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2012-2013 Special Education Paraprofessional After-School Training Series Response to Instruction and Intervention: What Paraprofessionals Need to Know

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Title: 2012-2013 Special Education Paraprofessional After-School Training Series Response to Instruction and Intervention: What Paraprofessionals Need to Know


1
2012-2013 Special Education Paraprofessional
After-School Training Series Response to
Instruction and Intervention What
Paraprofessionals Need to Know
  • October 25, 2012
  • Greg Llewellyn, PaTTAN

2
PaTTANs Mission
  • The Pennsylvania Training and Technical
    Assistance Network is an initiative of the
    Pennsylvania Department of Education working in
    partnership with families and local education
    agencies to support programs and services to
    improve student learning and achievement.

3
PDEs Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment
(LRE)
  • Our goal for each child is to ensure
    Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams
    begin with the general education setting with the
    use of Supplementary Aids and Services before
    considering a more
    restrictive environment.

4
District, IU, Preschool Agency Policy
Your local district or agencys policies
regarding paraprofessional job descriptions,
duties, and responsibilities provide the final
word!
5
Agenda
  • Overview of RTII
  • Lets Focus on Reading
  • Universal Screening
  • Using Data to Increase Achievement
  • Multi-tiered Intervention System

6
Learner Outcomes
  1. Identify the key characteristics of an RTII
    framework
  2. Identify how an RTII framework supports effective
    instruction for all students
  3. Understand how data is used to provide effective
    instruction
  4. Understand the role of the paraprofessional in
    RTII

7
A Definition of Response to Instruction and
Intervention
  • A comprehensive, multi-tiered intervention
    strategy to enable early identification and
    intervention for students at academic or
    behavioral risk.
  • The intent of RTII is to improve learning as
    efficiently, effectively and equitably as
    possible for ALL students, including English
    language learners and students with disabilities.

8
A Multi-tiered Strategy to Intervention Framework
Tier 3 Interventions for A Few Students
Percentage of Students Requiring Intensive
Supports Decreases
Continuum of Time, Intensity and Data Increases
Tier 2 Interventions for Some Students
Tier I Foundation Standards Aligned Instruction
for All Students
9
Wouldnt it be nice if
  • We had a building-wide plan to assist all
    students?
  • We had a way to assess all students quickly a
    few times a year, so we knew who was on target
    and who wasnt?
  • We had a solid core program for all students?
  • We had interventions that we knew produced
    results for struggling readers and math students?
  • We could use all resources of time, personnel,
    and money towards one helping students learn.

10
Key Characteristics of RTII
  • Universal Screening of academics
  • Multiple tiers of increasingly intense
    interventions
  • Use of scientifically research-based
    interventions
  • Continuous monitoring of student performance
  • Benchmark/Outcome assessment

11
Poll 1
  • In which of the following activities related to
    RTII do you participate?
  • Provide small group reading intervention
  • Support individual students during classroom
    instruction
  • Administer DIBELS or Aimsweb probes
  • Participate in grade level data analysis meetings
  • Participate in building level data analysis team
    meetings

12
  • Lets Look at Reading

13
Reading
  • 5 of children learn to read effortlessly
  • 20-30 learn relatively easily once exposed to
    reading instruction
  • For 60 of children learning to read is a much
    more difficult task
  • For at least 20-30 of children, reading is one
    of the most difficult tasks that they will have
    to master.
  • For 5 of students even with explicit and
    systematic instruction, reading will continue to
    be a challenge.
  • MacKenzie (2000), citing statistics from
    Lyon, Kammeenue, Simmons, et al.

14
Which students are poor readers at the end of
first grade?
  • Poor readers at the end of first grade are at
    very significant risk for long term academic
    difficulty.
  • The probability of remaining a poor reader at
    the end of fourth grade, given a child was a poor
    reader at the end of first grade, was .88 ....
    the probability of remaining an average reader in
    fourth grade, given an average reading ability in
    first grade, was .87. (Juel, 1988)
  • Poor readers at the end of first grade are likely
    to require intensive instructional support to
    reach third grade reading outcomes.

