous materials into 9 primary
    hazard classes which are subdivided into multiple
    subsidiary risk groups. You dont need to
    memorize these, but the primary hazard classes
  • Class 1 Explosives
  • Class 2 Compressed Gases
  • Class 3 Flammable Liquids
  • Class 4 Flammable Solids
  • Class 5 Oxidizers
  • Class 6 Poisons and Toxics
  • Class 7 Radioactive materials
  • Class 8 Corrosives

Class 9 Miscellaneous hazardous materials that
dont fit any other hazard class (dry ice, for
OSHA Regulations
  • OSHA regulations include the following standards
  • Hazard Communication Standard (Hazcom,
  • Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in
    Labs, including requirements for Chemical Hygiene
  • Respiratory Protection Standard
  • Confined Space Entry Requirements
  • Asbestos Standard
  • Lead (Pb) Standard
  • Bloodborne pathogen standard
  • Formaldehyde, Benzene, and Methylene chloride

OSHA also establishes permissible exposure levels
(PELs) for hazardous chemicals
EPA Regulations
  • Congress placed into law several acts that the
    EPA uses to establish regulation to protect our
  • Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • Clean Air Act
  • Clean Water Act
  • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
  • Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)

Hazardous Waste Regulations
  • EPA regulates hazardous waste in Alaska by
    authority of the Resource Conservation Recovery
    Act. RCRA controls include
  • Identification of hazardous wastes
  • Tracking wastes from cradle to grave
  • Setting standards for generators of wastes,
    transporters of wastes, and Treatment, Storage
    Disposal Facilities

Primary RCRA Requirements
  • RCRA requires that you
  • Label containers with a description of their
  • Store only the permissible volume of waste in
    your lab
  • Ensure lids and caps are securely fastened at all
    times, except when putting wastes into the
  • Ensure all materials are properly segregated
  • Use containers that are compatible with your
  • Use intact containers (no cracks, holes, etc.)
  • Ensure that spills and overfills do not occur
  • Ensure that mismanagement does not occur

RCRA Requirement for Training
  • The purpose of this training is to comply
    w/requirements set forth by the EPA under 40 CFR
    265.16 (Personnel Training)
  • The scope of the training is to ensure that UAF
    personnel who use chemicals
  • 1. Understand how to identify hazardous wastes
  • 2. Understand how to package and label
    hazardous wastes
  • 3. Understand how to have their hazardous
    materials disposed
  • 4. Know how to respond effectively to

RCRA Regulatory Inspections
  • EPA conducts unannounced Compliance Evaluation
  • In the past, UAF facilities have been inspected
  • Our goal is to comply with all regulations

Hazardous waste at UAF
  • An overview of sources of hazardous waste at UAF,
    and its ultimate fate

Sources of Hazardous Waste at UAF
  • Sources of hazardous wastes (HW) at UAF include
  • Research and academic laboratories
  • Shops and repair facilities
  • Art and theater departments
  • Facility maintenance and grounds
  • Power Plant operations
  • Experimental Farm operations

Hazardous Waste Generators
  • The RCRA definition of a HW generator is
  • Any person, by site, whose act or process
  • hazardous waste identified or listed in 40 CFR
  • Generators are classified by the volume of HW
    that they produce per month
  • CESQG Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity
  • SQG Small Quantity Generator
  • LQG Large Quantity Generator gt 1000
    kg/month or
  • gt1 qt. of acutely hazardous

UAFs Waste Generator Status
  • The UAF main campus is regulated as a Large
    Quantity Generator
  • UAFs extended sites are regulated as
    Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators
  • Examples Toolik Field Station, Palmer Research
    Farm, FITC in Kodiak, Seward Marine Center, Lena
    Point Fisheries Facility

Hazardous Waste Management at UAF
  • EHSRM assists UAF waste generators with waste
    disposal needs
  • Hazardous Materials Facility (HMF) stores waste
    and serves as UAFs Central Accumulation Area
  • RCRA-regulated hazardous wastes are shipped
  • Every 90 days from the HMF
  • By EPA-permitted transporters to EPA-permitted
    treatment, storage, and disposal facilities
  • Annual costs 125,000 for disposal 400,000
    total cost of hazmat program at UAF.

