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Conceptual Design and Configuring Airplanes Thoughts on the design process and innovation

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Conceptual Design and Configuring Airplanes Thoughts on the design process and innovation John H. McMasters Technical Fellow The Boeing Company john.h.mcmasters_at_ ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conceptual Design and Configuring Airplanes Thoughts on the design process and innovation


1
Conceptual Design and Configuring
AirplanesThoughts on the design process and
innovation
  • John H. McMasters
  • Technical Fellow
  • The Boeing Company
  • john.h.mcmasters_at_boeing.com
  • and

Affiliate Professor Department of Aeronautics and
Astronautics University of Washington Seattle, WA
April 2007 Ed Wells Partnership Short
Course Based on American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Sigma Xi
Distinguished Lectures
Von Kármán Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture
Series Innovative Configurations for Future
Civil Transports, Brussels, Belgium June 6-10,
2005
2
  • Airplane Design Past, Present and Future
  • An Early 21st Century Perspective
  • John McMasters
  • Technical Fellow
  • Ed Wells Partnership
  • The central of several purposes of this course is
    to examine the co-evolution of our industry,
    aeronautical technology, and airplane design
    practice in a broad historical context. Attention
    then focuses on speculations on possible future
    trends and development opportunities within an
    unconventionally broad and multi-disciplinary
    context. It may then be shown that while
    aeronautics may be a maturing industry, there
    are numerous opportunities for further advance in
    our ever-changing enterprise. The emphasis
    throughout will be concepts and ways of thinking
    about airplane design in a systems sense rather
    than on the details of the methodologies one
    might use in design. The material for this course
    is a continuing work in progress and represents
    the instructors personal, sometimes
    idiosyncratic perspective which is in no way
    intended to reflect an official position of The
    Boeing Company or its current product development
    strategy.
  • Course Objectives
  • Provide familiarization to non-specialists on
    the topics to be discussed
  • airplane design,
  • systems thinking,
  • the value of very broad multidisciplinary
    inquiry)
  • Present airplane design and its evolution in a
    very broad historical context
  • Present one perspective on a general approach to
    airplane configuration synthesis at the
  • conceptual level
  • Provide a basic aeronautics and airplane design
    vocabulary
  • Stimulate thought and imagination about the
    future of aeronautics

3
WARNING
  • ITAR and EAR Compliance
  • Important Security Information
  • Registration for this course (the following
    notes for which contain no ITAR/EAR-sensitive
    information) does not enforce the International
    Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and Export
    Administration Regulations (EAR) in any
    discussions that may result from it. Each
    attendee is responsible for complying with these
    regulations and all Boeing policies.
  • EAR/Compliance Home Site http//policyplus.boein
    g.com/PS/PDF/DDD/PRO-2805.pdf
  • ITAR/Compliance Site http//policyplus.boeing.co
    m/PS/PDF/DDD/PRO-174.pdf

4
Notation and Symbols Used
  • A Area (ft.2, m2)
  • a Speed of sound (ft./sec., m/s)
  • AR Aspect ratio, b/c b2/S
  • b Wing span (ft., m)
  • c Average wing chord (ft.,m)
  • CF Force coefficients (lift, drag, etc.) F/qS
  • Cl Section (2D) lift coefficient
  • CM Moment coefficient M/qSc
  • Cp Pressure coefficient ?p/q
  • D Drag force (lb., N)
  • E Energy (Ft.-lbs., N-m)
  • e Oswald efficency factor
  • ew Wing span efficiency factor ( 1/kw )
  • F Force (lift, drag, etc.) (lbs., N)
  • H Total head (reservoir pressure)
  • I Moment of inertia
  • kw Wing span efficiency factor ( 1/ew)
  • L Lift force (lb., N)
  • q Dynamic pressure (lbs./ft.2) ½?V2
  • R Range (mi., km)
  • Rn Reynolds number (?Vl / µ)
  • S Wing area (ft.2, m2)
  • T Thrust (lb., N)
  • T Temperature (oF)
  • u Local x-direction velocity component
  • V Velocity, Speed (ft./sec., m/s, mph, km/h)
  • v Local y-direction velocity component
  • w Downwash velocity (ft./sec., m/s)
  • z Sink rate (vertical velocity) (ft./sec.,
    m/s)
  • Greek
  • a Angle of attack (deg.)
  • G Circulation
  • ? Climb or glide angle (deg., rad.)
  • ? Ratio of specific heats in a fluid
  • e Wing twist angle (deg.)

5
Presentation Overview
  • Conceptual Design and Configuring Airplanes
  • Thoughts on the design process and innovation

6
Some VERY Basic Principles in Designing Airplanes
  • Flying is ultimately about defying gravity,
    thus Weight is generally
  • the dominant force in designing a good airplane
    (most of the time).
  • Historically, the dominant factor in advancing
    airplane performance
  • has been engine/propulsion technology with
    structures/materials
  • (and thus weight) and aerodynamics contributing
    the rest.
  • Newton quoth F d(mV)/dt To create a
    given aerodynamic
    or propulsive force, its much
    better to move a lot of air through

  • a small ?V than a lesser
    amount through a bigger ?V.