15
Growth of Middle and Low Readers
Words per minute
Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., Smith, S. B.
(1998). Effective academic interventions in the
United States Evaluating and enhancing the
acquisition of early reading skills. School
Psychology Review, 27, 740-753.
16
Variation in Amount of Independent Reading
Minutes Per Day
Words Read Per Year
Percentile Rank
Books
Text
Books
Text
98 65.0 67.3 4,358,000 4,733,000 90 21.2 33.4
1,823,000 2,357,000 80 14.2 24.6 1,146,000 1,697
,000 70 9.6 16.9 622,000 1,168,000 60
6.5 13.1 432,000 722,000 50 4.6 9.2
282,000 601,000 40 3.2 6.2 200,000
421,000 30 1.8 4.3 106,000
251,000 20 0.7 2.4 21,000
134,000 10 0.1 1.0 8,000
51,000 2 0 0 0
8,000
(Anderson, 1992)
17
How can we change first grade reading outcomes?
  • We can improve reading outcomes by focusing on
    the big ideas of early literacy.
  • Focus on intermediate goals or benchmarks in
    kindergarten and first grade with a sense of
    urgency.
  • Focus on outcomes for students.
  • Whether students reach goal levels of skills is
    more important than the particular educational
    method or approach.

18
What do you need to know?
  • The Five Big Ideas of Reading
  • How the Big Ideas are assessed at school-wide
    level
  • How decisions are made based on those assessments
  • How instruction and intervention are aligned to
    those decisions

19
Reading Instruction Must Address
  • Key elements of scientifically-based core
    programs includes explicit and systematic
    instruction in the following
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

20
What are the instructional priorities?
  • Kindergarten Letter-sound knowledge
  • Phonemic awareness
  • First Grade Phonemic awareness
  • Word decoding and reading
  • Second Grade Comprehension
  • Oral reading fluency
  • Third Grade Comprehension
  • Oral reading fluency
  • Vocabulary is a priority at all grade levels!!

21
Making Accurate Reading Intervention
DecisionsPhonemic Awareness Phonics
Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
Measure of Reading Skill Oral Reading Fluency
(ORF)
ORF-Adequate Comprehension-Poor Implement
Vocabulary and Comprehensions Strategies
ORF-Poor Accuracy-Poor
Instructional Adjustments
Phonemic Awareness at Benchmark?
ORF Acceptable Comprehension-Good (at
instructional level) Check Instructional
Level Keep it up!
ORF-Poor Accuracy-Good Check Instructional
Level Implement fluency-building strategies
NO
YES
Explicit Phonemic Awareness Instruction
Young Students-Explicit Phonics Instruction Adoles
cents-Word Study
22
Poll 2
  • What does a successful first grade reader look
    like?
  • Reads text for meaning, analyzes story elements,
    uses phonics to decode new words
  • Hears the sounds in spoken words, decodes words
    using phonics, increases number of sight words,
    reads simple stories
  • Learns new vocabulary words, increases rate of
    reading, improves reading comprehension
  • Writes stories, decodes multi-syllabic words,
    reads text for meaning

23
PAs Response to Instruction and Intervention
Framework
Tier 3 Interventions for A Few Students
Continuum of Time, Intensity and Data Increases
Percentage of Students Requiring Intensive
Supports Decreases
Tier 2 Interventions for Some Students
Tier I Foundation Standards Aligned Instruction
for All Students
24
Tier 1 Prevention
  • Definition Students who are making expected
    progress in the general education curriculum and
    who demonstrate social competence
  • Benchmark also describes those schoolwide
    strategies that are available to all students
  • Effective instruction
  • Universal prevention
  • Data-based decision making
  • Periodic benchmark assessments

25
Tier 1 Activities
  • Effective instruction
  • Universal screening
  • Data analysis teaming
  • Whole group teaching

26
Tier 1 Effective Instruction
  • Tier I instruction consistently
  • Provides high expectations for all and ensures
    access to a standards-aligned curriculum.
  • Incorporates effective, engaging instructional
    strategies
  • Applies the principles of differentiated
    instruction
  • Incorporates flexible small group instruction.
  • A process must be in place to monitor fidelity of
    instruction and provide feedback to classrooms.

