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Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods

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Title: Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods


1
Chapter 4
  • Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods

2
The Back Story
  • moment of conception fixes your genetic make-up
  • BUT, from that moment, a single cell begins to
    adapt to its environment. Within 9 mos.
    increases in size two hundred billion times!

3
A Remarkable Story
  • Transaction between special organism
  • Zygote - a single-cell fertilized ovum
  • Unique genetic code
  • Specialized Environment
  • Species Typical
  • Fertilization in fallopian tube (oviduct)
  • Implantation in uterus
  • At birth- billions of specialized cells capable
    of surviving in complex environment

4
Three Prenatal Periods
  • Ovum-Germinal Period
  • 2 - 14 days (travel)
  • Embryonic Period
  • 2 -8 weeks (implantation)
  • Fetal Period
  • 8 -38 weeks (major development)

5
Ovum-Germinal Period
  • Starts as Zygote in fallopian tube
  • Mitosis produces duplication of cells
  • 32 cell ball called morula
  • Blastula (Blastocyst) differentiates into
  • Embryoblast (Inner cell mass) develops into the
    embryo
  • Trophoblast (Outer protective layer)
  • Becomes amnion, chorio, placenta, allantois
    (umbilical cord)
  • Ends at implantation in the uterus wall

6
Reproduction of Cells during Period of the Ovum
  • Duplication of undifferentiated cells
  • As cellular reproduction continues,
    differentiation begins
  • By the time it enters uterus, two distinct masses
    have formed

7
The Blastula
  • Embryoblast
  • Inner cell mass
  • becomes the embryo
  • Trophoblast
  • Outer layer of cells
  • becomes
  • fetal membranes
  • amnion
  • chorion
  • allantois
  • Blastula (or blastocyst)- the embryoblast
    trophoblast

8
Implantation
  • Hormones prepare uterine environment Blastula
    sends out tendrils
  • Marks end of Germinal Period
  • Marks the beginning of Embryonic Period

9
Three Embryonic Layers
  • Endoderm
  • Innermost
  • Becomes digestive, respiratory, internal organs
    (pancreas liver)
  • Mesoderm
  • Center Layer
  • Muscles, bones, circ. system
  • Ectoderm
  • Outermost
  • Hair, Skin, CNS

10
Period of the Fetus
  • Starts when all basic structures are complete
  • Period of refinement for survival in outside world

11
Laws of Developmental Direction
  • Cephalo-caudal
  • Head - tail (foot)
  • Proximo-distal
  • Near-far
  • Gross - fine
  • basic - refined

12
Teratogens
  • Substances or agents present prenatally that
    cause physical or psychological abnormalities
  • Laws of developmental direction mean that timing
    is important
  • Generally speaking, those having effects during
    embryonic development will have greater harmful
    outcomes

13
Teratogen Categories
  • Maternal Diseases
  • Drugs
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Maternal Characteristics

14
Maternal Diseases
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • potentially serious disease caused by parasite in
    undercooked meat and cat feces
  • Passed to fetus through the placenta
  • Possible Fetal Complications
  • Visual defects Blindness
  • Hearing Loss
  • Mental Retardation
  • Seizures
  • Cerebral Defects
  • Low Birth Weight

15
Maternal Diseases
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Caused by type of herpes virus
  • Passed to fetus as it passes through birth canal
    of infected mother or through the breast feeding
  • Possible fetal complications (which may appear
    for the next few years)
  • Mental Retardation
  • Hearing Loss
  • Microcephaly

16
Maternal Diseases
  • Rubella
  • Caused by a flu-like virus
  • so damaging to the fetus during the first 16
    weeks of pregnancy that universal immunization is
    crucial
  • Passed to the fetus through the placenta
  • Possible fetal complications (during first 16
    weeks after conception)
  • Visual Defects / Blindness
  • Hearing Loss / Deafness
  • Cardiovascular Defects
  • Neurological Defects (including AUTISTIC
    SYMPTOMS!)
  • growth retardation

17
Maternal Diseases
  • Genital Herpes
  • viral infection caused by the herpes simplex
    virus
  • remains in nerve cells causing periodic
    recurrences
  • Passed to the fetus in 3 ways
  • 1) through the uterus
  • 2) passing through the birth canal
  • 3) immediately after birth
  • Possible fetal complications
  • Visual Defects / Blindness
  • Cerebral Defects

18
Drugs
  • Cigarette Smoking
  • Increases chances of
  • ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage
  • Low birth weight babies (lt 5.5 lbs) results
    from pre-term delivery and/or poor
    intrauterine growth
  • Increased risk of chronic disabilities (e.g.,
    cerebral palsy, mental retardation, learning
    problems)

19
Drugs
  • Alcohol Intake
  • Even moderate amounts place fetus at risk of
  • Lower IQ
  • Attention Deficits
  • Learning Deficits
  • Reduced Social Competence
  • First Trimester exposure skull and facial
    abnormalities
  • Later in pregnancy postnatal growth affected