Aerodynamic Efficiency (L/D)
Wing Weight
But
Wing span 2/Total exposed area - ( b2 / Swet )
Wing Span
7
A Classic Configuration Comparison(Modified from
Torenbeek and Roskam who both got it serious
wrong)
Boeing B-47 B
Avro Vulcan B.2

Boeing B-47 Avro Vulcan

Max. Take-off Wt. MTOW (lbs.)
202,000 204,000 Ref. Wing area
S (ft.2 ) 1,428
3,965 Wetted Surface Area S wet (ft.2 )
7,070 9,600 Wing Span
b (ft.) 116
111 Aspect Ratio AR ( b2/S)
9.42 3.1 Max.
Wing Loading W/S _at_TO (lb./ft.2 ) 141.5
51.5 Max. Span Loading W/b _at_TO
(lbs./ft.) 1741 1834
Max. Lift/Drag Ratio L/D max 18.1
16.8
Evolution of the Boeing B-47
8
Velocity-Load Factor V-n Diagrams
Load Factor (n) Lift (L) / Weight (W)

Max. Maneuver Load L ½? V2CLmax S
Load Factor n L / W
Vertical Gust Loads
Vmin Vstall
0
Vdive max
Vcruise max
Velocity - V
-
Design and Gust Load conditions per appropriate
Regulations (e.g. FARs)
9
Wing Weight Estimation(based on simple beam
theory)
Wing span (b)
L 2
Lift (L) 2
  • Modes of Failure (static or dynamic)
  • Bending strength
  • Bending deflection
  • Torsional strength
  • Torsional deflection
  • Buckling
  • Flutter (either in bending or torsion)

U weight of everything but the wing
W U Wwing
Load factor n L W
AR b2/S b / c avg
Total Weight W U C n U b AR (c/t)
?
Chord ( c )
Thickness (t)
10
Trying for the Ideal Swept Wingfor a
Long-Range Cruising Airplane
  • Actual wing length is different than
  • the wing span (b). Length (L) b sec ?c/4
  • Defining the aerodynamically effective
  • area of this wing is problematical
  • Perspectives in Cruise Wing Design
  • Aerodynamics
  • Provide lift required with minimum surface area
  • Minimum drag at design condition(s)
  • Acceptable stability and control characteristics
  • (no Mach tuck, pitch-up, etc.)
  • Compatible with high-lift (take-off and landing)
  • requirements
  • Structures Manufacturing
  • Adequate thickness (everywhere)
  • Increasing span is going to cost you
  • Mostly straight lines and no compound curves
  • (except maybe parts that can be made of
    plastic)
  • Other Folks (Propulsion, Systems, etc.)
  • Good rack for hanging engines from, etc.
  • Adequate fuel volume

Leading edge glove to minimize root effects or
allow greater local thickness
Straight isobars
?c/4
Tip raked to avoid local unsweep effects
Yehudi
Constant shock sweep
Wing span (b) (compatible with terminal
gate limits)
11
Area Ruling the Convair F-102
Convair F-106
F-102 Before Area Ruling
F-102 After Area Ruling
12
Subsonic Area Ruling
Junkers patent drawing March 1944
Otto Frenzl Heinrich Hertel
Heinrich Hertel 1902-1982
Junkers Ju 287 circa 1944
Heinkel P. 1068 circa 1944
Heinkel P. 1073 circa 1944
13
Transonic Area Ruling
Martin XB-51
Boeing 7X7 circa 1972 Mcruise 0.96
Boeing study circa 1995 Mcruise 0.95
Blackburn Buccaneer
14
Transonic Tailoring and K?chemann Carrots
Oblique Wing (ideal area ruling )
Shockwaves
K?chemann carrots or Whitcomb speed bumps
Horizontal tail staggered relative to vertical
tail
Tupolev Tu 20 Bear
Convair CV 990
15
Sonic Booms and Their Amelioration(Toward a
viable supersonic business jet SSBJ ?)
Bow shock wave
Tail wave
Modified N-wave
?P - Classic N-wave sonic boom signature
NASA modified F-5E for sonic boom reduction
SSBJ concepts
Ground footprint of sonic boom
16
A Summary of Early Progress in Airplane Technology
1900 1910 1920
1930 1940 1950 1960
  • Streamlining
  • Retractable
  • landing gear
  • High-lift devices