What is hazardous waste?
EPA Definition of a Solid Waste
  • EPA begins by defining all waste as a solid
    waste (including solids, liquids, gases, and
  • 40 CFR 261.2 provides the definition of solid
  • (a)(1) A solid waste is any discarded material
    that is not excluded by  261.4(a) or that is not
    excluded by variance granted under  260.30 and
  • (2) A discarded material is any material which
  • (i) Abandoned, as explained in paragraph (b) of
    this section or
  • (ii) Recycled, as explained in paragraph (c) of
    this section or
  • (iii) Considered inherently waste-like, as
    explained in paragraph (d) of this section or
  • (iv) A military munition identified as a solid
    waste in 40 CFR 266.202.

Again, no need to memorize that!
EPA Definition of a Hazardous Waste
  • If the waste material meets certain criteria, and
    is not somehow exempted or excluded from
    regulation, it may be a RCRA-regulated HW
  • The legal definition of HW is found in 40 CFR
  • (a) A solid waste, as defined in   261.2, is a
    hazardous waste if
  • (1) It is not excluded from regulation as a
    hazardous waste under   261.4(b) and
  • (2) It meets any of the following criteria
  • (i) It exhibits any of the characteristics of
    hazardous waste identified in subpart C of this
    part. However, any mixture of a

EPA Definition of a Hazardous Waste
  • a waste from the extraction, beneficiation, and
    processing of ores and minerals excluded under
      261.4(b)(7) and any other solid waste
    exhibiting a characteristic of hazardous waste
    under subpart C is a hazardous waste only if it
    exhibits a characteristic that would not have
    been exhibited by the excluded waste alone if
    such mixture had not occurred, or if it continues
    to exhibit any of the characteristics exhibited
    by the non-excluded wastes prior to mixture.
    Further, for the purposes of applying the
    Toxicity Characteristic to such mixtures, the
    mixture is also a hazardous waste if it exceeds
    the maximum concentration for any contaminant
    listed in table I to   261.24 that would not
    have been exceeded by the excluded waste alone if
    the mixture had not occurred or if it continues
    to exceed the maximum concentration for any
    contaminant exceeded by the nonexempt waste prior
    to mixture.

EPA Definition of a Hazardous Waste
  • (ii) It is listed in subpart D of this part and
    has not been excluded from the lists in subpart D
    of this part under   260.20 and 260.22 of this

You dont need to memorize that either
So, is your waste a hazardous waste?
  • EPA regulations (40 CFR 261.2) require that a
    hazardous waste determination be made on a solid
    waste which has been generated
  • Even though you must manage your waste
    appropriately, you dont have to decide what to
    call your waste
  • UAF EHSRM Hazmat team will make final hazardous
    waste determinations as outlined in
  • 40 CFR 262.11

Lets look at the different categories as defined
by the EPA
Categories of Hazardous Waste
  • Hazardous waste determinations are based upon
    whether the material is a
  • Characteristic waste
  • Listed on the D-list or TCLP
  • A listed waste
  • Materials specifically identified on one of the
    following lists F, K, U or P lists
  • Universal waste
  • Batteries, lamps, pesticides, mercury from

Characteristic Wastes
  • D001 Ignitable Wastes (flashpoint is less than
  • 1400F) includes oxidizers
  • D002 Corrosive Wastes (pH less than or equal to
  • 2 or greater than or equal to
  • D003 Reactive Wastes (water reactive,
  • normally unstable materials,
  • sulfides, etc)
  • D004 TCLP Wastes (Toxicity Characteristic
    Leaching Procedure)

Listed Wastes
  • F-listed wastes are from non-specific sources
  • Example halogenated solvents used to degrease
  • K-listed wastes are from specific sources
  • Example product washwaters from the production
    of dinitrotoluene via nitration of toluene
  • U-listed wastes are toxic wastes
  • P-listed wastes are acutely hazardous wastes

Examples of U-Listed Wastes
Acetaldehyde 1,4-Dioxane
Acetone Ethyl acetate
Acetonitrile Ethyl ether
Aniline Formaldehyde
Benzene Methyl alcohol
Bromoform Methylene chloride
1-Butanol Phenol
Chloroform Toluene
U-listed chemicals are commonly found in UAF labs
Examples of P-Listed Wastes
Allyl alcohol Osmium tetroxide
Ammonium vanadate Phenylthiourea
Arsenic acid Potassium cyanide
Arsenic trioxide Sodium azide
Carbon disulfide Sodium cyanide
2,4-Dinitrophenol Thiosemicarbazide
Fluorine Vanadium oxide
Nitric oxide Vanadium pentoxide
P-listed chemicals are also fairly common in UAF
Universal Wastes
  • Universal wastes include the following materials
    that are commonly found in the workplace
  • Batteries
  • Fluorescent lamps
  • Pesticides
  • Thermometers (containing mercury)

