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REL 333 Week 4 World Religious Traditions I

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Title: REL 333 Week 4 World Religious Traditions I


1
REL 333 Week 4World Religious Traditions I
2
  • Should have e-mailed to me your Eastern Religious
    Matrix by now
  • Your learning teams should be working on the
    final assignment due next week too. LEARNING
    TEAM
  • Time 5 Hours (All time indications throughout
    the syllabus are for on-ground students.)
  • Review the objectives from Week Four and discuss
    additional insights and questions that may have
    arisen.
  • Eastern Religions Learning Team Final
    Presentation and Paper (due Week Five) APA
  • Each Learning Team will complete a paper and
    presentation about the impact of a contemporary
    expression of an Eastern religious tradition on a
    particular society. The following is a list of
    questions to consider
  • What role do Eastern religious traditions play in
    modern medicine?
  • What impact has Hinduism had on modern Indias
    society?
  • How is the practice of Buddhism expressed in the
    United States?
  • What is the state and practice of ancient Chinese
    religious traditions in Communist China?
  • The paper and presentation should focus on how
    the societal views of spirituality and religion
    have been influenced, and how social and
    political life has been impacted by the selected
    Eastern religious tradition, then compare and
    contrast the selected religion to at least one
    other studied in this course.
  • The paper should consist of 2,100-2,450 words.
    The Microsoft PowerPoint presentation should
    comprise 10-12 slides (with narrator notes if
    they are available) The project must include at
    least five references in addition to the
    textbook. Both the Final Paper and the
    Presentation are due in Week Five.

3
Week 4 Objectives
  • Trace the historical development of Taoism,
    Confucianism, and Shinto
  • Examine the significance and meaning of ritual,
    symbols, myths, and sacred texts in Taoism,
    Confucianism, and Shinto

4
Taoism (also known as Daoism)
5
Taoism
  • The Way of Nature
  • Taoism a way of studying and systematizing human
    life as well as natural life
  • Nature observations and emulation are foremost

6
Ancient Traditions roots
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Divination
  • I Ching (Book of Changes)
  • Supreme Deity
  • Shang-ti
  • Holy Mother in Heaven (guardian of the seas)

7
Taoism
  • Lao-tzu
  • Lived approx
  • 600 BCE
  • Was a court
  • archivist and a
  • contemporary of
  • Confucius
  • Chuang-Tzu

8
Lao-Tzu
  • Retired from Government service
  • went west.
  • The gatekeeper and the Tao-te-ching
  • Supposedly lived for hundreds of years

9
Taoism
The Tao that can be named, that is not the
Absolute Tao.
  • Tao-te-ching The Way and the Power
  • About 5000 words
  • Poetic
  • Begins by saying that nothing can be adequately
    said about the Tao.
  • Calls for a return to nature and its source (the
    Tao)
  • Downplays formal learning
  • Asserts natural wonder and the harmonization of
    nature and humanity

10
Taoist Ritual and Practice
  • Blends temple worship, private devotion,
    meditation, breathing, and physical techniques.
  • Also incorporates alchemy, yoga, good deeds,
    shamans, superstition, and occult magical
    practices
  • One goal is to become immortal

11
Taoist practices
  • Tai-Chi
  • Body movements, breathing and
    relaxed concentration
  • Designed to draw chi from the universe and
    stimulate its flow through the body
  • Feng Shui (Wind and water)
  • http//www.artoffengshuiinc.com/

12
Bruce Lee (1940-1973)
13
Taoist ethics and Morality
  • Wu-wei non-action.
  • Harmony
  • the more forcing, the more trouble
  • Wu-hsin no-mind

14
The Tao of Pooh
  • "While Eeyore frets ... ... and Piglet
    hesitates... and Rabbit calculates ... and Owl
    pontificates...Pooh just is.
  • "Rabbit's clever," said Pooh thoughtfully."Yes,"s
    aid Piglet, "Rabit's clever.""And he has
    Brain.""Yes," said Piglet, "Rabbit has
    Brain."There was a long silence."I suppose,"
    said Pooh, "that that's why he never understands
    anything."

15
Taoism
The Tao that can be named, that is not the
Absolute Tao.
  • Tao-te-ching The Way and the Power
  • About 5000 words
  • Poetic
  • Begins by saying that nothing can be adequately
    said about the Tao.
  • Calls for a return to nature and its source (the
    Tao)
  • Downplays formal learning
  • Asserts natural wonder and the harmonization of
    nature and humanity
  • most translated after the Bible
  • Oral Tradition
  • Very Ancient
  • Written by Lao Tzu (?)

