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Aim: Why did settlers come into conflict with the Native Americans in the Western US?

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Aim: Why did settlers come into conflict with the Native Americans in the Western US? 2. Conflict With the Indians The coming of so many settlers to the frontier led ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aim: Why did settlers come into conflict with the Native Americans in the Western US?


1
Aim Why did settlers come into conflict with the
Native Americans in the Western US?
2
2. Conflict With the Indians
  • The coming of so many settlers to the frontier
    led to conflict with the Indians.
  • With the movement of settlers to the West in the
    1840s, Indian life began to change.
  • The coming of miners, ranchers and farmers into
    the last frontier caused even greater changes.
  • As a result, a long series of conflicts, lasting
    until the late 1880s, took place between the
    Indians and the settlers.
  • These conflicts resulted in the defeat of the
    Indians and their traditional way of life.

3
Native Americans (1800)
4
2.1 The Plains Indians
  • Nearly 200,000 Indians lived in the Great Plains.
    Many of the Indian groups who lived there were
    nomadic hunters who depended on the buffalo for
    survival.
  • The buffalo provided these groups with food,
    clothing, housing and shelter.

5
Native Americans (2008)
6
Map of the Plains Indians
7
Buffalo
8
The Many Uses of Buffalo
9
  • The Plains Indians followed herds of buffalo over
    a large area and they believed that the land
    belonged to everyone.
  • However, the treaties of the 1850s between the
    government and certain Indian groups had set
    boundaries on Indian hunting lands.
  • As miners, ranchers, and homesteaders moved into
    the West, the treaties were broken and more
    Indian land was taken. It became difficult for
    the Indians to find the buffalo they needed.
  • The final blow came when whites began killing off
    large numbers of buffalo. Hunters working for
    railroad companies shot thousands of buffalo to
    feed survey and track-laying teams. Other were
    killed for sport, as their hides became popular
    in the Eastern United States. By 1889, only a few
    hundred buffalo were left.

10
2.2 The Last Indian Wars
  • The last wars between the Indians and settlers
    occurred during the last half of the 1800s.
  • The major reason for this conflict, you guessed
    it, land. The same reason we fought the Indians
    in the 1600s, 1700s and early 1800s.
  • In 1861, some Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians
    attacked miners while they were moving through
    Indian lands towards Colorado.
  • This ended in the defeat of the Indians after a
    massacre of 450 of their number by the Colorado
    state militia.

11
  • In 1862, many soldiers were pulled from the west
    to join the Civil War conflict. This allowed for
    many Plains Indians to rise up against white
    settlers.
  • When the war was over, more soldiers were placed
    in the west. This conflict between the federal
    government and Indians continued soon after.

12
Map of Indian Tribes, Battles and Settler Posts
1860-1890
13
The First Sioux War
  • The First Sioux War began in 1865 when the United
    States Army tried to build a road across Sioux
    land through central Wyoming to the gold mines of
    Montana.
  • The Sioux, led by Chief Red Cloud, attacked many
    of the soldiers and miners along the road.
  • The government finally agreed to give up the
    project in 1868. The Sioux were also guaranteed
    reservation lands west of the Missouri River and
    hunting rights.

14
Map of the Sioux Indian Lands c.1865
15
Chief Red Cloud
16
The Second Sioux War
  • The Second Sioux War began as a result of gold
    being discovered on the Sioux reservation in the
    Dakota Territory.
  • In 1874, after gold was discovered, miners by the
    hundreds arrived in the Black Hills seeking gold.
  • In 1875, the United States government broke its
    promise to the Sioux and opened the Black Hills
    to settlement.

17
  • Many Sioux left their lands and camped near the
    Little Bighorn River in Montana. They were joined
    by members of the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes.
  • These tribes were led by Chief Sitting Bull and
    Crazy Horse-2,500 warriors in all.
  • The government ordered the tribes to return to
    their lands. When they did not do so, troops were
    sent to force them to move.

18
  • One group of 264 troops, led by Lt. Colonel
    George Custer, advanced against the Indians in
    the Battle of Little Bighorn.
  • Custer and his troops were surrounded by the
    Indians and killed.
  • When news reached the East about this defeat,
    more soldiers were sent to the West and the Sioux
    fled the area.