Universal Wastes Batteries
  • Used Battery collection containers are available
    at many locations on campus
  • Contact your Lab Manager, CHO, Shop Supervisor or
    EHSRM for more information

Universal Wastes Fluorescent Lamps
  • UAF recycles fluorescent and other lamps
  • Lamp shipments are made periodically to EcoLights
  • The Facilities Services Electric Shop does the
    vast majority of lamp replacement on campus
  • EHSRM can provide lamp collection boxes and
    labels to you
  • Boxes must be labeled with the words, Universal
    Waste Lamps, Waste Lamps, or Used Lamps to
    identify the contents

Universal Wastes Pesticides and Waste from
Mercury Thermometers
  • If you have waste pesticides or mercury from
    broken thermometers
  • Please fill out a UAF Non-radioactive Hazardous
    Materials Transfer Request Form
  • The transfer forms will be explained later in the
  • If you break a mercury thermometer
  • DO NOT try to clean it up yourself ---- Call
    UAF Hazmat at 474-5617 immediately for assistance
  • NEVER throw the material in the trash or dump it
    down the drain

Other Waste Aerosol Cans
  • Aerosol cans are considered hazardous waste under
    the definition of Characteristic Reactivity
  • 40 CFR Part 261.23 .capable of detonation or
    explosive reaction if it is subjected to a strong
    initiating source or if heated under
  • Often contain hazardous materials, either as the
    product or as the propellant
  • Most aerosol cans, regardless of contents, can
    never be completely emptied of propellant
  • Become a waste when
  • their contents are used up,
  • malfunction (i.e. fail to spray), or
  • when the contents are no longer needed

Other Wastes Used Oil
  • Used oil means any oil that has been refined from
    crude oil, or any synthetic oil, that has been
    used and as a result of such use, is contaminated
    by physical or chemical impurities (40 CFR
  • Used oil must be
  • Collected in clean containers in good condition
    (no leakers)
  • Storage and transfer containers must be marked
    with the words Used Oil
  • Never add solvents, part washer fluids, carb
    cleaners, or glycol to your used oil

Other Wastes Used Oil (contd)
  • Keep the used oil container closed (lid in
    place and secured) except when adding or removing
    used oil
  • If you use a funnel for transfers, the funnel
    must be closed when not in use
  • Call EHSRM Hazmat (474-5617) to have your used
    oil removed

Waste in your lab
  • What do I do with my wastes and unwanted

Satellite Accumulation Areas
  • Each lab that generates waste is referred to as a
    Satellite Accumulation Area (SAA)
  • When EHSRM removes the waste from a SAA, it is
    transferred to the UAF Hazmat Facility or
    Central Accumulation Area

Waste Storage Limits for SAAs
  • For SAAs, the waste storage limits are
  • Up to 55 gallons of a hazardous waste
  • Up to 1 quart (1 liter) of a P-listed waste
  • 50 gallons of waste at a SAA will likely be in
    violation of Fire Building Codes
  • Note you do not need to accumulate 55 gallons
    or 1 quart of
  • P-listed waste before requesting waste removal!
  • Space is a very valuable asset. Give us a call
  • anytime to remove your waste (474-5617).

To Make a Waste Removal Request
  • PLEASE NOTE As of April 2012, the Division of
    Hazardous Waste at EHSRM is currently in the
    process of switching to an online hazardous waste
    pick up request.
  • If you have not been trained in the use of the
    online request, call Andrea Krumhardt at 474-5197
    to schedule a training session.
  • In the meantime, you may continue with the old
    hazardous waste transfer request forms (see
    slides 40-44).

To Make a Waste Removal Request
  • Complete the Non-Radioactive Hazardous Materials
    Transfer Request form
  • Forms are available from your Lab manager,
    Chemical Hygiene Officer, Shop Supervisor, or
  • There is no charge to your lab for chemical waste
  • The transfer forms are numbered and come with a
    similarly numbered adhesive label (fluorescent
    orange) that must be applied to the waste
    collection container.

