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Structured Teaching

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Title: Structured Teaching


1
Structured Teaching
  • How to

2
Who will benefit from A Structured Teaching
Approach
  • Students with
  • Autism
  • Asperser's Disorder
  • High Functioning Autism
  • ADHD
  • adults with OCD and depression
  • typically developing two and thirteen year olds
  • Students who benefit from a predictable/structured
    environment

3
Why will they benefit
  • Deficits in
  • Executive Function impairment in the
    higher-order processes that enable us to plan,
    sequence, initiate, and sustain our behavior
    towards some goal, incorporating feedback and
    making adjustments along the way.
  • Theory of mind impairment in the ability to
    recognize that other people have thoughts,
    feelings and intentions that are different from
    one's own, and an inability to intuitively guess
    what these thoughts, motives or reactions might
    be.
  • Hidden Curriculum Impairment in ability to learn
    and understand and demonstrate the implied,
    unspoken, often changing rules and routines of a
    situation, game, or event.
  • Theory of Mind and Hidden curriculum are more
    unique to people on the Autism Spectrum

4
Executive Function
  • Executive function can be defined as the way in
    which people monitor and control their thoughts,
    actions emotions and behaviors.
  • We need EF whenever we are presented with the
    unexpected, need to concentrate particularly
    hard, or need to adapt or change
  • Core Deficits
  • Inhibitory control
  • Cognitive flexibility
  • working memory


5
Major areas of impairment in Executive Function
Organization
Working Memory
predicting
flexibility
Time Management
Inhibitory Control
6
What is Structured Teaching
  • A specific approach to teaching students on the
    Autism Spectrum developed by the University of
    North Carolina
  • T.E.A.C.C.H. Founded in the early 1970s by the
    late Eric Schopler, Ph.D., TEACCH developed the
    concept of the Culture of Autism as a way of
    thinking about the characteristic patterns of
    thinking and behavior seen in individuals with
    this diagnosis,

7
Structured teaching addresses the Culture of
Autism
Strengths in Challenges with
processing visual information auditory processing, particularly of language
attention to details or selected areas of interest understanding the meaning of how details fit together
Sensory perception (touch, smell, sight, taste) combining ideas or making inferences
Simple memory organizing ideas, materials, and activities
Rule learning Attention, becoming distracted, shifting attention
Formal language Communication, especially the social and nonverbal use of language and
Visuospatial processing concepts of time and being able to recognize where they are in a sequence or task
Visual perceptual skills becoming attached to routines
Routine learning Very strong interests
sensory preferences and dislikes.
8
Structured Teaching
  • Antecedent based not reward or punishment based
  • Uses competence motivation rather than
    consequence motivation
  • Levels of Structured Teaching
  • Physical Structure
  • Schedules
  • Work Systems
  • Routines and Strategies
  • Task

9
Physical Structure
  • Physical structure refers to organizing the
    environment to give meaning and context to each
    area.
  • Physical structure helps the child understand
    where different activities take place and where
    materials are kept. It can be set up in the home
    as well as the classroom.

10
Physical Structure (Start with the room)
Highly organized classroom with specific areas
for specific activities
11
Physical Structure
A routine for cubby/back packs is attached to the
shelf.
12
Physical Structure
Independent work area for younger child
Sensory Area for younger child
13
Physical Structure
Task shelf organized to flow with a work system
14
Physical Structure
Use what is available to create specific spaces
15
Physical Structure
Group lesson Table divided with tape
16
FOLDERS AND FILES FOR OLDER STUDENT
17
There are two key things to think about when
setting up the physical structure
  • Establish clear visual and physical boundaries
  • Divide up the environment so that each activity
    is associated with a particular physical space.
  • Arrange furniture to establish clear physical
    boundaries between areas
  • Young children may need repeated practice and
    teaching to learn the meaning and importance of
    the boundaries.
  • Minimize visual and auditory distractions
  • Although this varies most children will benefit
    from the elimination of irrelevant details.
  • Minimizing distractions also helps to avoid
    sensory overloading.
  • Techniques include
  • 1) covering up or only using materials that
    pertain to that particular area or activity,
  • 2) minimizing the amount of materials, and/or
  • 3) using screens or dividers to aid in cutting
    down on the distractions.