27
  • Universal Screening

28
Why Screen?
  • First graders in the bottom quartile in
    reading have an 88 likelihood of placing in the
    bottom quartile in 4th grade and a 78 likelihood
    of remaining there through 8th grade.
  • Juel 1988
  • Measures such as DIBELS can predict potential
    reading difficulty as early as kindergarten.

29
Universal Screening
  • All students assessed 3 times a year in reading
  • Screening tools should be predictive of future
    performance
  • Data display should be graphed for easy analysis
    and interpretation
  • Grade level teams should meet to discuss
    universal screening data within a week of
    assessment

30
Universal Screening
  • Assists in identifying grade-wide deficits in
    curriculum and instruction.
  • Provides a baseline for grade-wide goal setting.
  • Identifies students at risk of academic or
    behavioral difficulties.

31
What will you see?
  • All students are screened a minimum of three
    times per year
  • Screenings are research-based, predictive of
    future performance on standards and benchmarked
  • Administration fidelity is monitored.
  • Screening data is maintained in a database
  • User-friendly summaries of data with graphs for
    easy display, analysis and interpretation.
  • Grade level teams analyze screening data in a
    timely manner (within one week of administration)
    to design and adjust instruction using a
    structured team facilitation process and format.

32
Data Analysis Teaming
33
Data Analysis Teaming
  • Teams of teachers working together to
  • Access critical data on all students performance
    related to achievement of grade level benchmarks
  • Analyze data and find which students have which
    gaps in attainments
  • Set measurable goals to close the gap
  • Identify and implement research-based
    instructional strategies
  • Paraprofessionals are on the team!

34
Sample DIBELS Histogram
(Pederson, 2005)
34
35
Identify current performance of grade level
  • How many () students have attained skill
    (established/low risk/proficient)?
  • How many () students are developing the skill
    (emerging/some risk/basic)?
  • How many () students are deficient in the skill
    (deficit/at risk/below basic)?

36
Grade Level Data Analysis
  • Total Students 152
  • DIBELS First Grade Winter
  • At Risk Emerging Benchmark
  • PSF 16 (11) 54 (36) 82 (53)
  • NWF 30 (20) 45 (30) 77 (50)
  • ORF 35 (23) 38 25) 79 (52)

37
Set measurable goal (s)
  • By June, 80 of students will score at or above
    the benchmark for Oral Reading Fluency.
  • By June, no more than 5 of students will score
    in the intensive or high risk range for Oral
    Reading Fluency.

38
Team Selects Intervention
  • Identify specific strategies for teaching to
    target skill.
  • Keep focused on scientifically validated
    interventions.
  • Maximize the effectiveness of core reading
    instruction.

39
Team Analyzes Suggested Strategies
  • Analyze each strategy according to
  • Should be research-based
  • Should be practical
  • Curricular materials should be available to
    implement strategy (or easily made).

40
Team Plans Logistics of Intervention
  • Team identifies instructional materials
  • Time to create/adapt materials
  • Strategies for teaching interventions to novice
    teachers
  • Team assists all teachers in learning
    interventions using
  • peer modeling and coaching
  • grade-level discourse regarding implementation
  • assistance by specialists (for demonstration of
    strategies only).

41
Poll 3
  • The paraprofessionals role in RTII is to
  • Provide input to the teachers you support
  • Provide Supportive Interventions to students
  • Interpret the results of assessments
  • Decide which skills to teach to students
  • Both a and b

42
Tier 2 Prevention
  • Definition Academic and behavioral interventions
    and supports designed for students not making
    expected progress in the general education
    curriculum and/or have mild to moderate
    difficulties demonstrating social competence.
    These students are at risk for academic failure.