16
The Point of Taoism
  • To study the order and system of natural life so
    that one can order ones own life to move with the
    flow. The path will necessarily weave as the
    cosmos around you changing
  • Requires great mental and physical discipline

17
Life in Harmony
  • Experience the transcendent unity in all things,
    not separation
  • reconcile opposites on a higher level of
    consciousness
  • Everything has its place and function in life
  • no good or bad, small or large, disfigured or
    beautiful

18
Life in Harmony continued
  • Experience the universe that is directly
  • cooperating with the ways things are, not making
    judgments, setting standards of morality, not
    labeling
  • Three in the Morning

19
A Low Profile
  • A Taoist has a low profile in the world
  • like a valley, allowing things to flow into life,
    like a stream
  • Not working for recognition, doing it because it
    is their function to do it
  • nourishes the ten thousand things of material
    life
  • No possession of accomplishments, works
    effortlessly

20
The Way of Water
  • Flowing Water
  • Water doesnt fruitlessly attack
  • effortlessly flows around and over, gently
    removing obstacles

21
Wu Wei
  • doing nothing
  • nothing contrary to nature
  • not expending unnecessary energy
  • non-interference
  • nothing is evil, things are just out of balance
  • Civilization with rigid views on morality, and
    intellectual attempt to improve what is generates
    chaos

22
Chi-kung
  • Very similar to Hindu meditation practice
  • Ching - generative force
  • Chi - vitality
  • shen - spirit
  • management of ones life-force is VERY important

23
Mystical Practices
  • I Ching
  • Life is chaotic, sometimes answers dont come
  • the brick wall scenario
  • with meditation, washing, ask your question
  • a direct line to the spirit world
  • Tai-chi chuan
  • Philosophical vs. Popular Taoism
  • Search for Elixir of Immortality

24
Mystical Practices
Qin Shi Huang Di
25
Gods and Priests
  • Some Taoists have priests, deities, and so on
  • Eight Immortals
  • humans who gained immortality with their own
    magic powers
  • Hsien
  • numerous gods
  • ancestral spirits
  • magic making
  • ritual
  • priests

26
8 Immortals
  • Zuang Guolao
  • Zhong-Li Quan
  • Han Xiang-Zi

27
8 Immortals
  • He Xian-Gu
  • Lan Cai-He
  • Li Tie-Guai

28
8 Immortals
  • Lu Dong-Bin
  • Cao Guo-Jui

From http//www.asianartmall.com/8immortalsarticl
e.htm
29
Confucianism
30
Confucius Kung Fu-tzu
551-479 BC
Confucius
31
Confucius, the Buddha, and Lao Tzu Tasting Vinegar
32
Confucianism
  • Kung Fu-tzu (Master Kung)
  • Teachings called Juchiao (the teaching of the
    scholars)
  • Life Story
  • Gentleman Scholar
  • Jen (human-heartedness, humanity)
  • Golden Rule
  • Social Hierarchy
  • Rituals Li
  • Filial Piety - Yi
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Mencius Mandate of Heaven

33
Confucianism
  • Confucius brought together many old traditions,
    applied his own wisdom, and put things in many
    small sayings that were easy to remember
  • Emphasized rituals
  • as the way to preserve
  • order in society

34
Confucianism
  • Confucius not recognized as a sage until after
    his death
  • Mencius (Meng Tzu) Hsun Tzu

35
Central Teachings
  • Tradition
  • Jen
  • Li
  • Veneration of ancestors
  • Food and wine offerings
  • Silent prostrations at ancestral temples,
    gravesites, and homes

36
Nature of the Divine
  • Gods, Spirits and ancestors
  • All supported the moral order
  • Violating the moral order was to violate your
    ancestors

37
Sacred Texts
  • Five Classics
  • I Ching
  • Book of History
  • Classic of Rites
  • Spring and Autumn Annals
  • Four Later Books
  • Analects of Confucius
  • Book of Mencius
  • The Great Learning
  • The Doctrine of the Mean

38
Art
Poem on Mountain Ming Dynasty
39
Art
Wu Dao-Zi Tang Dynasty
40
Art
Han-Gan White Horse Tang Dynasty With Poem from
the Emperor in 1746
41
Forbidden City
42
Forbidden City
43
Forbidden City
44
Forbidden City
45
Forbidden City
Female (Left) and Male (Right) Lions Guarding the
Residences
46
Forbidden City
47
Shintoism
??
48
Shintoism
  • Originated in Japan
  • Has no founder
  • Came to be known as Shinto in response to
    incursion of Buddhism

49
Shinto Definitions
  • Shinto
  • State Shinto
  • Kami
  • Torii
  • Ki
  • Aikido
  • Amaterasu
  • Hirohito

50
Shintoism
  • Kami
  • misogi,
  • Kinship with
  • nature
  • Purity
  • Purification
  • Rituals

51
History
  • The indigenous religion of Japan (790 AD)
  • no name until Buddhism arrived
  • used by governments to inspire nationalism
  • returned to grassroots after war and separation
    of Church and state
  • People of the land
  • agricultural
  • plant, tend, harvest
  • sun and moon cycles
  • Spr. - Summer - Fall - Winter cycle
  • Mount Fuji is sacred embodiment of divine
    creativity
  • land thrust up from the sea
  • Fuji-san is its name
  • friendship and intimacy
  • Simplicity and naturalness are the honored traits