18
Schedules
  • A schedule visually, and in a concrete manner,
    shows a child the activities of the day and in
    what order they will occur.
  • A schedule compensates for deficits in Executive
    Function and language.
  • A student may learn and appear to not need a
    schedule. Dont be fooled. It could be too much,
    too little, to low, to high.

19
Types of Schedules
  • Concrete object
  • Functional (plate for snack)
  • Representative (a puzzle piece for the fine-motor
    area)
  • Photograph of an object
  • Icon or drawing
  • Word or sentence
  • Combination of elements
  • Left to Right or Top to Bottom
  • Matching Picture to Picture
  • Matching Picture to Word

20
Schedules Continued
  • One type of schedule is not better than another
  • its not necessarily better for a child to use
    pictures instead of objects.
  • The decision is based on where the child skills
    are, and what is the most meaningful.
  • They can be combined

21
Present visual schedules to help the
individual what will happen during the day, or
part of day
22
Different Types of Schedules
For the Month
For the Morning
23
Object Schedules
Left to Right
Top to bottom
24
Picture Schedules
Photographs can be of areas that the student will
go to, pictures of objects that will be used
once they get there or A teacher they will work
with.
25
Folder or Portable Schedules
26
Icon Schedules
27
Written Schedules
It can be fancy, laminated, hand written,
produced with Boardmaker or a word processing
program
28
Types of Schedules Continued
  • Teacher directed
  • The teacher hands a student the object, picture
    or icon.
  • Transition
  • The schedule is placed in a particular area and
    the student is sent to check it.
  • Portable
  • The student carries the schedule. (like your
    calendar or planner or PDA)
  • It is important for the student to track movement
    through the schedule

29
Tracking Progress through day
Remove and match
Mark progress
30
Sequence of how to use Schedule
  • Check Schedule
  • Remove task
  • Do
  • Check Schedule
  • Verses
  • Do Check off Check schedule

31
How to Use or Introduce a Schedule
  • Start with 1-to-3 objects, photos, icons
  • Use simple language Check schedule
  • Guide the student to the schedule and then to the
    location the schedule is sending them.
  • Sometimes it helps to have a matching object,
    picture or icon in the target location that the
    student carries and matches and places into a
    container.

32
How to Use or Introduce a Schedule
  • Teach the child how to use it.
  • Add, change, expand as indicated.
  • When the student is through with task say Check
    schedule to teach them how it works.
  • The goal is confidence and competence

33
Work Systems
  • The schedule tells them where to go
  • The work system tells them what to do when they
    get there.
  • Almost anything can be taught using the work
    system.
  • Remember to make it Concrete, Visual, and clear

34
Work Systems
  • What work?
  • How much do I have to do?
  • How do I know when I am finished?
  • What comes next?
  • Flow left to right or top to bottom

35
Examples of work systems
36
More Examples of work Systems
What where finished
37
More Work Systems
Gym workout routine
38
Work System for going to park
39
More work systems
  • Almost anything can be task analyzed and put into
    a task/work system.
  • academic, self-help, leisure
  • across settings
  • Independent work area
  • Cafeteria
  • Place of employment)
  • for individuals at all functioning levels
  • systems can range from concrete to abstract

40
More work systems
  • Teaches the student to attend to visual cues
    (rather than verbal directives)
  • Promotes independence as an essential outcome for
    students with ASD
  • Students do not have to plan where to begin or
    how to proceed

41
Tips for Implementing Work Systems
  • Provide essential materials for the specific
    task/activity exclude things that are
    distracting.
  • Use work systems in a variety of settings to
    increase generalization across location and
    adults.
  • circle time
  • social groups
  • Playground
  • Home
  • doctor visits

42
Tips for Implementing Work Systems
  • Teach the work system with minimally invasive
    prompts so the adult/prompts do not become part
    of the work routine.
  • prompt nonverbally
  • direct students to visual cues
  • prompt from behind so adult is not part of the
    students visual field
  • fade prompts as quickly as possible to maximize
    independence

43
Tips for Implementing Work Systems
  • Create smaller, more portable work systems for
    students who travel to different settings
    throughout the school day
  • in a notebook, file box, pencil box, clip board
  • Incorporate students interests in the visual
    cues used in the works system
  • SpongeBob, Thomas the Train, Pokémon on their
    work system).