Completing the Transfer Form
  • Fill out the upper portion of the transfer form
  • Name and contact info
  • Location of waste (building and room number)
  • Chemical(s) in waste and their concentrations
  • For mixtures, list all constituents
  • If more room is needed, attach a separate list to
    the form
  • Type of container and physical state of the waste
  • Number of containers, their volume, and the total

Haz Mat Transfer Request Form
Multiple Containers
  • If you have multiple containers of the same waste
    stream (identical contents), just fill out one
  • Unnumbered adhesive labels are available to go on
    multiple containers
  • Use the number as identified on the upper right
    hand side of the transfer form and identify the
    container as being 1 of 4, 2 of 4, etc

Getting Your Waste Picked Up
  • Call 474-5617 to schedule a pickup, or if you
    have any questions about your waste
  • The form comes in three parts
  • Save the pink copy for your files
  • Give the white and yellow copies to EHSRM when
    they come to pick up your waste

Take-home messages
  • What you need to remember

Wastes Containers and Storage
  • Only use containers that are compatible with the
    materials to be collected
  • Always label containers with a description of
    their contents
  • Dont store incompatible materials together
  • Do not store wastes in the fume hood. Store in
    the appropriate storage cabinet (e.g., flammable,
  • Provide secondary containment for liquid wastes
  • Always keep the container closed (lid firmly
  • A funnel in an open bottle is NOT a lid
  • Check waste storage areas regularly (weekly).
  • Inspect containers to make sure they arent
    getting brittle or starting to crack
  • If you need waste containers, contact EHSRM or
    your Chemical Hygiene Officer to inquire about

Before You Start a Project
  • Plan ahead
  • Is there a product or procedure available that
    will accomplish the task w/o generating a
    hazardous waste?
  • Strive for waste minimization
  • Only make as much solution as you need
  • Substitute less hazardous chemicals if possible
  • Use microscale chemistry techniques
  • Before purchasing chemicals, check with EHSRM or
    your department Chemical Hygiene Officer for the
    availability of surplus chemicals

Other Things to Think About
  • Check the P-list - if you plan to generate a
    P-listed waste, contact your Chemical Hygiene
    Officer, Lab Manager or EHSRM
  • Never combine wastes
  • If you dont generate them together as part of a
    procedure, then do not mix them.
  • May create hazardous reactions in the bottle
    (worst-case scenario), or make it more expensive
    for us to dispose of it (not a good scenario, but
    at least it didnt blow up)

Emergency Response
  • Chemical spills, release of hazardous materials,
    fires, and evacuation

Chemical Spills
  • Report all spills to UAF Dispatch (474-7721) or
    call 911 if there is an immediate threat of harm
    to life or property
  • Dispatch will call EHSRM Hazmat Section or the
    FNSB Hazmat Team, if necessary, to request
    assistance with spill cleanup
  • Depending on the nature of the spill, you may be
    asked to complete the UAF Oil and Hazardous
    Substance Spill Reporting Form (available from

Chemical Spills (cont.)
  • If you have not been trained and/or do not have
    the appropriate personnel protective equipment,
    please call for assistance!
  • Never put yourself or others at risk to cleanup a
  • If you dont knowdont go.

Emergency Procedures Fire
  • Activate the nearest fire alarm pull station and
    call 911
  • Evacuate the building and go to the Evacuation
    Assembly Point or designated area of safe refuge
  • Advise emergency personnel of anyone still inside
    the building
  • Do not re-enter the building until authorized by
    emergency personnel

Emergency Procedures Release of HM
  • Call 911 in the event of an emergency or if
    anyone is in danger
  • Move away from the site of the hazard to a safe
  • Follow the instructions of emergency personnel
  • Alert others to stay clear of the area
  • Notify emergency personnel if you have been
    exposed or have information regarding the release

Emergency Procedures Evacuation
  • Know the evacuation procedures and evacuation
    route information for your area
  • Evacuate the building using the nearest safe exit
  • Do not use elevators!
  • Take personnel belongings (keys, purses etc., but
    dont put yourself or others at risk by delaying
  • If possible, secure any hazardous materials or
  • Follow the directions given by emergency
  • Go to Evacuation Assembly Points (EAPs)
    designated on the emergency evacuation sign for
    the building
  • Assist persons with disabilities
  • Do not leave the area/campus until your status
    has been reported to your supervisor or instructor

For More Information
  • Environmental Health, Safety, and
  • Risk Management
  • Visit our website at
  • Or call us at 474-5413
  • Thank you