20
Environmental Hazards
  • Radiation
  • fetal brain most vulnerable to radiation exposure
    8th 15th week of pregnancy
  • Decrease in IQ scores
  • Impaired school performance
  • Susceptibility to seizures
  • Changes in the occurrence of major features of
    physical development

21
Maternal Characteristics
  • Maternal Age
  • Malnutrition
  • Effect in Last Trimester
  • Nutritional demands of late fetus is greatest

22
Postnatal Development
23
Assessing the Neonate
  • Apgar
  • developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar in 1953. It is
    administered at 1 minute after birth and again at
    5 minutes after birth.
  • A perfect score is 10 see table on page 126
  • A Appearance color should be completely
    pink
  • P Pulse heart rate should be adequate
    (over 100 beats per minute)
  • G Grimace - reflex irritability vigorous
    cries or withdrawal
  • A Activity muscle tone should be strong, an
    active motion
  • R Respiration a good, strong cry

24
Assessing the Neonate
  • Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
    (NBAS-R)
  • developed by Dr. Berry Brazelton in 1973 and
    revised in 2000
  • A detailed look at the childs physical and
    behavioral functioning shortly after birth
  • Used to assess behavioral capabilities of
    newborns up to 20 days of age
  • Looks at 28 behaviors and 18 reflexes in these 7
    areas
  • Habituation Social Interaction Motor State
    Organization
  • Reflexes State Regulation Autonomic System

25
The Ability to Respond to the Environment
  • Sensory Capability - Receptors
  • vision
  • hearing
  • smelling
  • tasting
  • feeling
  • Sensation - firing of receptors by stimulus
  • Perception - interpretation of sensory input

26
Nativism versus Empiricism
  • Nativism - innate - nature
  • Empiricism - experience - nurture
  • Behavioral Systems Approach
  • Perception is due to both

27
Research on Infant Sensory/Perceptual Capabilities
  • Common to all methods - Change in Behavior
    correlated with change in Stimulus

28
Methods of Perceptual Research
  • Visual Preference (Fantz)
  • Visual Cliff (E. Gibson Walk)
  • Habituation-Dishabituation
  • Operant Conditioning Procedures

29
Visual Preference
  • Looking Chamber
  • Reflection of stimulus on cornea
  • The Basic Problem
  • Change in behavior - time gazing
  • Change in stimulus - different visual stimuli
  • Limitations
  • There may be perception even though there is no
    preference

30
Looking Chamber - Fantz
31
Visual Cliff
  • Depth Perception
  • Deep vs. Shallow end
  • Mother entices the child to crawl
  • Limitations
  • Child or kid must be ambulatory
  • Overcome by monitoring heart rate of babies
    suspended over each end (Campos)

32
Visual Cliff - E. Gibson
33
Habituation-Dishabituation
  • Babies cant suck listen (watch) at same time.
  • Establish sucking response
  • Disrupt it with repeated stimulus (e.g., Pa)
  • With repetition of Pa, child habituates
  • sucking returns
  • A new stimulus (e.g., Ba) is introduced
  • If child perceives difference between Ba Pa,
    sucking stops - Dishabituation

34
Operant Procedures
  • Behaviors which are reinforced become more
    frequent
  • Researcher reinforces response to one stimulus
    and not to another
  • If child perceives difference between stimuli
    than will respond more to reinforced stimulus

35
Operant Conditioning Procedures
  • Perception
  • Responses e.g., head turning, sucking, kicking
  • Reinforcers e.g., mothers voice, milk, visual
    stimuli, heartbeat.
  • Memory Cognition
  • Kicking mobile in presence of an X produces
    conjugate reinforcement
  • In later testing immediate kicking when X is
    present shows recall of contingency (remembering)

36
Operant Conditioning Procedures
  • Early Perception
  • Dr. Seuss passages read by mothers in last
    trimester.
  • Infants suck to produce mother-read passages.
  • Early Socialization
  • Infant social referencing.

37
Perceptual Abilities as Universal Behaviors
  • Some abilities are hard wired
  • Examples
  • Detect light from dark
  • Detect horizontal from vertical
  • Detect sound (phoneme) boundaries

38
Reflexes as Universal Behaviors
  • Hard - Wired
  • Present at birth
  • Do not need much experience
  • Unlearned thus Unconditioned
  • Reflex is not a behavior but stimulus-behavior
    relationship

39
Examples of Reflexes
  • Consummatory
  • Defensive
  • Social

40
How Do Reflexes Change?
  • 1. Reflexes May Stay the Same
  • 2. Reflexes May Disappear
  • 3. Reflexes May Be Elicited by New Stimuli -
    Respondent Conditioning
  • 4. Reflexes May be Elaborated into New Behaviors
    - Operant Conditioning

41
End of Chapter 4
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