52
Kami
  • The divine
  • Kamikaze - divine wind
  • Spirits, any type
  • the kami are EVERYWHERE
  • Shrines to honor them
  • Groves of trees
  • always an enclosure to show where the Holy begins
  • torii - tall gate frames
  • bridges over streams
  • water is particularly cleansing
  • places provided to wash
  • public hall - offering hall - sacred sanctuary
  • only High Priest goes to the latter
  • priesthood is often hereditary, takes years to
    learn all of the nuances
  • no images in worship, all is in nature

53
Kami continued
  • Home worship too
  • a high shelf with a shrine
  • generally only a mirror inside
  • greet sun with clapping and prayer, and offerings
  • Rice - health
  • Water - cleansing and preservation of life
  • Salt - harmonious seasoning of life
  • by daily incorporating the worship of the kami
    into everyday life one will be in harmony with
    nature

54
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55
Evil or Sin?
  • No sin in Shinto
  • Good and evil distinctions are for lesser people
  • world is a beautiful, enjoyable
    place
  • Sexuality is not bad per se
  • communal bathing is traditional
  • Impurity is cause of misfortune
  • tsumi
  • unkind interaction among humans
  • corpses
  • menstruation
  • humans interacting against nature
  • natural disasters

56
And sin? continued
  • No repentance required. Purification required
  • physical - I.e. washing with water
  • spiritual - I.e. and enlightening moment
  • unity of universe
  • oharai
  • stick of wood from sacred tree with white
    streamers attached
  • kami wind, remember?

57
Shinto Buddhism?
  • Shinto for life events, Buddhism for death events
  • Often the two are worshipped side by side
  • theologies are very different

58
Shinto Confucianism?
  • Hierarchy
  • social cohesion
  • alliance was formed to attempt to overthrow the
    Buddhist influence

59
State Shinto
  • Emperor Meiji
  • Shinto became spiritual basis for government
  • Emperor was long thought to be the offspring of
    the sun goddess
  • imperial family would almost always consult the
    shrine to the sun goddess for matters of
    importance.
  • Way of the kami should govern the nation
  • administered by government officials
  • priests were suppressed and/or done away with
  • tool to enlist popular nationalism
  • Emperor was a God, worthy of protection, and
    Japan should expand

60
Various Elements
  • Eternal life-force
  • chi
  • Self-generating
  • Yin and Yang
  • yin female, dark, receptive
  • yang male, bright, assertive
  • wisdom is in recognizing their ever shifting,
    always in balance cycle. The follower will flow
    with these cycles.
  • The cycle is called the TAO (the way)

61
Prayers and notes on a Shinto shrine
62
Chuang Tzu
  • Important Taoist
  • Butterfly Story
  • Chuang-Tzu once dreamed he was a butterfly. When
    he awoke, he no longer knew if he was a butterfly
    dreaming he was a man, or a man who had dreamed
    he was a butterfly.

63
Japanese BathsGrandma Grandson
64
Calligraphy
65
Shinto
66
Shin (Divine Being) Do (Way)
  • Japanese in origin
  • Strictly a Japanese order
  • Confucianism - informs organizations and ethics
  • Buddhism and Christianity - ways to understand
    suffering and afterlife
  • Shinto - living in harmony with the natural world

67
State Shinto continued
  • Hirohito
  • Meiji grandson
  • thought to be a God
  • Declared himself human at the end of WWII
  • thus sending Japan headlong into our century

68
Shinto Today
  • Non-proselytizing
  • nature oriented
  • relationship oriented
  • A good example of the definition of an indigenous
    religion
  • for so it is...

69
  • Questions

70
  • II. Philosophy of Religion
  • A. Philosophy of religion is NOT meant to
    convert students or to trigger emotional
    arguments between students with differing beliefs
  • B. Philosophical study of religion is meant to
    enable students to expand understanding, think
    critically, and reflect on the nature of their
    own religious beliefs
  • C. In principle, there is no reason that
    philosophy, science, and religion cannot coexist

71
Purposes (Function) of Myth
  1. Teach about ourselves (explain origins)
  2. Provide explanations
  3. Provide examples or models of behavior
  4. Create meaning for yourself
  5. Entertainment (social solidarity)

72
Methods of Studying Religion
  1. Sympathetic (participant-observer) feel for
  2. Dispassionate (apathetic) feel not
  3. Normative (antipathetic) feel against
  4. Empathetic (Understanding through acquaintance)
    feel within
  5. Analytical study and do critical analysis of the
    claims of the religion

73
Dimensions (Aspects) of Religion
  • From Ninian Smart (The World Religions (1989)
    10-21.)
  • Ritual (Practice)
  • Experiential (mysterium tremendum et
    fascionosans emotional)
  • Mythic (Stories/narratives with sacred
    significance)
  • Doctrinal (beliefs philosophies)
  • Ethical (commandments actions legal)
  • Social (Institutional Community)
  • Material (Artistic)
  • Historical real live events

74
(No Transcript)
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