44
Routines and Strategies
  • Strategies and work routines can be effective
    strategies for minimizing organizational
    difficulties.
  • They address difficulty with distractibility
  • They support difficulty with time management and
    sequencing
  • They are presented visually to take advantage of
    a stronger processing skill.

45
Why Use Routines?
  • Its a natural part and learning strength of
    students on the spectrum.
  • They like the predictability of routines
  • If we dont teach them they will often establish
    their own rigid routines and become very upset if
    they are disrupted.
  • By establishing a positive routine, and then
    disrupting it, we create an incentive for the
    child to communicate in order to re-establish the
    familiar routine.

46
Activity Routines
  • PLAY
  • social baby games
  • play with toys
  • motor games
  • table games
  • exercises
  • music
  • SELF-CARE
  • dressing
  • eating
  • bathing
  • hair care
  • selecting clothes
  • SOCIAL SETTINGS
  • greetings
  • delivering messages
  • serving refreshments
  • Shopping
  • COMMUNITY LIVING
  • eating out
  • travel in the car
  • Walking
  • DOMESTIC LIVING
  • putting away toys
  • setting the table
  • cooking (stirring, pouring, opening, cutting,
    etc.)

47
Examples of Routines
48
Boardmaker Routines
49
Daily school Routines
50
Home or life skill Routines
51
Rare or infrequent routines
  • A social story
  • Followed by a routine
  • Card/mini schedule.

Fire Drills
52
Sometimes our school has fire drills. A
special bell will ring to tell us it is time to
leave the building.
Fire drills are practice in case
there is a fire in our school.
53
I will get in line when the fire drill
bell rings.
I will stay in line and walk outside
with my class.
54
I will stay in line and wait outside
with my class. The teacher will tell us when we
can go back into the school.
I will stay in line and walk back to my
classroom with my class.
55
The fire drill is over.

THE END
all done
56
Tasks
  • Visual, hands on learning tools
  • Structured to be self explanatory
  • Designed to build independence
  • Can be bought or made
  • Can teach almost anything

57
Types of Tasks
  • Put ins
  • Take offs
  • Match
  • Sort
  • Written
  • Assembly
  • Disassembly

58
Tasks
  • Hierarchy of Prompts (from most independent to
    least)
  • VISUAL CUES SPEAK FOR THEMSELVES
  • VERBAL/GESTURAL PROMPTS TO GET THE STUDENT TO
    LOOK AT AND USE VISUAL CUES
  • VERBAL PROMPTS TO HELP STUDENT DO TASK
  • GESTURES OR DEMONSTRATIONS TO SHOW STUDENT HOW TO
    DO A TASK
  • PHYSICAL PROMPTS OR HAND OVER HAND

59
Task Examples
Animal Matching with word stem
Put in with gathered material
60
More Examples of Tasks
Put in and Sorts
61
More Tasks
Assembly
Matching object(s) to word(s)
Purchased put in
matching
62
TASKS Cont.
It could be a purchased toy that is structured
Jigs
Or something made with a shoe box
63
For a Trip or Activity
Getting reading for a field trip
Building language around a cooking task
64
Practical Tasks
Sort
Match
65
Tasks for older students
Counting money task
Folder system and check list
66
File Folder Tasks
  • Use Velcro or library pockets, laminate file
    folder.
  • Can make matching tasks focusing on colors,
    shapes, alphabet letters, common nouns, familiar
    people, categories, relations (e.g., shoes and
    socks) etc.

67
File Folder Tasks
  • Can be designed to be flexible and used for
    reading comprehension skills, math skills,
    generalization skills, etc.
  • Highlighter tape

68
Resources
  • http//www.specialed.us/autism/assist/asst11.htm
  • http//www.icontalk.com/
  • http//store.mayer-johnson.com/us/boardmaker-softw
    are-family.html
  • http//www.highlightertapes.com/highlighter-price.
    html
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