19
The Black Hills-South Dakota
20
Gold Discovered in the Black Hills
21
Lt. Colonel George Custer
Lt. Colonel George Custer and his men were among
the first Americans to find gold in the Black
Hills. He soon would gain notoriety when he and
his 264 men were killed at the Battle of Little
Big Horn in 1876.
22
Little Big Horn
23
Custers Last Stand
24
Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Sitting Bull
Crazy Horse
25
The Nez Perce
  • The United States also used force against the Nez
    Perce.
  • In 1877, the government ordered the Nez Perce
    Tribe of eastern Oregon to move to a smaller
    reservation in Idaho. They refused.
  • Led by Chief Joseph, 800 men, women and children
    traveled for 15 weeks over 1,500 while being
    chased by US troops.
  • The tribe was caught 40 miles before they would
    have escaped into Canada.

26
Movement of the Nez Perce Tribe 1877
27
Chief Joseph
28
The Apache
  • One of the longest Indian wars was fought between
    the US Army and the Apache tribe of the
    southwest.
  • The Apache continued to fight the US Army after
    many other tribes went to reservations. This was
    due to the Apache being warriors.
  • The Apache knew the rugged lands of Arizona, New
    Mexico and Texas gave them the advantage over the
    US forces.
  • The wars with the Apache went on until the
    capture of Geronimo in 1886.

29
Apache Homelands of the 1800s
30
Geronimo
31
Wounded Knee
  • The Indian Wars finally came to a close at
    Wounded Knee Creek on the Pine Ridge Reservation
    in the Dakota Territory.
  • In the late 1880s, a religious movement spread to
    the Plains Indians. As part of it, a special
    dance called the Ghost Dance was performed.
  • The Indians believed that the dance would return
    the buffalo and their lands.

32
  • These beliefs alarmed settlers, who demanded the
    army take action.
  • In December 1890, soldiers tried to stop the
    Ghost Dance. There was a brief fight and more
    than 150 Sioux were killed.

33
Wounded Knee
34
Hotchkiss Gun-1st Machine Gun
35
Images of Wounded Knee
36
Images of Wounded Knee
37
Wounded Knee Memorial
38
2.3 Changes in Federal Indian Policy
  • Federal policy towards the Indians changed during
    the 1800s.
  • At first, the government wanted the Indians to
    move out of the way of white settlement.
  • During the 1850s, boundaries were set that
    concentrated some Indian groups in certain areas.
    In 1868, Indian lands were divided into two
    separate reservations.

39
  • Throughout this time, the government had treated
    Indian groups as separate nations.
  • After 1871, the government moved to Americanize
    the Indians. Efforts were made to pressure the
    Indians into accepting the white settlers way of
    life.
  • As a first step, Congress said that all Indians
    were to be wards-people under the care of a
    guardian-of the government.
  • The governments treatment of the Indians over
    the years drew the attention of reformers and led
    to further changes.

40
Reformers Speak Out
  • Many reformers, such as Helen Hunt Jackson and
    Sarah Winnemucca, spoke out against the
    governments treatment of Indians.
  • In 1881, Jackson wrote A Century of Dishonor.
    This book documented the governments harsh
    treatment of the Indians.
  • In 1884, Winnemucca wrote Life Among the Paiutes
    Their Claims and Wrongs, also criticized the
    governments handling of the Indians. As a
    Paiute, she witnessed the treatment firsthand.

41
Helen Hunt Jackson
42
Sarah Winnemucca
43
The Dawes Act (1887)
  • To answer the reformers demands, Congress passed
    the Dawes Act in 1887.
  • The act marked a change in the governments
    reservation policy.
  • Up to 1887, Indians had been forced to live on
    reservations and the lands were owned by the
    different Indian groups.

44
  • Under the Dawes Act, the government divided
    reservation lands and gave Indian families plots
    to farm.
  • The plots were held in trust by the government
    for 25 years. At the end of the time, the Indians
    would become full owners of the land and United
    States citizens.
  • However, those Indians who agreed to this
    decision had to break away from their traditional
    groups. This helped the government in
    successfully ending many tribal groups.

45
  • Most Indians DID NOT fare well under the Dawes
    Act.
  • Reservation lands that were not divided into
    plots for the Indians were given or sold to
    settlers.
  • As a result, the Indians lost 60 of their native
    lands.
  • Many Indians were not farmers and they did not
    believe in individual ownership of property.
  • For the most part, Indians found it very
    difficult to adapt to white ways.

46
Division of Lands Under the Dawes Act (1887)
47
Native Americans (1800)
48
Native Americans 2008
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