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The Cold War


The Cold War Overview The Second World War Early Post War years The Cold War World War 2 Basic timeline: 1936 Italy invades Ethiopia 1938 Germany invades ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War

The Cold War
  • The Second World War
  • Early Post War years
  • The Cold War

World War 2
  • Basic timeline
  • 1936 Italy invades Ethiopia
  • 1938 Germany invades Czechoslavakia
  • 1938 Germany reunites with Austria
  • 1939 Germany/USSR sign non-aggression pact
    Germany/Italy sign treaty
  • 1939 Germany invades Poland USSR invades
    Finland, Poland
  • 1939 Britain, France declare war on Germany

World War 2
  • 1940 Germany invades and conquers Denmark,
    Norway, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands
  • 1940 USSR invades Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia
  • 1940 Treaty signed between Germany, Italy, Japan,
  • 1940 Italy invades Somalia, Egypt, Greece

World War 2
  • 1941 Germany invades Yugoslavia, Greece and USSR
  • 1941 Japan attacks China, French Indochina, and
    the US (Pearl Harbor)
  • 1941 US declares war on Japan, Germany declares
    war on US, US returns the favor

World War 2
  • 1942 German invasion of USSR stalls, USSR mounts
  • 1942 Britain, US forces stage counterattack for
    North Africa
  • 1943 Germany/Italy abandon North Africa, Allies
    invade Sicily
  • 1943 Soviet counterattack pushes Germany westward

World War 2
  • 1944 USSR pushes Germans back into Poland
  • 1944 Allies invade Italy
  • 1944 D-Day invasion of northern Europe (France)
  • 1944 Soviet troops push into Romania, Bulgaria
  • Allied troops push across France towards Germany

World War 2
  • 1945 Soviet troops reach Berlin (April)
  • 1945 German troops in Italy surrender (May)
  • 1945 German unconditional surrender (May 7)
  • 1945 US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima (August
    6) and Nagasaki (August 9)
  • 1945 USSR declares war on Japan (August 8)
  • 1945 Japan surrenders (August 14)

Post War
  • US, UK, and USSR meet at Yalta (February 1945) to
    begin discussions of how to end war
  • In exchange for Soviet declaration of war on
    Japan, USSR gets assurances from UK and US that
    they will respect Soviet security concerns in
    Eastern Europe

Post War
  • Potsdam Conference (August 1945)
  • US, UK, and USSR divide up Germany into zones of
  • Berlin, the capital, although in the Soviet
    zone, would itself be divided into 4 zones.
  • All three agree to zones of occupation in former
    Nazi regimes pending new elections

Cold War
  • Following Potsdam, Soviet troops slow to withdraw
    from occupied areas
  • USSR begins to install friendly governments in
    occupied territories
  • In 1946, former UK Prime Minister Winston
    Churchill delivers speech warning of an Iron
    Curtain descending across Europe

Cold War
  • President Truman advances the Truman Doctrine
    which pledges US committment to stop spread of
    communism in the world
  • US Foreign Policy adopts containment advanced
    by George Kenan and published in Foreign Policy

Cold War
  • In response to Communist success (or at least
    communist inroads), US announces Marshall Plan to
    provide economic relief to war torn Europe (1947)
  • 1948 Communist takeover in Czechoslavakia

Cold War
  • In response to growing Soviet presence in Europe,
    US and UK put together a defensive alliance, the
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

Cold War
  • 1948-1949 USSR imposes blockade on Berlin in
    response to US/UK/French plans to create unified
    German currency and begin unification process
  • US/UK airlift supplies to Berline

Cold War
  • 1949 Chinese civil war ends with Mao Zedongs
    Communist Forces taking control of the country
  • 1949 Soviets explode their first atomic bomb

Cold War
  • These two events lead to serious inquiries as to
    how this could have occured
  • The immediate solution was that Soviet agents
    within the US government and US society at large
    were responsible

Cold War
  • Arms Race with Soviet Union
  • Mutual Assured Destruction
  • Global scramble to check expansion of Soviet
  • Internal search to root out Soviet spies and
    communist sympathizers

Cold War
  • House Committee on Un-American Activities forms
    to investigate subversion with the US
  • Senate has Subcommittee on Investigations to
    handle similar tasks

Cold War
  • June 1950, Korean War begins
  • US uses UN Security Council to get UN
    authorization to use force to repel invasion
  • 1953, War ends, with ceasefire line established
    at same line as pre-war border

Cold War
  • 1954 CIA backs coups in Guatemala and Iran
  • 1955 USSR creates the KGB, an analog to the US
  • 1955 USSR creates the Warsaw Pact, an analog of

Cold War
  • 1954 French forces defeated in French Indochina
  • US brokers a peace treaty dividing Vietnam in
    half and calling for national unity elections

Cold War
  • 1956 Soviet troops invade Hungary and install
    pro-Soviet regime
  • US President Eisenhower declines to send troops

Cold War
  • 1959 Castro overthrows US supported government in
  • US backed unsuccessful invasion in 1960 (Bay of

Cold War Fears
  • 1960 Nixon political ad
  • 1961 Kennedy Inaugural Address
  • 1964 Johnson ad