43
What are interventions?
  • Specific skill building for at risk students
  • Assistance based on progress monitoring
    information
  • Provided by a trained instructor
  • Provide additional instruction (individual or
    small group)
  • Match materials to instructional level

McCook, J., LRP Conference, December 2005
44
What are interventions?
  • Mini-lesson on skills deficits
  • Decrease group size
  • Increase amount and type of cues and prompts
  • Teach additional strategies
  • Change curriculum
  • Change types and method of corrective feedback

McCook, J., LRP Conference, December 2005
45
Interventions are NOT
  • Preferential seating
  • Shortened assignments
  • Parent contacts
  • Classroom observations
  • Suspension
  • Doing more of the same assignments
  • Retention

McCook, J., LRP Conference, December 2005
46
Tier 2 Strategic Interventions
  • Use of standard protocol interventions
  • Scientifically research-based interventions
  • Core instruction with supplemental materials
  • Differentiated instruction in general education
  • Specialists assist with strategic instruction in
    regular classroom

47
Tier 2 Strategic Interventions (cont.)
  • Increased opportunity to learn
  • Increased instructional time
  • Increased assessment
  • Assess progress twice per month
  • Data-based decision-making
  • Supplement, Enhance and Support Tier 1

48
Advanced Tier Interventions
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Early Reading Intervention
  • Road to the Code
  • Ladders to Literacy
  • Phonemic Awareness for Young Children
  • Phonics for Reading
  • Fundations
  • Road to the Code
  • REWARDS
  • Wilson Reading
  • Corrective Reading

49
Advanced Tier Interventions
  • Fluency with Text
  • Vocabulary
  • Read Naturally
  • Six Minute Solution
  • REWARDS PLUS
  • Building Vocabulary Skills 
  • Language for Thinking
  • Comprehension
  • Soar to Success
  • Comprehension Plus

50
Poll 4
  • Of the following standard protocol
    interventions, which of the following are being
    used in your school?
  • Road to the Code
  • Fundations
  • Read Naturally
  • REWARDS
  • Wilson Reading

51
Tier 3 Prevention
  • Definition Academic and behavioral interventions
    and supports designed for students significantly
    lagging behind established grade-level benchmarks
    in the general education curriculum or who
    demonstrate significant difficulties with
    behavioral and social competence

52
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
  • Use of standard protocols
  • Often the same as used in Tier 2
  • Supplemental instructional materials
  • Small intensive groups (2-3 students)
  • Can be outside the general ed. classroom
  • Tutoring by remedial educators

53
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
  • Focus on individual student needs
  • More diagnostic assessment
  • Assess progress weekly

54
Poll 5
  • Students who need Tier 2 or Tier 3 supports are
    most likely to
  • a. be students who are at risk for academic
    failure
  • b. be students who are unmotivated or
    unchallenged
  • c. need instruction in reading skills such as
    phonics or vocabulary
  • d. need an IEP
  • e. both a and c

55
Error Analysis Nonsense Word Fluency Benchmark
1Fall Laura, Grade 1
7
6
5
4
Total 22
56
Error AnalysisPhonemic SegmentationBenchmark
1-FallAndrew, Grade 1
5
6
6
4
4
4
6
Total 35
57
  • What does frequent measuring of progress look
    like?

58
Joe
Expected
Attained
Needed
115









110
105
W C PM
100
95
90
85
80
75
Weeks
18
28
29
30
31
32
33
19
22
23
24
25
26
27
20
21
34
35
36
59
Activity
  • If Joe is reading 91 words correctly per minute
    on April 1st, what would his/her achievement have
    to look like in order to reach his/her goal of
    110 words read correct per minute by June 1? How
    many words per week will Joes reading rate need
    to increase in order to reach the third grade
    goal?

60
Determining SLD
  • To determine that a child has an SLD, the school
    district or IU shall
  • Use one of the following two procedures for each
    child
  • A process based on the childs response to
    scientific, research-based intervention,
    documenting that
  • Student received high quality instruction in
    regular education
  • Research-based interventions were provided to the
    student
  • Student progress was regularly monitored
  • OR
  • A process that examines whether a child exhibits
    a pattern of strengths and weaknesses, relative
    to intellectual ability as defined by a severe
    discrepancy between intellectual ability and
    achievement or relative to age

14.125(a)(2)
61
Contact Information www.pattan.net
  • Greg Llewellyn
  • gllewellyn_at_pattan.net

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Tom Corbett,
Governor Pennsylvania Department of
Education Ronald J. Tomalis, Secretary Carolyn
C. Dumaresq, Ed. D., Deputy Secretary Office of
Elementary and Secondary Education John J.
Tommasini, Director Bureau of Special
Education Patricia Hozella, Assistant
Director Bureau of Special Education
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