Supersonic flight
Airplanes prove their utility in WW 1
Aerodynamics Propulsion Materials
Structures Systems
Biplanes to monoplanes
Swept wing
Boeing B-47
Internal combustion Engines
Jet engines
Coanda ducted fan
DeHaviland Comet
Wood, Steel, Fabric
Aluminum airplane (Junkers)
Modern air transportation
Digital Micro-process
Communications Navigation Aids Parachutes
Safety Systems
Pressurization
Radar
17
Future Large Airplane Development Opportunities
  • Civil
  • Future design must be increasingly efficient,
    quite, safe, and cost effective.
  • Military
  • The B-52 has been operational for 50 years.
  • Will the B-1 B-2 remain viable for similar
    time periods? UCAV replacements??
  • Global range logistics will remain a key element
    in future US foreign policy and peace-keeping.
  • Aerospace
  • All airplanes must take off and land. Even
    hypersonic vehicles must be designed for
    low-speed operations.
  • Non-Traditional
  • To meet future transportation system needs, new
    technologies my be exploitable in the 21st
    century.

787
707
767
747
777

727
SST ?
A 380
Airbus
737/A320 Replacements
DC-8
737
757
737-NG
DC-9 DC-10
Blended Wing-Body
B-52
B-1
Future Strategic Strike/ Recon. Requirements?
B-2
Future Logistics Requirements Military and
Civil
C-141
C-5
C-17
NASP
X-20 DynaSoar
Space Shuttle
X-34/X-43
Aerospace Planes ?
Ground Transport (Trains, Maglevs, etc.)
Surface Effect Vehicles
Lighter-Than-Air ?
1960 1980
2000 2020 2040
Year
18
Airplane Design Technology Progress
Faster, Farther, Higher Quicker, Better, Cheaper
  • Analysis Testing
  • Heavy reliance on testing
  • Handbooks methods important
  • Early computational capability
  • Widening gap between
  • engineering manufacturing
  • Computation Validation
  • Massive simulation capability
  • Testing shifts to validation
  • Integrated Product Teams
  • Lean concepts

Progress
  • Cut Try
  • Heavy on experimentation
  • Very limited theory
  • Heavy on rules of thumb
  • Limited material choice

?
Possible Achievement
  • Issues Constraints
  • Cost/profit uber alles
  • Geopolitical uncertainties
  • Environmental concerns
  • Critical resources availability
  • Lawyers (regulations, litigation, etc.)
  • All the -ilities (old and new)
  • (reliability, maintainability, etc., etc.)
  • Customer needs and wants

Actual Achievement
1900 1950 2000
WW 2 Berlin Wall
Historical Time
19
Evolution of Airplane Development Process
  • In the beginning (to 1950)

Small group of engineers develop a design
Skilled craftsmen build it
Test
Identify a need or opportunity
Customer
Prototype (Production )
Reqmts.
Drawings
Orders
yes
Potential customer(s)
no
Oblivion
20
Evolution of Airplane Development Process
  • Maturing phase (1950 - 1985)

Drawings
Engineers Design
Build
Need or Opportunity
Test
Customer
Prototype (Production )
Reqmts.
Orders
yes
Yes
No
Launch orders
no
Oblivion
Drawings
Engineering
  • Exhaustive
  • testing
  • Limited
  • prototyping
  • Strong link
  • between customer,
  • marketing and
  • requirements
  • Regulations,
  • standards., etc.
  • Manufacturing
  • Large
  • organization
  • Functional
  • separation
  • Large
  • organization
  • Functional
  • separation

Lots of paper and bureaucracy
21
Evolution of Airplane Development Process
  • In the beginning (to 1950)

Engineers Design
Build
Need or Opportunity
Test
Customer
Drawings
Reqmts.
Orders ?
yes
no
Modern era (post 1990)
Oblivion
Outsourcing
Acquire
Defineproduce
Support
  • Up the value
  • chain
  • No more paper
  • drawings
  • No more shims
  • Flat(er)
  • organizations

Customer
  • Customer In
  • Lots and lots of
  • lawyers
  • Engineering Manufacturing
  • Large organizations
  • Integrated Product Teams (IPTs)

22
What Happens When You Let Electrical Engineers
Design Airplanes
Lockheed Martin F-117
23
Evolution of the Airplane Development Process
  • One Possible Option for Our Immediate Future

Modern era (post 20XX) ?

Outsourcing/Risk Sharing
Large-Scale System Integration
Supplier management
Support
Acquire Orders
Defineassemble
Test Deliver
Requirements
Manufacturing Engineering
Customer
Quicker, Better, Cheaper ?
24
Changing Times in Aerospace
  • Original Mantra (1903-1990)
  • Faster, farther, higher (and safer).
  • Post Cold War Mantra (1990-2000)
  • Quicker (to market), better, cheaper (and
    safer).
  • Emerging New Mantra (2001 - ?)
  • Safer, better, faster, higher, farther, cheaper,
    quicker, quieter, cleaner, etc..

Or Leaner, meaner, greener (and safer) ?
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